Revised 8/3/00

The entries of events that have occurred over time on April 19th are listed due to the strange coincidence involved, through the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995. Some Freepers have felt the curiosity to be significant. Please also note Clinton’s visit to the Holocaust museum on 4/19/93 and Gore’s remarks that same day.


April 19, 1529

In Germany, Lutheran leaders in fourteen cities lodged a "protest" demanding freedom of conscience and the right of minorities. The German Lutheran Reformers became known as "Protestants."

April 19, 1721

Birthday of Roger Sherman, signer of both the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.

April 19, 1775

The shot was fired that was heard round the world. It was the day those colonists drew their line in the sand at Lexington Green and Concord Bridge and America's War for Independence began


William Miller studied end-time prophecies and in 1833 concluded the world will end in 1843; revised to 1844


Prophecy failed; Millerite movement began to disintegrate; one of the strands, which developed into Seventh-day Adventism, believed 1844 marked the beginning of the time of the end

April 19, 1861

Lincoln orders blockade of Confederate ports, beginning the Union side of the War Between the States.


The Seventh-day Adventist Church becomes a recognized; influenced by Ellen White, a prophet who revealed the church as God's chosen people at the end time


Turkey established gun control. From 1915 to 1917, 1.5 million Armenians, unable to defend themselves, were rounded up and exterminated.


Ellen White died; no further prophets recognized by the Seventh-day Adventist Church


Germany established gun control. From 1939 to 1945, 13 million Jews, gypsies, homosexuals, the mentally ill, and others, who were unable to defend themselves, were rounded up and exterminated.


The Soviet Union established gun control. From 1929 to 1953, approximately 20 million dissidents, unable to defend themselves, were rounded up and exterminated.


Victor Houteff believed he was a prophet and was disfellowshipped from the Seventh-day Adventist Church; he formed the Davidian Seventh-day Adventists, "The Shepherd's Rod". Its most important teaching is that God will establish a literal kingdom in Israel, ruled by Jesus Christ and his lieutenant, the "Antitypical David."


China established gun control. From 1948 to 1952, 20 million political dissidents were unable to defend themselves and were rounded up and exterminated.

April 19, 1939

Connecticut finally approves the Bill of Rights.

April 19, 1943

Warsaw Uprising: A handful of Jews attack the Nazi occupation force in the Warsaw ghetto: "a ragtag, half-starved group of Jews took 10 handguns and made asses out of the Nazis" (Jews for the Preservation of Firearms Ownership)

April 19, 1948

Freeper jedediah smithFrom….

"McNULTY: But the real key —the person we’re really most interested in talking-to is the gentleman who was a full-bird colonel who took the civilian order and translated it [the final Waco assault] into a military execution — literally and figuratively. There are a lot of things going on here.
GLASS: Do you know who he is?
McNULTY: We’ve identified him. We have his dossier. He was the colonel in charge of what is called the CAG unit, the Combat Applications Group out of Fort Bragg, North Carolina, which translates out literally to Delta Force. This gentleman may even have been on scene that day.
GLASS: Does he have a name?
McNULTY: None that I’m going to give you right now. I can tell you this – he was a colonel. He is now a major general. And one of the ironies is that when we obtained his dossier we noted that his birthday was April 19, 1948. We know who he is. We’ve positively identified him. That information will be released at a later date."



Victor Houteff died. His widow Florence Houteff assumed leadership; Benjamin Roden contested leadership, saying he was a prophet.


Ben Roden founded the Branch Davidian Seventh-day Adventists (BDSDA). There are various other splinter groups formed from the Davidian Seventh-day Adventists


Cambodia established gun control. From 1975 to 1977, one million "educated" people, unable to defend themselves, were rounded up and exterminated.


Ben Roden and his followers took over New Mount Carmel, formerly headquarters of the Davidian Seventh-day Adventists


Guatemala established gun control. From 1964 to 1981, 100,000 Mayan Indians, unable to defend themselves, were rounded up and exterminated.


Uganda established gun control. From 1971 to 1979, 300,000 Christians, unable to defend themselves, were rounded up and exterminated.


In Maryland, in 1971, a local pillar of the community, -- a boy scout leader, volunteer fireman, and gun collector -- was in his bathtub when BATF agents acting on a bogus tip broke through the door. Understandably, the man reached for a handy pistol and was shot four times and left on the floor while his wife, still in her underwear, was dragged screaming from the apartment. – Michael Rivero


Bill Buford AFT chief in Little Rock since 1976


Lois Roden, Ben Roden's widow, became president; had a vision of the Holy Spirit as the feminine aspect of the trinity; traveled widely; attracted many believers.



Vernon Howell arrived at Mount Carmel Center as the handyman.


The Senate Subcommittee on the Constitution found that BATF agents regularly: "Trampled upon the Second Amendment" by chilling the exercise of the right to keep and bear arms by law-abiding citizens; "Offended the Fourth Amendment" by unreasonably searching and seizing private property; and "Ignored the Fifth Amendment" by taking private property without just compensation and by entrapping honest citizens without regard for the right to due process of law. The Subcommittee report also noted that about 75 percent of BATF gun prosecutions were aimed at ordinary citizens who had "neither criminal intent nor knowledge," but were "enticed by agents" into unknowing technical violations (such as that against Randy Weaver) These and other excesses led Rep. John Dingell (D-MI) in 1983 to call the BATF "a jack-booted group of fascists who are perhaps as large a danger to American society as I could pick today." - Michael Rivero



Vernon Howell claimed divine inspiration; began cohabiting with Lois Roden

June 3, 1983

Lawrence Co, Arkansas: FBI killing of Gordon Kahl

December, 1984

Robert Matthews, the head of a group of right-wing fanatics known as the Order, embraced many of Gordon Kahl's beliefs. Unlike Kahl, whose resistance was essentially passive until federal marshals tried to kill his son, Matthews and the Order launched an aggressive private war against the country. Like the SLA, the Order committed a series of bank and armored car robberies, netting $3.6 million in one heist alone. The Order also assassinated Alan Berg, a hostile radio talk show host in Denver, Colorado……The FBI began an equally aggressive pursuit. After a brief, violent skirmish in Idaho and another in Portland, Oregon, FBI agents finally closed in on Matthews hiding out among three adjoining houses on Whidbey Island, some fifty miles north of Seattle. After negotiatiions for his surrender for two days that included attempts to get an FBI sniper into a killing position within range of Matthews, the uncooperative target began firing on an FBI assault team that attempted to enter the house. Protected by a full suit of body armor, Matthews ran from the first floor to the second floor firing automatic weapons. The FBI dropped a military magnesium flare from a helicopter. The flare landed on the roof of the house and burned through it to the room where Matthews had stored his ammunition, which ignited as planned, setting off a roaring, exploding fire that consumed Matthews.



Howell married Rachel Jones, the daughter of a long-time member of the sect...Vernon Howell and his young wife headed for Israel, and while there decided to change his name to David Koresh. Vernon Howell received a major revelation from God that he is the Antitypical Cyrus

April 20, 1985

Freeper archy: In the spring of 1985 BATF collected or manufactured evidence that an 80-member group known as the Covenant of the Sword and the Arm of the Lord (CSA) had stockpiled a large arsenal at its fortified compound in Arkansas. The group had collected over 150 firearms, (including 35 machine guns), two anti-personnel mines, three anti-aircraft rockets, 50 pounds of military plastic explosives, 300 blasting caps, 2,000 feet of detonating cord, and around 100 explosive devices. CSA had also stockpiled food, water, and supplies. BATF led the assault on the CSA compound on April 20, 1985. CSA members retreated farther into the compound, barricading themselves behind their defenses. The agents set up a siege perimeter and settled in to wait. BATF later claimed that the group used the wait to destroy many of the weapons (and hence evidence) allegedly present. Negotiators from the FBI arrived and began the tedious, frustrating process of talking the group out. Three days later, on April 22, 1985, James D. Ellison and the 75 members of the CSA surrendered.

Federal agents found 33 gallons of cyanide when they invaded The Covenant, The Sword and Arm of the Lord compound in northwestern Arkansas in 1985. CSA leader James Ellison said he and extremist Bob Miles had discussed poisoning municipal water supplies. Four members of the Minnesota Patriots Council were convicted in 1995 of conspiracy to use the deadly toxin ricin to kill federal agents and law enforcement officers.


December, 1987 (approx)

"….In 1987, when Koresh and seven Branch Davidians were indicted for attempted murder after the shoot out with George Roden, the Sheriff called Koresh and told him they should turn themselves in and surrender their weapons….. When Deputies showed up to arrest them, they complied…. "


April 19, 1989

Freeper archy "……On 19 April 1989, 47 sailors aboard the U.S.S. Iowa, BB61, died as a fireball from a powder charge explosion burned away the lives of those inside that structure. In the aftermath, federal naval investigators, with help from the FBI, tried to *pin the blame* for the blast on one of the dead sailors, unable to defend himself. Though Navy regulations required a 3-officer board of inquiry when a *significant incident* or one that could cause further injury if repeated, a single officer instead conducted the safey review. Having been the officer in charge of refurbishment of the Iowa's ammunition while commanding the Naval Weapons support Center at Crane, Indiana where the powder bags had been refurbished, inspected and repacked, Captain Joseph Micelli not surprisingly found that the ammunition prepeared under his supervision was flawless, and that one of the dead sailors murdered his crewmates in a fit of jealousy over a failed homosexual affair. The lie was caught, and the slandered sailor's reputation restored, but neither he nor his shipmates have yet been brought back to life....." and Freeper aristeides adds "…..On the Iowa, do please remember, A-G, Marie Louise Hagen's dubious role in the suit by Clayton Hartwig's family. She is married to a naval officer -- she really should know better….."



New York Post 1999? Brian Blomquist "…..From 1991 to 1995, Ghigliotti, 42, was paid by the FBI as a thermal-imaging expert in an array of environmental-dumping cases, according to an FBI document. Ghigliotti "performed reliable work for the FBI," the 1995 document states.. ….."

When LaVerne, California police demanded Koresh return their child to Robyn Bunds, he did so immediately- The Davidian Massacre by Carol Moore


The BATF raided the home of Louis and Kimberly Katona of Bucyrus, Ohio, and seized $100,000 worth of legally owned collectible firearms. During the raid, Kimberly Katona, who was pregnant, was shoved against a wall triggering a miscarriage. The BATF, attempting to justify this murder, claimed that the Katonas were dealing illegal guns and drugs (he BATF has no jurisdiction in drug cases). The charges wee thrown out of court. – Michael Rivero

February-April, 1992

Between February and April, 1992 Koresh allowed Texas Department of Protection and Regulatory Services and McLennan County Sheriff's Department personnel to inspect Mount Carmel on three occasions. - The Davidian Massacre by Carol Moore

April 30, 1992

The child abuse investigation was closed.

June 4, 1992 9/2/99 "…While the actual raid of the Branch Davidian Compound occurred on 2-28-1993, the events leading up to the raid deserve mentioning. Particularly those concerning the Warrant. The investigation began in 1992 when a package being delivered to the Davidians accidentally ripped revealing a number of hand-grenade shells. Such a discover does serve as the basis for beginning an investigation. The investigation, however, could have ended when the BATF realized that the Davidians produced their own line of hunting clothing, "David Koresh Survival Wear," for oversized men. One of the items sold in their line of clothing was a hunting vest which had dummy grenades sewn into the fabric! …The warrant was based upon information obtained between June 4, 1992 and June 23, 1992 and interviews conducted in December 1992 and January 1993. As of December 1992, the director of the BATF Stephen Higgins said that probable cause did not exist to obtain a warrant. (Congressional Hearings in April 1993.) ….….…It should be noted that it was only after talking to apostate members of the group many of which had not belonged to the group for years that the BATF decided to seek a warrant. In obtaining a warrant Special Agent Davy Aquilera misled the judge. Aquilera stated: I am familiar with the federal firearm and explosive laws and know that it is unlawful for a person [to own machine guns and specified explosives.] and/or destructive devices, including any combination of parts, EITHER designed or intended for use in converting any firearm into a machine gun." (Probable Cause Affidavit in Support of Search Warrant, p 1.) In reality the law declares that one must prove the intent to use the parts designed to convert firearms into machine guns. The fifteen pages presented to Federal Magistrate Dennis S. Green failed to prove the intent of the Branch Davidian Seventh Day Adventist….…Furthermore, the warrant did not mention the items which were to be siezed---which is standard practice in obtaining warrants. Warrants are not issued so that police authorities can go on a 'fishing' trip, but rather with specific allegations…."


July 30, 1992

St. Louis Post-Dispatch 1/29/2000 Terry Ganey "..... Henry S. McMahon Jr. and Karen Kilpatrick sold 223 weapons to David Koresh, the Branch Davidian leader whose compound was consumed by flames in a government assault............ On July 30, 1992, two ATF agents, Jimmy Ray Skinner and Davy L. Aguilera, visited McMahon's business. Koresh had come under suspicion because of shipments of gun parts and explosives to the complex. McMahon was not under investigation at that time. When the agents asked McMahon why Koresh was buying so many guns, McMahon replied that Koresh was an investor. McMahon said that while the agents were with him, he called Koresh on the telephone. Koresh invited the agents out to the complex to inspect what he had, but they turned down the offer, McMahon said. ..... The following month, the ATF informed McMahon that he would owe an eight percent excise tax on the guns he sold through the arrangement with Koresh. McMahon said that prompted him to cancel the deal. He said they had sold no more than seven weapons together...... The day after the raid, McMahon and Kilpatrick called the ATF office in Pensacola and explained their relationship to Koresh. They said agents told them to avoid talking to either the media or the FBI. By that time, the FBI had taken over the siege of the complex.. ....."


November, 1992

Clinton Wins

November 15, 1992

Archy: 60 Minutes contacts BATF about sexual harassment; BATF was already under scrutiny for racism, fraud, mismanagement; Congress was considering eliminating the BATF or turning their activities over to FBI or Secret Service;

November/December, 1992 "….By December 1992 (almost 3 months before the raid), ATF agents were requesting Close Quarters Combat/Close Quarters Battle \189\ (CQB) training by U.S. Army Special Forces soldiers for ATF agents…… Somewhat surprisingly, neither the documents from the Treasury investigation, nor the Treasury Report, itself, never refer to this request...."

The Dallas Morning News 9/13/99 Lee Hancock "….The biggest case of Johnston's career began when federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms agents came to him with an investigation of weapons violations at the Branch Davidian compound. The ATF had evidence that David Koresh was stockpiling an illegal arsenal. Johnston said the ATF initially discussed capturing Koresh outside his compound and then searching inside. Inexplicably, he said, plans shifted in December to a big paramilitary raid. … He helped draft the search warrant that became the basis of the raid. ….. Immediately, Johnston recruited the Texas Rangers to help investigate what had gone wrong and who in the sect would be prosecuted for the agents' deaths. He sent his first letter to Reno after the Rangers said their efforts were frustrated by FBI commanders. ….….

Ft. Worth Star-Telegram 9/12/99 Jennifer Autrey "….Some evidence suggests that the ATF created a ruse about the possibility of illegal drug manufacturing at Mount Carmel to obtain free military assistance for its Feb. 28, 1993, raid, which left four ATF agents dead and more than 20 wounded. As early as November 1992, ATF agents were discussing the need for military support with Walker, the agency's Defense Department liaison, according to Treasury Department documents. The ATF is part of the Treasury Department. But there was a problem. In a meeting with the ATF on Dec. 4, 1992, Walker informed the agency that it would have to pay the military for the use of its equipment because the military could waive the charges only in anti-drug operations. At the meeting, Walker jotted a handwritten note that said: "There was no known drug nexus," according to the Treasury Department documents….. That military personnel can play a greater role assisting civilian law enforcement in drug investigations is a significant exception to the Posse Comitatus Act, passed as part of the 1990 Department of Defense Authorization Act to help fight illegal drug importation…..Before the end of December 1992, the ATF was investigating "suspicion of drug activity" at the Branch Davidian compound, according to the Treasury Department report……"

December 4, 1992

The Dallas Morning News Scott Parks 9/26/99 "....On Dec. 4, 1992, almost three months before the raid, ATF decided to seek military assistance to serve its warrants at the Branch Davidian commune, according to government records. ATF learned it could go one of two ways. Agents could seek military assistance under federal laws that would require them to reimburse the Department of Defense for manpower and equipment. Or they might qualify for free military support if evidence of illegal drugs came up in their investigation. ATF began looking for a drug connection on Dec. 14, 1992, according to GAO investigators.........." "…On December 4, 1992, several ATF Special Agents, including the SAC's of the Dallas and Houston ATF offices, met at Houston's ATF field office for the first time to discuss the Waco investigation.\194\ In attendance were SAC Phillip J. Chojnacki; SAC Ted Royster; Assistant Special Agent in Charge James Cavanaugh; Resident Agent in Charge Earl K. Dunagan; Special Agents Aguilera, Lewis, Petrilli, Buford, K. Lattimer, Williams, Carter, and John Henry.\195\ Also present at that meeting was Lt. Col. Lon Walker, the Defense Department representative to ATF. ....

December 11, 1992

Ft. Worth Star-Telegram 9/12/99 Jennifer Autrey "….On Dec. 11, 1992, ATF Special Agent Jose Viegra met with representatives of Gov. Ann Richards' office to discuss the role of the military in any potential ATF action against the Branch Davidians, Treasury Department documents show. Viegra was told he could not make use of Operation Alliance, which serves as a clearinghouse for several agencies involved in drug investigations along the Southwest border, unless there was a drug component. Three days later, according to a Treasury Department memorandum, Operation Alliance officials received a facsimile from the ATF requesting assistance from the Texas Counterdrug Program, which included the National Guard. Lt. Col. William Pettit, Texas National Guard coordinator of the Texas Counterdrug Task Force, signed off on the request. The ATF fax made no reference to suspected drug violations in the compound, casting Pettit's approval in doubt, according to the congressional report….."

December 14, 1992

The Dallas Morning News Scott Parks 9/26/99 "..... ATF began looking for a drug connection on Dec. 14, 1992, according to GAO investigators.........." "…….Three days after their meeting with ATF, the Texas counterdrug representatives received a facsimile of a letter dated December 14, 1992, on ``Houston SAC letterhead'' from the RAC of the Austin ATF office, Earl K. Dunagan, requesting military assistance from the Texas Counterdrug Program.\202\ …….. Lt. Col. Pettit told National Guard investigators that he provided his approval because the request required another person's approval as well.\205\ However this decision, in itself, raises several unanswered questions……"

December 16, 1992

Ft. Worth Star-Telegram 9/12/99 Jennifer Autrey "….That addition to the points of investigation apparently was based on a Dec. 16, 1992, facsimile from Marc Breault in Australia, who suggested that a methamphetamine lab had once been seen on Branch Davidian premises. …… However, the initial application for a warrant to search the compound included nothing about suspected drug violations. After agents failed to serve the warrant on Feb. 28, 1993, the day of the aborted first assault, they applied for another warrant and expanded its scope. That warrant also made no mention of drugs…..….The congressional report states that the Feb. 28 raid should have been conducted differently if there was a real concern about the prospect of a clandestine methamphetamine lab on the premises. …." "……Two days after Lt. Col. Pettit's approval, Special Agent Aguilera informed Lt. Col. Walker on December 16, 1992, that he received a facsimile from Mark Breault in Australia suggesting the existence of a methamphetamine lab at the Branch Davidian residence.\206\ Mr. Breault was a former Branch Davidian who left the group on bad terms, and exhibited strong personal animosity toward Koresh and several of the Davidians...."

December 17, 1992

The following day, December 17, 1992, SAC Phillip Chojnacki held a meeting in his office with Special Agent Ivan Kallister, Special Agent Davey Aguilera, and Lt. Col. Walker regarding the Waco investigation.\207\ According to ATF, Lt. Col. Walker told SAC Chojnacki during the meeting that the Defense Department could provide non-reimbursable military support if there is a ``suspicion of drug activity.'' \208\ Aguilera was subsequently instructed to ``actively pursue information from his informants about a drug nexus.'' \209\ Additionally, ATF Intelligence Research Specialist Sandy Betterton searched criminal records to determine if Branch Davidians had ``some'' prior drug offenses.\210\ It later was determined that only one Branch Davidian had a prior narcotics conviction.\211\....



The Daily Republican 9/8/99 Howard Hobbs "…Federal records now have established that a U.S. Army military unit known by its cover name as Joint Task Force 6 was under the operational control of US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) and the United States Atlantic Command (USACOM). ….According to reliable sources in the Pentagon, requests for military support of law enforcement agencies would flow into JTF 6, be vetted by its staff as having the appropriate drug nexus, and be approved with deployment orders transmitted by the Joint Chief of Staff. Secretary of Defense delegated authority through CINC-USACOM and USAFORSCOM to approve missions within these parameters. Major projects included surveillance and reporting, and the use of aviation assets to ferry law enforcement officers. Soldiers detailed to JTF 6 were attached to that organization from their parent unit for specified periods of time; thus a Special Forces Operational Detachment with supporting aviation was part of a Rapid Reaction Support Unit assigned to JTF 6 in early 1993 for a six month period. During this same period a request came into Operation Alliance for military assets to support a BATF operation against what was being designated then as "a methamphetamine laboratory located on the outskirts of Waco."…" 9/3/99 Barbara Starr "…In the autumn 1997 issue of the Army War College Quarterly, retired Army Col. Thomas Lujan wrote that in early 1993, the military received an ATF request for help against a methamphetamine laboratory located on the outskirts of Waco, Texas - the Branch Davidian compound. "The request detailed the needs of the BATF: military training in the specific areas of medical treatment, communications procedures, operational plan development, review, and approval, and 'room clearing discriminate fire operations,' termed 'close quarter combat' by the military," says Lujan, a former top military lawyer at U.S. Special Operations Command at MacDill AFB in Tampa, Fla. More importantly, he writes, the ATF requested that Army medics and communicators actually accompany them to the forward staging base if not on the actual mission. "Clearly the request was more expansive than those normally received," he wrote. The original request was approved by the military's Joint Task Force 6, which oversees counter-drug support along the southern U.S. border, and a special operations unit of the Army was temporarily assigned to JTF-6. ….…But the Army came dangerously close to illegal involvement, Lujan contends. He says the ATF failed to make an acceptable case for military support from JTF-6 because it cited alleged drug activity from 1987 to justify action in 1993.... …"

Star-Telegram Staff Writer 9/13/99 Gabrielle Crist "….Agents were authorized to use deadly force on April 19, according to a 1993 internal FBI document detailing an investigative interview with agent Richard Rogers, an FBI supervisor.."

On Gordon Novel - Public Action, Inc. 12/30/99 Carol Valentine "….This "close friend" -- according to Novel, Mike Hall, the man who conducted the siege of the Covenant of the Sword and the Lord in 1985 -- told Novel the Mt. Carmel raid would not succeed. Novel then called General O'Graham. Remember, according to Novel, O'Graham was at the time the Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency and on the Board of Directors of Novel's security company. "Danny, what is going on?" Novel asked. "He says: 'I don't know.' He says, 'but whatever it is,' he says, 'it's national security.'" Later in the interview, Novel says: "I am very pro CIA and I can tell you that there are some good guys that still work for the FBI but not a lot of them." ….."

January, 1993

New York Times 9/5/99 Philip Shenon "…The Pentagon's elite Special Operations Command sent observers to the siege of the Branch Davidian compound in Texas more than a month before the final assault on the compound, suggesting that military commandos had a far longer and closer involvement in the disastrous 1993 operation than previously divulged, according to declassified Government documents. The documents obtained under the Freedom of Information Act also show for the first time that officials at the highest levels of the Defense Department, including Secretary of Defense Les Aspin and the Joint Chiefs of Staff, were briefed by the Special Operations Command about the events near Waco. The command, which is based at MacDill Air Force Base in Florida, oversees the military's most secretive commando squads, including the Army's Delta Force and the Navy Seals, and the documents suggest that the command was monitoring the situation virtually from the start of the 51-day siege. ….."

The Dallas Morning News Scott Parks 9/26/99 "........ Military records also indicate that the ATF believed the raid might lead to "a long-term siege." A month before the raid, ATF requested a list of "on-call" equipment it might need from the military. The list included seven armored Bradley fighting vehicles. Soldiers could not drive them during the raid without violating federal law, but could train ATF agents to drive them. The list also included 100 gas masks, 500 sandbags, 90 sleeping bags, 15 night vision goggles, a water tank truck. Ten tents, including one for "VIP sleeping" and one for "VIP meeting," were requested along with electric generators and smoke generators "to cover two square kilometers with concealment smoke."..... ....Records show FBI requests for military assistance throughout the 51-day siege: the loan of M-1 Abrams tanks, helicopters and big combat engineering vehicles. Military authorities required federal agents to "obscure" U.S. Army markings on any tank, armored vehicle or aircraft "used in an assault role" at Waco, according to records. The FBI also requested and received training in the use of 40 mm grenade launchers, according to the records. Other records suggest the Branch Davidian siege became a real-time laboratory to study Military Operations on Urban Terrain, or MOUT in Army parlance. Records show that at least one commando from the elite British Strategic Air Service, the model for Delta Force, came to Waco as an observer. ..."

January 1, 1993

Bill Buford began assisting a dormant investigation into the Branch Davidians in Waco

WorldNet Daily 9/3/99 Joseph Farah "…One of the original witnesses against the Branch Davidians was Bill Buford, the agent in charge of the Little Rock, Ark., branch of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. Buford was, also, according to Arkansas sources, a friend of Bill. The Waco case was apparently very important to Buford as an affidavit states he was working on New Year's Day calling former Branch Davidians seeking to find evidence of sexual abuse. My friend and colleague, Andy Beal, who first explored the Little Rock connection to Waco, asks a good question: What was the resident agent in charge of the Little Rock office of the BATF doing investigating a sex abuse case in Texas? Is sex abuse BATF's jurisdiction? Is Texas under the jurisdiction of the BATF's Arkansas office? Documents show Buford is noted as one of two "senior raid planners." He was also one of the BATF agents wounded during the Feb. 28 assault, but he is perhaps the only BATF agent to be visited in the hospital by none other than top Treasury Department official Roger Altman. …Foster, Hubbell, Altman and Buford were all in Little Rock leading up to the inauguration. Clinton takes power Jan. 20, 1993. ….."

January 6, 1993

January 6, 1993 was the first National Guard overflight of the Branch Davidian residence and their auto body shop, called the ``Mag Bag.'' This overflight was conducted by the Texas National Guard Counterdrug unit in a UC-26 counterdrug aircraft. Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) \212\ videotape taken during the overflight indicated a ``hot spot'' inside the residence and three persons outside behind the residence whom ATF designated as ``sentries.'' \213\ The Texas National Guard conducted five more reconnaissance/surveillance overflights over the Branch Davidian property from February 3, 1993, to February 25, 1993. These overflights were conducted to ``search for armed guards and drug manufacturing facilities.'' \214\....

January 13, 1993

US and dozens of other coutnries sign Chemical Weapons Convention, banning the use of agents including tear gas during wartime. Three months and six days after signing the convention, the FBI used CS on the Davidians.


January 14, 1993

Ft. Worth Star-Telegram 9/12/99 Jennifer Autrey "….The ATF also used the Alabama National Guard for aerial photography on Jan. 14, 1993. That task was authorized by a "memorandum of agreement" between the adjutants general of the Texas National Guard and the Alabama National Guard. According to Texas law, the National Guard from another state cannot be used without approval of the Texas governor. Alabama state law says that its National Guard has no authority to conduct operations outside the state. National Guard personnel said in a post-raid Guard investigation that Gov. Richards did not approve the use of the Alabama National Guard. Military documents released to Congress during its 1995 hearings indicated that Richards was unaware of the extent of the Texas National Guard's involvement until after the Feb. 28 raid, the congressional report said….. ….."

January 15, 1993

On the same day as the first National Guard overflight, January 6, 1993, Richard Garner, Chief of Special Operations Division of ATF, drafted another request on ATF Headquarters letterhead directly to Colonel Judith Browning, Director of Plans and Support, of the Office of the Department of Defense Coordinator for Drug Enforcement Policy and Support.\215\ ATF requested the loan of various office equipment, a refrigerator, cots and sleeping bags to be made available on January 11, 1993. The letter states that the ATF was investigating violations of ``firearms and drug laws'' and requested the equipment as ``part of Defense Department support for counterdrug effort.'' Col. Browning responded by letter on January 15 approving the support to be provided by the Regional Logistics Support Office \216\ in El Paso, TX.\217\ The same questions asked of Lt. Col. Pettit above must be asked here of Col. Browning.....

January 22, 1993

The ATF did file paperwork according to the Army's Special Operations Command (USASOC)on 22 January "requesting a MOUT [Military Operations in Urban Terrain] site, Bradley Fiighting Vehicles, tents light sets, heaters, generators and other military items of equipment". The reference to Bradleys contradicts the ATF's many denials that it ever considered using armor against the Davidians – Freeper Ada Coddington

Weeks before February 28, 1993

Mere weeks before the Waco raid, William M. Reece, a manager in the BATF was accused of stealing $1.5 million in BATF operational funds, just as the Senate started hearings into BATF abuses. – Michael Rivero


February 2, 1993

On February 2, 1993, Operation Alliance made a request to the Commanding General of JTF-6 for the use of Special Forces personnel assigned to his organization.\221\ Lt. Col. Philip W. Lindley,\222\ the U.S. Army Special Forces Command Staff Judge Advocate, was notified of this request and advised JTF-6....Within days, the training mission by Special Forces soldiers was revised to include only coordination on Army ranges and teaching ATF how to develop an operations order.\226\... "……For the February 28 raid, the Texas National Guard supplied three helicopters and 10 counterdrug personnel. When ATF requested National Guard assistance, their stated mission to the National Guard was to use the helicopters as a command and control platform during the raid, and to transport personnel and evidence after the area was secured.\235\ Only when the National Guard team arrived at Fort Hood for the pre-raid training, less than 24 hours before the raid, did ATF agents inform the National Guard personnel that the helicopters would be used as an aerial diversion during the raid itself. ATF had even assigned one of the National Guard counterdrug soldiers to hang from a monkey sling outside the helicopter to film the raid.\236\ ….."

February 3, 1993

Waco Tribune-Herald Mark England 10/29/99 "…..In a Feb. 3, 1993, memo, however, Lindley stated that he believed the ATF's request would make the military an active partner in a domestic police action, a violation of the Posse Comitatus Act. "Since this was not an emergency situation, in full control of the civilian authorities on civilian lands with expert civilian (drug) laboratory 'takedown' teams available and civilian medical facilities (available) ... this appeared to go beyond the DOD guidance for these missions," Lindley wrote……

February 16, 1993

Soldier of Fortune 5/94 James Pate "…......Fort Bragg's personnel locator service confirmed that the five men listed by DeGeurin in court are members of the 3rd Battalion, 3rd Special Forces Group, headquartered at Fort Bragg as part of the U.S. Army Special Operations Command: Major Mark Petree (3rd Battalion XO); and battalion members Sergeant First Class Chris Dunn, Sgt. 1st Class Greg Handy, Staff Sergeant Jon F. Wilson and SSgt. Cordell W. Ackley. SOF sources indicate the Mobile Training Team (MTT) meeting ATF's Waco raid contingent at Fort Hood also included Captain Clyde Moore (designated team commander) SSgt. Michael J. Dooney, SSgt. Steven M. Fitts, SSgt. J C. Burkhardt and SSgt. Robert R. Moreland - all of Company B. 3rd Battalion, 3rd SFG. The 10 were among a company of Green Berets deployed in January 1993 from Fort Bragg to McGregor Range, New Mexico, a remote part of Fort Bliss. The Bragg-based troops were assigned a 90-day stint with the Rapid Support Unit (RSU) which responds to short-fuse requirements generated by JTF-6. …......On 16 February 1993, Handy, Dunn and Ackley left Fort Bliss for Fort Hood to survey training sites. Next day, they met with Hood's range control office to secure use of Hargrove MOUT (Military Operations Urban Terrain) Training Center. They also met with ATF agents Kenneth King and Bill Buford, team leaders of Special Response Units assigned to execute forced entries through second-floor windows at Mount Carmel. ……Handy, Dunn and Ackley returned to McGregor Range 19 February. The entire detachment returned to Hood 22 February. Dunn and Wilson, two of the Green Berets who would later watch the disastrous ATF raid at Mount Carmel, went to meet ATF point-of-contact, agent Kris Mayfield. ….."

February 19, 1993

David T. Hardy's Waco Page 5/30/99 "…On February 19, nine days before the bloody raid, the ATF agents went over and asked David Koresh to go shooting. He agreed. In fact, he provided the ammunition. And the agents handed him their guns. Don't take my word for it. Here's the agents' report….…."

February 23, 1993

Democrat Congressman Charles Schumer introduced the Brady Bill.

BATF and the Treasury Department' claim that there was no written plan for the raid on Mount Carmel until February 23, 1993, five days before the raid. BATF agent Darrell Dyer, who had past military experience, took it upon himself to write one with agent William Krone. This plan was not distributed before the raid. – The Davidian Massacre by Carol Moore

A February 23, 1993 FBI memo, obtained by the Dallas Morning News, stated that no information had been developed to verify the allegations of "child abuse and neglect, tax evasion, slavery and reports of possible mass destruction."


February 24, 1993

At Fort Hood, on Feb. 24, 1993, ATF leaders met with the special forces troops assigned to train them. The military advisers helped construct a mock-up of Mount Carmel and opened the rifle range for ATF's sharpshooters, who practiced shooting from a range of 260 meters. The Special Forces troops even impersonated Davidians to help in the ATF's training. According to written statements taken from the troops, however, they kept within the guidelines given them……

February 25, 1993

Davy Aguilera's affidavit, submitted. "...contained no information less than eight months old on suspicious part deliveries to the "Mag-Bag".......Aguilera reports no information of any kind pertaining to his Koresh investigation collected between June 23 and Dec 7 1992, with three minor exceptions.

February 26, 1993

Archy: BATF memo said "this operation will generate considerable media attention, both locally [Texas] and nationally." BATF public relations director, Sharon Wheeler, called reporters to ask them for their weekend phone numbers; Investigative reporter Carol Vinzant wrote: "… In the jargon of at least one ATF office, the Waco raid was what is known as a ZBO ("Zee Big One"), a press-drawing stunt that when shown to Congress at budget time justifies more funding...."; codename for the raid was "showtime"

Noon, World Trade Center bombing

Freeper roughrider "……. I can't find my earlier posts of this, so I have to type it in right from the book, BUSHWACKED BY BUSH MASTERS by Ronald Davison: ……… "It was just hours after the World Trade Center bombing that then Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary for Law Enforcement (overseer of ATF) Michael D. Langan was made aware of the proposed raid by a memorandum prepared just MINUTES after the World Trade Center bombing by Christopher Cuyler, ATF's liasion to the Treasury Department.

"Red flags must have appeared before Langan's eyes. He responded by calling a conference that included John P. Simpson, Acting Assistant Secretary for Enforcement, Stanley Morris, former Director of the U.S. Marshal's Service (now working in the Office of Enforcement), and Ronald K. Noble, Clinton's designee as Secretary for Law Enforcement in the Treasury Department. (Source: Treasury Department Report on Waco, pages 177, 178).

"They ALL agreed the raid required excessive force to execute the warrant, precautions to protect both ATF agents and Davidians were absent, and chances of achieving the mission's goal without a shoot-out were slim. Therefore, Simpson called ATF Director Higgins and directed that the raid be called off. (Treasury Report, page 179).

"Less than an hour later (if you believe the Treasury Department Report on Waco) Higgins called Simpson back and in a three-way conversation that included Noble, got them to revoke their order that had, just minutes before, concluded the raid plan was fraught with potential catastrophies that, less than 44 hours later, evolved from potential to ACTUAL CATASTROPHIES, including the deaths of both agents and Davidians."……."


Before February 28, 1993 3/22/00 Stephan Archer "…… Before the Feb. 28 raid, the BATF had come to suspect that David Koresh, the Davidians' leader, had violated Chapter 53 of the Internal Revenue Code, which requires that certain firearms be registered and taxed. After refusing an invitation from Koresh to discuss his firearm purchases and obtaining a search warrant, 75 BATF agents stormed the Mount Carmel premises armed with pistols, shotguns, and submachine guns and air support by helicopters. ….."

American Partisan 11/8/99 Diane Alden "……. "Yet James Wood, a professor of religion at Baylor University and resident of Waco since 1955, said that before February he hadn't heard of them referred to as a "cult." The librarian at the Waco Tribune-Herald confirmed that until their seven-part series on the Branch Davidians -- the first installment of which began one day before the initial assault on February 28, 1993 -- the Tribune-Herald referred to them as a "religious group," not a "cult". Child protective services had looked into allegations of abuse and found none. One by one the rest of the reasons given for the final governmental assault on the Mt. Carmel compound evaporated like fog in early morning…….."

February 25-27, 1993

The Dallas Morning News Scott Parks 9/26/99 ".... An eight-man team of Green Berets would be dispatched to Fort Hood, an Army base near Waco, to train more than 50 ATF agents before the raid. But within military channels, lawyers from Joint Task Force 6 and Army Special Operations Command clashed over how to make sure the Green Berets' mission was legal. Finally, lawyers for special operations forces won their struggle to limit the Green Beret training mission. Army medics could train ATF agents how to treat "battlefield" injuries but could not attend the raid. The Berets could train ATF agents in the use of sophisticated firearms, but could not teach them close-quarter battle tactics. And the Berets could teach ATF how to develop an attack plan but not participate in preparing or rehearsing a specific plan against the Branch Davidians. The training at Fort Hood went off as planned Feb. 25-27. ATF raided the Branch Davidians the next day...."

February 27, 1993

Associated Press 2/27/93 "…A group of about 75 Branch Davidians, an offshoot of the Seventh-day Adventist Church that moved its base here from Los Angeles in 1935, is known to have a large arsenal of high-powered weapons, the Waco Tribune-Herald said. An Australian private detective who has investigated the group for 2 years alleged that its latest leader, Vernon Howell, abuses the children of his followers, boasts of having sex with underage members, claims at least 15 wives and believes all women in the world belong to him……. ….The newspaper said the group has military-type assault weapons one unidentified former cult member said it has .50-caliber weapons, AK-47s, AR-15s, Israeli assault rifles and 9mm handguns…."

Ross & Green Washington DC 7/93 "…On February 27, 1993, the day before the initial ATF assault on Mt. Carmel, the Waco Tribune-Herald began a seven-part series on the Branch Davidians entitled "The Sinful Messiah." According to its authors, Mark England and Darlene McCormick, the piece was the result of an eight- month investigation and interviews with "more than ten" former members of the group. At least some of these sources were supplied by CAN. English and McCormick quote a man "deprogrammed" by Ross "who had been with Howell [Koresh] for at least five years"--most likely David Block. The fourth installment in the series, published the day after the shootout, included a sidebar entitled "Experts: Branch Davidians dangerous, destructive cult."….."

February 28, 1993

Associated Press 9/25/99 Jerry Schwartz "....At 9:48 a.m. on Feb. 28, ATF agent Roland Ballesteros approached Mount Carmel's door and shouted ``Police! Lay down!'' But the Davidians knew they were coming. Earlier that day, a KWTX-TV cameraman James Peeler encountered a postman and asked for directions to the Branch Davidians' place. Reportedly, Peeler told the mailman he'd ``better get out of here because ... they're going to have a big shootout with the religious nuts.'' Peeler did not know that he was speaking to a Branch Davidian -- David Jones, Koresh's brother-in-law. An ATF agent who had infiltrated the Davidians, realizing that the secret was out, excused himself and reported that the ATF had lost the element of surprise. Nonetheless, field commander Charles Sarabyn pressed forward, and would insist later that he was not aware that the secret was blown....."

Bill Buford led "Assault Team One," which consisted of his own men from Little Rock, into the Branch Davidian Home Arkansas resident Bill Buford, whose district did not include Waco, Texas, had been a friend of Bill Clinton for ten years. Buford was mentioned as a witness against the Branch Davidians in the affidavit ATF used to obtain the search warrant

Agent Bill Buford, who was in the team that went in the second story window, disclosed that agents were authorized to shoot anyone inside who was carrying a weapon--even though agents had not announced that they were police or serving a search warrant. Buford revealed he did in fact shoot a Davidian who approached him carrying a gun.

Freeper Red Jones "…..The government attacked first with helicopters……. After this attack the BD's had time to get their guns out and prepare for war as the main force of government soldiers didn't arrive at the compound until about 15 minutes after the initial helicopter attack....

ATF Agents that died: Todd McKeehan and Conway Le Bleu of New Orleans, Steve Willis of Houston, Robert Williams of Little Rock. All had been assigned to Clinton security [Mr_Magoo: Autopsy reports on the 4 agents show they were killed with 9mm "armor piercing" ammo. (the feds had that type of ammo; the Davidians mostly had .22 and .223); Three died from head wounds; one to the back of the head, on two the entry wound was behind the right ear, the exit wound was the left temple; the 4th died from a chest wound that hit the heart (with the body armor used the only rounds that could go through that armor were BATF issue) ] Congressional Hearings:
"……Dan Maloney, KWTX-TV, Waco: We were sittin' there and ATF agent said "Newsman, newsman, call an ambulance, we need an ambulance." John got back into the car and just as he was reaching the car . . . a bullet came through the door jam. He dove into the car and made the phone call . . . And we had to physically make the phone call. And this is to my understanding that this is first time an ambulance had been called. This was well into the gun battle. For some reason they didn't have any communications, why would we have to call an ambulance? …..

James Cavanaugh, ATF Special Agent: Nobody was going to get us out. The McLennan County Sheriffs office, who always did a good job, in this case, could not get us out of this. We couldn't call 911; I mean we couldn't call anybody. …..

Bill McCollum, US Congress, Florida (R): Well it just seems interesting to me that they didn't even have telephones or communications to get that 911 communication back and forth, that Wayne Martin had from inside the compound for 20 minutes to try and stop the shooting. But at the same time they had fax machines, telephones and computers and were ready for whatever PR (public relations) they had that that was a mighty strange operation to say the least, it's certainly a fatal flaw, not to pun a word……."

Ft.Worth Star-Telegram 9/25/99 Jennifer Autrey "....On a chilly February morning six years ago, a member of the Branch Davidians dialed 911 and began screaming that gunfire from military helicopters was raking the sect's Mount Carmel compound. "Another chopper with more people---more guns going off. Here they come," Branch Davidian Wayne Martin told the operators. Seconds later, he added. "More firing . . Government officials have never wavered from their position that no shots were fired from the helicopters that day. ........ Byrnes, who had since retired said he believes Koresh's attorney and others are sincere in their belief that shots were fired from the helicopters in Feb. 28 raid. But he said he found "no evidence it happened. . .except for people saying that it happened....."

Dallas Morning News 10/14/99 Lee Hancock David Jackson "……FBI logs, reports and other documents state that the bureau's agents began setting up closed-circuit cameras within hours after arriving in Waco on Feb. 28, 1993.... ..... One hand-written log from the FBI's forward command post in Waco stated that approval for the first camera was granted at 10:57 p.m. by a deputy assistant FBI director in Washington. The next morning, officials at the FBI's crisis command post in Washington called to request notification "when the CCTV hookup is completed and the scene is visible in the HRT CP (command post)."Seven days later, FBI agents asked the Defense Department to send prototype robots equipped with video and audio recording devices to Waco, according to Defense Department documents provided by the National Security News Service, a nonprofit, Washington-based research group. The Defense Department documents, obtained by the news service under the federal Freedom of Information Act, state that three of the robots were shipped to Waco the next day. The robots, designed for battlefield reconnaissance and surveillance, "possess day and night cameras, forward-looking infrared imaging sensors, acoustics sensors, video recorder and two-way voice communication," according to a March 1993 Defense Department memo provided by the news service....."

2/28/93 AP "…A fierce gun battle erupted Sunday as more than 100 law officers tried to arrest the head of a heavily armed religious cult. At least four federal agents died and the cult's leader said a 2-year-old was killed. At least 15 agents were wounded in the 45-minute shootout at the isolated compound of the Branch Davidians' sect about 10 miles east of Waco. Several sect members were also reportedly wounded, officials said. Sect leader Vernon Howell, who also is known as David Koresh, told CNN a 2-year-old child was among those killed. He said he was wounded….. …… "

The ATF began to execute the arrest warrant for David Koresh and the search warrant for the compound at approximately 9:30 a.m., and came under immediate gunfire….. Sometime between 10:00 a.m. and 11:00 a.m., ATF Deputy Director Dan Hartnett called FBI Associate Deputy Director Gow and requested the assistance of FBI negotiators in Waco. Gow agreed and called SAC Jamar in San Antonio. Gow directed SAC Jamar to send experienced negotiators to Waco. SAC Jamar decided to send Supervisory Special Resident Agent (SSRA) Byron Sage, who is a trained negotiator with considerable experience. At FBI Headquarters, the SIOC was immediately activated and was manned continuously for the next 51 days. -

In an afternoon meeting at ATF Headquarters in Washington, D.C., Larry Potts, the FBI's Assistant Director for the Criminal Investigative Division, and Associate Deputy Director Gow were briefed on the situation in Waco by ATF Deputy Director Dan Hartnett. They discussed the deployment of the FBI's HRT and they agreed that FBI negotiators and SACs would be assigned immediately to Waco. ….

The Texas Rangers were also immediately deployed to Waco. Within a few days, 32 Rangers were assigned to Waco, first to assist the ATF, then later to be the lead agency for the ongoing criminal investigation. The Rangers assumed the responsibility for the ongoing investigations, because SAC Jamar, in deference to the ATF who had lost four agents, wanted to limit the role of the FBI to the resolution of the standoff. Additionally, a memorandum of understanding between the FBI and ATF gave the ATF jurisdiction in cases involving the injury or death of their own agents. The contingent of Texas Rangers was headed by Captain David Byrnes.

During the early conversations, Koresh informed the negotiators that he had been wounded. He had been shot in the hip area with the bullet exiting the area of his upper buttocks. He had also been shot in the left wrist. On several occasions, the negotiators offered medical assistance, but Koresh refused all such offers. The negotiators knew that others had been wounded and were perhaps dead; however, Koresh refused to provide any detailed information…..

At 2:29 p.m., Koresh demanded that he be able to broadcast his religious teachings over the radio before he, or any one, would come out of the compound. The negotiators agreed to the broadcast, and Koresh agreed to send the children out and to resolve the situation peacefully. The broadcast occurred at approximately 4:00 p.m. over Dallas radio station KRLD. The message was re-broadcast two additional times before 5:00 p.m.

At approximately 4:55 p.m., several ATF agents were ambushed by three individuals as the agents crossed a field near the compound. The ATF agents returned the gunfire, killing one individual and capturing another. The third individual escaped. The person who died was later identified (following the recovery of his body on March 3) as Michael Schroeder. The person arrested was Norman Washington Allison (a/k/a Delroy Nash), and the person who escaped was Robert Kendrick. Kendrick was arrested several days later. All three individuals were Branch Davidians who had been at another location called the "Mag Bag"(4) and were attempting to shoot their way into the compound.

At 7:55 p.m., the negotiators became very concerned that CNN was conducting a telephone interview with Koresh….The FBI contacted CNN and requested that it conduct no further interviews of persons inside the compound. CNN agreed at 8:25 p.m…

At 8:55 p.m. the first two children came out of the compound. They were Angelica Sonobe, age 6, and Crystal Sonobe, age 3. At 9:42 p.m., two more children came out. They were Renae Fagan, age 6, and Neharah Fagan, age 4..

16:30 After electing not to use the Bradleys in the initial assault, the ATF changed its mind after being repulsed. At 1630 hours on 28 February 1993, the Army recorded a request from the ATF for 10 Bradleys "to occupy defensive positions". However, the ATF also noted, "If the vehicles are to be ised in an assault role, U. S. Army markings are to be obscured." - Freeper Ada Coddington


Day after

The day after the February 28 raid, then-Deputy Treasury Secretary Roger Altman visited the injured Buford in a Texas hospital. Congress never asked about this visit or whether Clinton or his staff had any foreknowledge of the raid. ......"

At the time of his flight out to Waco to visit his injured friend, Bill Buford, Altman was the second highest ranking official at the Department of the Treasury

March, 1993

WorldNetDaily 1/13/2000 David Bresnahan Freeper aristeides "….Also from the full article: In March 1993, there was a secret meeting at CIA headquarters dealing with CAG participation in the WACO operation, according to Gene Cullen, senior case officer, Special Operations Group of the CIA. Cullen was present at the meeting and was interviewed in the Waco documentary…….McNulty obtained previously classified documents, which are shown in the documentary. Those documents clearly indicate that CAG was authorized by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to assist in the Waco operation….."

The Dallas Morning News 10/8/99 Lee Hancock David Jackson "........... One undated document stated an Army general with an extensive special operations background had been given special permission to go to Waco despite questions about the military's authority to send him. U.S. military special operations lawyers had previously ordered special forces soldiers not to go to Waco even to watch the botched Feb. 28, 1993, raid that began the standoff......``No auth. for Gen. Shoomaker to go. Has been approved, but approved by SEC DEF,'' the note on stationery from an FBI commander in Waco. ``SEC DEF'' is an abbreviation for the secretary of defense, then Les Aspin. The general, Peter J. Schoomaker, had once headed the Army's secret anti-terrorist unit Delta Force and now is at U.S. Special Forces Command at Macdill Air Force Base in Florida. He was one of two senior military special operations officers who visited Waco during the standoff and then attended FBI briefings with the attorney general before she approved the final tear gas plan....."

March 1, 1993

EmergencyNet News Service 2/28/93 Updated 3/3/96 "….Monday (Mar. 1st), the Federal Bureau of Investigation sent it's elite Hostage Rescue Team from Washington, DC, where it had been participating in the Investigation of the World Trade Center bombing. Because of the nature of the crimes associated with murdering a federal agent on Sunday, the FBI is said to have assumed over-all control of the investigation and negotiations at the compound…..... "

Wall Street Journal 8/2/95 James Bovard "….Within 36 hours after the Feb. 28, 1993, initial assault on the Branch Davidian compound, the federal government abandoned routine law enforcement to avoid gathering evidence that might embarrass the government. A Sept. 17, 1993, Treasury Department confidential memo to Assistant Treasury Secretary Ronald Noble stated that on March 1, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms initiated a shooting review and "immediately determined that these stories [of agents involved] did not add up." Justice Department attorney Bill Johnston "at this point advised [ATF supervisor Dan] Hartnett to stop the ATF shooting review because ATF was creating" exculpatory material that might undermine the government prosecution of the Davidians. …."

3/1/93 Transcript of interview with Koresh "…[Morning Edition theme song] BURNETT: Sounding tired and in pain, Koresh said he and others in his group had been wounded, but he would not allow a doctor in or allow his wounded to be taken out.
Mr. KORESH: There was two wounded, one dead, and the two wounded are up and around again. One received a flesh wound to the leg, and one to the hand- I mean, to the wrist.
RADIO HOST: Are you the most seriously wounded of the people?
Mr. KORESH: So far.
RADIO HOST: Who was- who died?
Mr. KORESH: Two girls. Babies. My girls. I have a lot of children, I have a lot of wives. …."

In a meeting held at Treasury at 9:30 a.m. EST, Ronald K. Noble, the Assistant Secretary of Treasury for Law Enforcement (designee), and Steve Higgins, the Director of the ATF, made the official decision to turn over the scene to the FBI. This decision was immediately relayed to the FBI in Waco, so that by 10:00 a.m. -- or 1 ½ hours later -- operational control had been effectively passed from the ATF SAC to the FBI SAC.

Acting Attorney General Stuart Gerson was given an update on the situation by an FBI supervisor at 7:30 a.m. eastern time. The Acting Attorney General then contacted President Clinton to give him an update, since the White House had expressed an interest in staying informed. The President told the Acting Attorney General that he understood the FBI's policy in such situations was to negotiate until the situation was resolved. The President also asked to be advised should there be any change in the strategy from a negotiated resolution to a tactical resolution. The Acting Attorney General relayed the President's instructions to Director Sessions shortly after 8:30 a.m. Eastern Time…….. In a telephone conversation at 10:50 a.m., Assistant FBI Director Potts and SAC Jamar discussed the instructions from the President, and decided upon the rules of engagement that would govern the FBI's actions. It was decided that the FBI should avoid any exchange of gunfire with those in the compound, if at all possible. only if there was a threat of imminent bodily harm or death would the FBI return fire.

By 1:30 p.m., all telephone lines in the compound except for two were cut off. Those two lines could only dial out to the negotiators. By 4:45 p.m., the FBI command post was fully operational, negotiations were being handled by a highly trained team of agents, and FBI agents with armored vehicles were deploying to take over control of the compound's perimeter.

During the course of the day, ten children were sent out of the compound. The names of these children and their ages are as follow:

Tamara Wende 5
Landon Wende 4
Jaunessa Wende 8
Patteon Wende 5 months
Scott Mabb 11
Christyn Mabb 7
Jacob Mabb 9
Bryan Schroeder 3
Jamie Martin10
Joshua Silvia 7

Koresh complained bitterly when he realized that his telephone lines had been restricted, permitting him to dial out only to the negotiators. At 5:52 p.m., Koresh warned that if the telephone lines were not immediately reopened, the government would be responsible for the deaths of the children. Koresh also threatened a fight if this was not done…. After many angry threats, and after repeated efforts of the negotiators to calm him down, Koresh finally calmed down and agreed to resume sending children out.

At 8:27 p.m., Brian Schroeder and Jacob Mabb came out of the compound. At 11:05 p.m., Jaime Martin and Joshua Silvia came out..

During the conversations on March 1, Koresh stated on at least two occasions that suicide was not being contemplated by those inside the compound, and that he and the sect members needed to stay alive to deliver his (Koresh's) message to the world. As part of delivering his message, Koresh agreed that if a taped message of his was played nationwide, everyone, including Koresh himself, would come out.


March 2, 1993

New York Times 9/5/99 Philip Shenon "…In a report to the Joint Chiefs and the F.B.I. in Washington that was dated March 2, 1993, commanders of the Special Operations Command said they had carried out "observation of operations in Waco, Tex." ….. The report is stamped "secret specat," or special category, which would have limited its distribution to a select group of Government officials with security clearances. The identity of the monitors sent to Texas and their ranks were not revealed…… …."

March 2 was the day that many law enforcement officials believed the standoff would end. The United States Attorney's Office established procedures for processing the large number of individuals who were expected to exit the compound ……. The agreed-upon plan was that David Koresh would prepare an audiotape lasting approximately one hour. In this tape, Koresh preached about his special knowledge of the Bible, and his interpretation of the passages relating to the Seven Seals and the end of the world according to the Book of Revelations.

FBI negotiators remained in contact with Koresh and others inside the compound all night. At 1:12 a.m., Koresh re-confirmed the agreement and offered to send out two more children as a show of good faith. At 1:20 a.m. Natalie Nobrega, age 11, and Joan Vaega, age 7, came out of the compound.

At 1:40 a.m.1 both radio station KRLD and CBN agreed to broadcast the tape. CBN agreed to broadcast the tape on the "America Talks" show, hosted by Craig Smith, which aired between 1:00 p.m. and 3:00 p.m. Between approximately 5:00 a.m. and 6:00 a.m., Koresh made the audiotape. At 7:58 a.m., Steve Schneider called the negotiators to inform them that the tape was ready, and said that two adults and two children would come out with the tape. At 8:10 a.m. Margaret Lawson, age 75, Catherine Matteson, age 77, Daniel Martin, age 6, and Kimberly Martin, age 7, all came out. Catherine Matteson was carrying the audiotape and turned it over to the FBI. Between 8:15 a.m. and 8:23 a.m.,

Meanwhile, at 1:30 p.m., the tape began to be broadcast over the radio. Between 1:30 p.m. and 2:47 p.m.., the negotiators worked out the logistics for the pending surrender with both Schneider and Koresh.

By 3:00 p.m., vehicles were in place to handle the movement of the people coming out, laboratory personnel were standing by to process the crime scene, and no additional problems were anticipated. Between 3:00 p.m. and 4:45 p.m., several individuals, including Koresh and Schneider,.spoke to the negotiators advising them that surrender was imminent and that people were in the process of saying goodbye to Koresh and to each other. At 4:47 p.m., the FBI was advised by an individual in the compound that Koresh was preaching to the group and leading them in prayer. ……Schneider relayed this demand to Koresh, and at 5:58 p.m., he informed the negotiators that Koresh had said to tell them that God had spoken to him and had told him to wait.

According to one individual who left the compound during the standoff, there was never any plan to surrender on March 2. Instead, a number of individuals were to come outside with Koresh, who would be on the stretcher. After exiting, they would blow themselves up with some type of explosive device. Afterwards, all the remaining people inside would either be killed or would kill themselves.

Early March, 1993

9/2/99 Freeper D14truth "The Texas Rangers were put in charge of investigating the February 28th raid. For ten days, SAC Jamar refused to allow the Texas Rangers to finish investigating the area behind Mount Carmel Center where the shootout between BATF agents and three Branch Davidians occurred. By then footprints which might help clarify who shot first had been eliminated by rain. Both Texas Rangers and BATF opposed FBI removal of the vehicles from the compound. (JDR:229) ..."

March 3

At 7:30 a.m., pursuant to a federal search warrant, authorities searched the "Mag Bag."

In an early morning news broadcast, CNN reported that the two elderly women released the day before were to be charged with attempted murder. This news broadcast was seen by those in the compound and caused a great deal of mistrust and apprehension…… The story was true. A decision had been made by the U.S. Attorney's office, after consultation with at least one FBI supervisor, that the two women would be charged with attempted murder, and that the district court would be requested to hold the women in jail without bail. The FBI contacted the U.S. Attorney and convinced him that such a move would be detrimental to negotiations. Thereafter, the two women were held only as material witnesses.

In a conversation with negotiators beginning at 2:45 p.m., Koresh agreed to send Mark Anthony Jones, age 12, out of the compound as soon as Koresh completed his "Bible study" with the negotiators. Koresh launched into his monologue at 2:48 p.m., and continued without interruption until 3:51 p.m. ….. As always, the focus was on "unlocking" the Seven Seals and interpreting God's intentions about the end of the world. At the end of the "Bible study," at 4:26 p.m., the child came out of the compound with a bag containing the puppies.

In the final conversation of the evening Koresh "preached" from 9:40 p.m. until 1:40 a.m. During this monologue, Koresh expressed his great anger at the movement of the armored vehicles around the compound, and told the negotiator that the FBI would have to "bear the responsibility for the loss of innocent lives" and would have to "look at some of the pictures of the little ones that ended up perishing" because of its actions.

March 4

When Koresh finished preaching at 1:40 a.m., he told the negotiator to call back between 6:00 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. Koresh said he would send Kevin Jones, age 11, out of the compound. Meanwhile, at 1:25 a.m., Wayne Martin, an attorney inside the compound, called the negotiators on the second telephone line. Martin was very angry and militant. He stated that America's political system was in decay and in conflict with God's law, and that Koresh had been chosen by God as "the Lamb" to rule over his kingdom on earth. Martin claimed that America and the world were witnessing the birth of a new nation founded on the Seven Seals. …… At 7:25 a.m., Kevin Jones was released from the compound.

[Material redacted as required by statute.]

At 11:45 a.m., SAC Jamar complained to FBI headquarters in Washington, D.C. that CNN's use of night vision equipment during its news broadcasts had revealed the movements and locations of HRT members. This placed the HRT at greater risk, because the Branch Davidians watched these broadcasts. FBI Director Sessions called the President of CNN, who agreed to stop broadcasting pictures made with night vision equipment.

Koresh also agreed to send out another child, Heather Jones, age 9, in the morning. Excerpts from these conversations serve to highlight the difficulty faced by the negotiators when dealing with Koresh. All of the quotes below are from Koresh: ……

2:55 p.m.

"What happens when . . . this all gets heated and you get somebody and these cars go flying, you know, 40, 50 feet in the air out towards the lake?" ……

11:30 p.m.

After being informed by the negotiator that the armored vehicles would be moving for a shift change, Koresh engaged in the following conversation:
KORESH: 'Cause if something messes up on this side or on your side, then World War III again.
FBI: No, we don't need that.
KORESH: You know what I mean?
FBI: We do not need that.
KORESH: I know. It's crazy. Let's, let's let, let's let's, let's look at these passages of scripture I've been sharing with you --
FBI: Yes.
KORESH: -- and I wish your other agents, they would look at them and, and, you know, take a look at them, and, uh, you know, it would be so awesome if everyone could just sit down and have --
FBI: I know.
KORESH: -- one honest Bible study in this great nation of America.
FBI: Well --
KORESH: You know, America does not have to be humiliated or destroyed.

As an example of Koresh's rambling style of preaching, the following excerpt from 10:00 p.m. is typical:
….. KORESH: Okay. So, so, when it comes down to this final revelation when, when, when God sends his Son into the world to reveal the Seven Seals, then all the sons of God are going to want to learn the Seven Seals, aren't they?
FBI: Yes.
KORESH: Okay. So, the thing of it is -- but man, whose carnal in -- remember, wisdom says she hates pride and arrogancy and carnality? She says now, I've built my house, I've hewn my seven pillars? You know, we know that wisdom built Christ. Let me explain. And wisdom builds everybody. Now, here is, here is the clincher to it. It says here: for the kingdoms of this world becomes the kingdoms of our Lord and of his Christ and he shall reign forever and ever. And the four-and twenty elders which sit before God on their seats fell down upon their faces and worshipped God, saying we give Thee thanks, oh, Lord, God Almighty, which art and was and are to come, because Thou has taken a great power in his reign which this is where God has to intervene. For the nations were angry -- which is like Psalms 2, the heathen raged -- and Thy wrath has come -which the Sixth Seal went -- what's going to happen is that the sum of the stars are going to be dark and all the natural elements of light and the heaven is going to part and everyone in this world is going to get to look up and see something they never seen before, something I was already shown. But, of course, what happens is that I'm supposed to show it through a book. And then what happens is they're going to realize that, that, uh -- see, all I've ever wanted out of my life is peace...

March 5

This day began on an upbeat note when Heather Jones, age 9, was released at 8:39 a.m. However, this event had to be balanced against the notification from the Methodist Children's Home that Joan Vaega, who had been released on March 2, had a note pinned to her jacket. The note was from Joan's mother to Joan's older sister Ursula in Hawaii. It stated that by the time Ursula read the note-1 she (the mother) would be dead, and that once the children were out, the adults were going to die. ……

At 9:45 a.m., the FBI learned from local water supply officials that the compound had its own separate water supply that could not be shut off. The water came from a well with an electric pump. Therefore, unless the pump could be shut down, their water supply was limitless…….

In a conversation at 11:59 a.m., Koresh admitted that he and his followers had been preparing for battle with the authorities since 1985, and he threatened to "blow the tanks to pieces." …..

At 5:53 p.m. Schneider informed the negotiators that Peter Gent's body had been found at the edge of the building within the compound. Gent had been shot and killed, presumably by the ATF, during the initial shootout on February 28. Schneider wanted to remove the body and give it to the FBI; however, the negotiators refused this request unless two persons, who would remain outside, accompanied the body. Koresh refused to allow this; therefore, Peter Gent's body remained on the grounds. ……

March 6, 1993

The Dallas Morning News (WACO 03/06/1993) 3/6/93 Jennifer Nagorka "…..David Koresh says he isn't killing himself, isn't coming out of his lair yet and isn't Christ…….Mr. Koresh has said he and his followers will abandon their fortified, well-supplied compound only when God tells him to. Again Friday, he gave no hint of when that might be. Still, there was cause for optimism on the part of federal authorities striving to avert further bloodshed. Mr. Koresh allowed another child, a 9-year-old girl, to leave the besieged fortress. That brought to 21 the number of children released. …….. ….."

The Dallas Morning News (WACO 03/06/1993) 3/6/93 Jennifer Nagorka "…..Mr. Koresh laid to rest immediate concerns that he'll end the standoff by ending his own life. "He has been specifically asked if there is an intent on his part to commit suicide. He has denied that," said Agent Ricks, one of those in command at the scene of the standoff, about 10 miles east of Waco. Nor, the agent said, will Mr. Koresh order the suicides of the more than 100 followers he says are with him in the compound. …… "

In a conversation that began before midnight, the negotiators spoke to Steve Schneider until approximately 2:00 a.m. …..

SS: [W]hen this is all said and done, if, if you people don't burn the building down or whatever you would plan on doing . . .
FBI: We just plan on waiting for people to come out.
SS: I really -- I'll tell you the truth. I -- it wouldn't surprise me that they wouldn't want to get rid of the evidence. Because if this building is left standing, you will see the evidences of what took place……

At 4:35 p.m., Koresh agreed to send out Melissa Morrison, age 6, if the negotiators would put the ATF undercover agent, Robert Rodriguez, on the phone with Koresh. ……. After this effort, neither Koresh, Schneider, nor Rose Morrison ever mentioned sending Melissa out. Although she was probably one of the children who died in the April 19 fire, he r body has not yet been identified.

FBI: Who did you tell me you were?
KORESH: If God sits on the throne, if he gave the book to the Lamb --
FBI: Yes.
KORESH: You know who I am. And you know who I claim that I am.
FBI: And you claim that you're the Lord.
KORESH: I am Christ.
FBI: Well, you didn't say that. You said you claimed to be the Lord.
KORESH: Christ is the same as the Lord. King of Kings and Lord of Lords. The Prince of the Kings of the earth. Yep. What can I say? Shall I lie? No, I will not lie. And, as I said before, my father sits on a throne and he said to wait. And you're being judged……..
FBI: I think you're trying to give me a message, aren't you, David?
KORESH: Well, I'm saying y1all keep negotiating with us and stuff. But woe to the bloody city.

March 7

For the remainder of March 7, virtually everyone in the compound who spoke to FBI negotiators expressed their anger and frustration….. The two main concerns of the Branch Davidians on that day were the FBI's delay in delivering milk for the children, and the denial of direct access to the media. Concerning the milk, the FBI had offered milk in return for the release of some children. This offer was rejected by Schneider and Koresh at 9:12 a.m. Afterwards, four different individuals came on the line and complained bitterly about the milk. These individuals also confirmed that they did not want to come out.

Koresh stressed several times during these conversations that only he knew the secret of the Seven Seals, and that he would refuse to listen to anyone who did not know as much as he. Koresh asserted that, if negotiators or some preachers could prove to him that he was wrong about the Seven Seals, he would surrender. However, on the other hand, Koresh declared that, if he were right about the Seven Seals, "you're mine!"

March 8, 1993

The Dallas Morning News Scott Parks 9/26/99 "....Another document says a former FBI agent working for a private defense contractor "probably initiated" an FBI request for high-tech surveillance robots equipped with "day and night cameras, forward-looking infrared imaging sensors, acoustic sensors, video recorder, and two-way voice communications." Three robots, all prototypes, were shipped "direct from the factory" to Waco on March 8. They were accompanied by two civilian technicians, a Marine Corps major and an Army captain from U.S. Army Materiel Command. A final entry on the robot records said, "Personnel have been briefed on restrictions on military involvement in civil law enforcement." ...."

Drudge Report 10/9/99 "....Recently unearthed internal FBI documents reveal that the bureau faxed a formal assault plan directly to the White House in the early days of the 51-day Branch Davidian seige, Sunday's DALLAS MORNING NEWS is reporting. The DMN's Lee Hancock and David Jackson are reporting that the attack plan was sent to the White House on March 8, 1993 at the behest of then Assistant Attorney General Webster Hubbell. Hubbell testified before Congress in 1995 that the White House played no role in Waco decision making. This document and other evidence was discovered last month within four boxes discovered at the FBI's Hostage Rescue Team base in Quantico, Va. ….....The documents show regular and ongoing consultations between the FBI and military experts during the stand-off. One undated document shows that the former head of the Army's secret anti-terrorist unit Delta Force, General Peter J. Schoomaker, was sent to Waco despite questions that he had the authority to be there in the first place. Also planned -- but aborted -- was a strategy to drug the compound's water supply...."

The Dallas Morning News 10/8/99 Lee Hancock David Jackson "....Another undated, handwritten note mentions that Delta Force commandos and intelligence experts should be ``invited'' to Waco, stating ``Delta commo/intel guys -- helpful in observation role.'' A March 8 note states that a formal assault or ``ops plan'' had been faxed directly to the White House by FBI tactical officials. An FBI official in Washington said that was done at the direction of Assistant Attorney General Webster Hubbell. During 1995 congressional hearings, Hubbell said he often consulted with the White House counsel's office about the standoff. He said that the White House was not involved in decision making during the FBI operation....."

11:04 a.m. to Three men left the compound
12:45 p.m. and buried the body of Peter Gent.
12:418 p.m. The nurse advised FBI that Koresh's wounds were healing nicely.
1:37 p.m. David Koresh reconfirmed:"I am not going to commit suicide."
3:50 p.m. FBI delivered six gallons of milk to the compound.

March 9

In an effort to increase the pressure on the individuals by attempting to make their living conditions a little less bearable, the electricity to the compound was cut at 2:15 a.m.' At 9:20 a.m., Koresh stated through Schneider that he would not talk further until the power was restored.

At 9:54 a.m., Schneider expressed outrage over the movement of the armored vehicles around the compound, and the degree of property damage that they were causing. Schneider threatened that "we can take you out!"

At 10:28 a.m., the power to the compound was restored in order to allow those inside the compound to watch the televised news conference 10:30 a.m. and to encourage some progress in the discussions.
At various times throughout the day, HRT members observed weapons in the windows, and firing ports being cut in the plywood which had been placed over most of the windows in the compound.

At 3:40 p.m., the Branch Davidians placed a sign on the outside of the tower stating "God help us, we want the press." A short while later, one law enforcement official observed a sign in the press area, known as "satellite city," which stated "God help us, we are the press."


March 10, 1993

The Dallas Morning News 3/10/93 David LeMore "……Shortly after 4 p.m., a banner approximately 4 by 8 feet fluttered out of the compound watchtower. It was the first sign of life in the compound since the bloody shootout with federal agents Feb. 28. Photographers and TV camera crews rushed to get film of the action, while reporters with powerful binoculars passed word to others gathered nearby that written in simple block letters was: "God help us. We want the press." About 2 hours after it went up, the sign was taken down… Earlier in the day, an even more cryptic message was displayed from the same window when a single white sheet was hung out into the wind, and after about 45 minutes it disappeared as quickly as it appeared. Dallas radio station KGBS (1190 AM) told listeners that it had asked cult leader David Koresh on the air to display a white banner if he wished to communicate with them......."

Due to the stalemate, the electricity was cut once again at 2:28 a.m. During the course of the day, numerous individuals came out of the compound, walked around, then went back inside. it appeared from these actions that they were attempting to test the resolve of the agents, since the FBI had warned people not to come outside without first obtaining advance permission. The electrical power was restored to the compound at 10:15 a.m. for the same reason as the day before.


March 11, 1993

Wilcher received information that Koresh had an extensive CIA background, that he was known as a sleeper and that there were more sleeper cults in Utah, Idaho and California.

The New American 3/93 Robert W Lee "….. On March 11th, BATF Deputy Associate Director Dan Conroy told reporters, "We absolutely, categorically deny we contacted the media prior to the raid." He subsequently acknowledged, however, that Sharon Wheeler, a BATF spokeswoman in Dallas, had contacted several Dallas-based news agencies a few hours prior to the raid and asked for the phone numbers of specific press representatives who could be reached "in case something happened" over the weekend. And during his testimony before the House Judiciary Committee on April 28th, BATF Director Stephen E. Higgins was asked by Representative John Bryant (D-TX): "Did somebody at the BATF notify the press in advance of the raid?" Higgins replied: "Yes, I think there's evidence which indicates that someone did." …."

At 4:14 p.m., Schneider told the negotiators that the next day, March 12, Kathy Schroeder, Kevin Whitecliff, Brad Branch, and Oliver Gyarfas would exit the compound.

....In the same conversation at 4:21 p.m., Schneider mentioned that Koresh was listening to Paul Harvey on the radio and that Harvey described a "shooting star" called the "guitar nebula." Schneider said that "David takes it as a sign." The FBI became hopeful that this might be the sign from God that Koresh had been waiting for since March 2. ….In a conversation with Koresh at 7:03 p.m., he denied that the "guitar nebula" was the sign that he was looking for.


Mid-March, 1993

The Dallas Morning News 08/27/99 Lee Hancock "..In mid-March 1993, Mr. Cullen said, officials with his group called a meeting of about 20 special operations experts, including FBI and Delta personnel, to discuss Waco because it represented a useful case study on how tactical experts might respond to hostage situations. ……........He said he proposed using chemical agents to render the Branch Davidians unconscious so the compound could be taken without violence. ……"If you pump tear gas into the building, everybody's going to get their gas masks," he said. "You're giving them time to prepare for something." ……. FBI officials have testified before Congress that some form of anesthetic gas was briefly discussed but was ruled out near Waco because of the potential threat to children and weak adults. …… Mr. Cullen said that he attended no other formal meetings on Waco but that he later learned in conversations with special operations colleagues that authorities had ruled out any operation that involved sending personnel into the compound. …… "It was more 'contain 'em. We're going to get em out.' There wasn't any type of talk about trying any type of rescue," he said…........


March 12

Janet Reno was sworn in as Attorney General of the United States in a ceremony at the White House.

Nothing of significance occurred at the compound until Kathy Schroeder left the compound at 10:41 a.m. At 11:50 a.m., Schroeder was interviewed and stated that there was no plan inside the compound for suicide. She assured the FBI that suicide would not occur.

At 6:00 p.m., Oliver Gyarfas exited the compound.

At 8:44 p.m., Schneider advised the negotiators that no one else would come out that day; however, he promised that Brad Branch, Kevin Whitecliff, and Rita Riddle would come out the next day.

[Material redacted as required by statute].

At 11:07 p.m., SAC Jamar ordered that the electrical power be shut off once again in an attempt to demonstrate that the FBI controlled their "earthly" lives rather than Koresh. The power was never turned back on for the duration of the standoff. Schneider and Koresh immediately became outraged and complained that the termination of electrical power was an act of bad faith.

March 13

At 1:24 p.m., the negotiators offered to allow Judy Schneider to come out, receive medical care for her wounds, then return to the compound. In return, the FBI asked for the exit of three individuals. This offer was rejected at 2:30 p.m.

[Material redacted as required by statute.]

March 14

At nightfall, the FBI began to illuminate the compound with bright lights to disrupt sleep, to put additional pressure on those inside, and to increase the safety of the HRT.

March 15

Bright lights remained focused on the compound; however, no other actions were taken by the FBI.

[Material redacted as required by statute.]

Between 4:23 p.m. and 5:28 p.m., Schneider and Wayne Martin came out of the compound and met with SSRA Byron Sage and McLennan County Sheriff Jack Harwell. In what the negotiators termed a "cordial and positive" meeting, the two sides agreed that negotiations would continue. Schneider also told negotiators that God had told Koresh to stay but that the others could leave any time they wanted. SSRA Sage and Sheriff Harwell were also able to defuse many issues of concern, such as the Davidians' right to counsel, the availability of medical attention, and the preservation of the crime scene.

[Material redacted as required by statute.]

The listening devices picked up Koresh talking about it on March 15. He said he saw a man standing in a corner get shot in the head. "All of a sudden, puff (makes a sound like a gunshot and laughs) his head blew up," Koresh said. The conversation continued and Koresh said he was sure the man had died. "He shouldn't have been standing in my door," Koresh said. ……. The conversations show that on March 15, Koresh asked about the whereabouts of a box of flares. "I want to find out where our parachute flares are," Koresh said. ……."I'm not saying there was anything sinister about it," Swett said. "I just want people to know there were flares in there." … St. Louis Post Dispatch 5/31/00 Terry Ganey

In one of the March 15 transcripts, a voice that appeared to be Mr. Koresh's said jokingly, "A guy came around the corner going - then I looked around the corner and saw the guy over there, you know, and, uh, in the corner all slumped, and he was, all his head down like this, and then his head blew up. "He shouldn't have been standin' in my door. ... Tryin' to come in. ... But I - I didn't, you know. ... What am I goin' do? Let 'em come in?" Lee Hanock Brenda Rodgriquez 06/20/2000 Dalals Morning News

….. In one rambling conversation picked up by an FBI bug, compound occupants, including leader David Koresh, touched on subjects from music, to his being on the cover of People magazine, to his sex acts, to the Feb. 28 gun battle. ……..One unidentified male describes someone named Livingston, an apparent reference to sect member Livingston Fagan, having shot "those guys up on the side there." ……Another male, apparently Mr. Koresh, adds with laughter that "a guy came around the corner going - then I looked around the corner and saw the guy over there, you know, and uh, in the corner all slumped, and he was, all his head down like this, and then his head blew up. ………"He shouldn't have been standin' in my door ... tryin' to come in. ... But I - I didn't, you know. ...What am I goin' do? Let em come in?" ……. Dallas Morning News 6/20/00

In another conversation captured by FBI bugs, two unidentified males are talking about the Feb. 28 gun battle. One describes "Floyd" - an apparent reference to a Davidian later killed in the April 19 fire - aiming a gun and shooting through compound walls and a window at the agents outside. …….A voice then describes how he saw an agent peering through an upstairs window but not shooting at anyone inside. That voice then adds, "I was gonna wait for them to make their move. Then I thought, well, here goes, you know. Bam, bam, bam, bam. ...." ………A voice laughingly describes another sect member named Brad, a possible reference to Brad Branch, jumping and rolling from window to window to fire at the intruders outside. "Just spray 'em," another voice responds." ……One voice then tells how some of the shooting out a window took place even as a baby was crawling nearby. "The baby just was climbin', climb on the bed. They were just shooting." Dallas Morning News 6/20/00

March 17

The negotiators decided at 1:20 p.m. to broadcast audiotapes over the public address system, which the FBI had set up outside the compound. The audiotapes were of those who had exited the compound, and contained positive comments about their treatment by law enforcement.

March 18

At 1:34 p:m., SSRA Sage began to speak to those inside the compound over the loudspeaker system in an attempt to communicate directly with everyone, and to urge everyone to come out. … SSRA Sage broadcasted again at 5:00 p.m. Sage also played a tape over the loudspeaker of his March 17 confrontational conversation with Koresh. At 6:21 p.m., after Schneider was warned in advance by negotiators, the HRT used the armored vehicles to remove the compound's diesel and gasoline storage tanks.

March 19

In a conversation with negotiators at 8:30 a.m., Koresh once again stressed that they were not going to commit suicide and that more time was needed for them to come out.

At 7:15 p.m., Brad Branch and Kevin Whitecliff exited the compound. These two men were the only individuals to exit, along with Rita Riddle who exited on the next day

[material redacted as required by statute].

In a conversation lasting from 1:59 p.m. to 2:44 p.m., Koresh told negotiators that some people were going to come out, and that eventually everyone would. Koresh also discussed the "guitar nebula" and how he had predicted its presence in the universe. Koresh professed to be astounded by the "guitar nebula" and attempted to relate it to his preachings.


March 20

Branch and Whitecliff were held in jail as material witnesses….. Schneider indicated in conversations between 9:30 p.m. and 11:30 p.m., that two women, Victorine Hollingsworth, age 59, and Annetta Richards, age 63, might come out shortly.

March 21, 1993

Freeper amom "…..From "…it was cited that the primary areas of responsibility which would come under focus with relation to FBI assistance would be the environmental clean-up with relation to spillage of approximately 2,000 gallons of diesel fuel during clearing operations of the south side of the complex which took place on or about Sunday, March 21, 1993…" I don't know this has always just sort of stuck in my mind.

St. Louis Post-Dispatch 1/29/2000 Terry Ganey "..... Although the government has consistently denied the Army's Combat Applications Force -- the "Delta Force" - was present at Waco, previously classified Army documents reveal that four Delta Force "observers" were deployed to Waco on March 21.

At 12:15 a.m., Victorine Hollingsworth and Annetta Richards exited the compound.

A short while later, at 2:19 a.m., the negotiator asked Koresh to clarify what he meant:
FBI: Well, what made you ask God whether or not you should wait?
KORESH: Because I didn't want Him to destroy you.

Between 9:37 a.m. and 11:00 a.m., the negotiators worked out the details with Schneider for the exit of two more adults. At 11:00 a.m., Rita Riddle and Gladys Ottman came out. Afterward, Schneider said that more could be coming out shortly.

At 2:15 p.m., Sheila Martin, age 46, James Lawton, age 70, and Ofelia Santoya, age 62, left the compound. A short time after their surrender, SAC Jamar advised the negotiators that the tactical personnel were going to bulldoze obstructions away from one side of the compound.

In the evening hours, the FBI began playing very loud music over the loudspeaker system. Several times during the night, those in the compound asked that it be turned off. Finally, at 11:35 p.m. an angry Schneider relayed a message from an angry Koresh: "Because of the loud music, nobody is coming out." A short while later, the loudspeaker system malfunctioned. The night ended quietly.

Sunday Times (London, England) 3/21/93

"….The walls, air vents and chimneys are all places where tiny fibre-optic microphones and cameras have been inserted to relay audio and visual images back to the control centre…."

"….Two weeks ago, the FBI requested that a special surveillance plane fly down to Waco. The multi-sensor surveillance aircraft is made by Pitatus Britten-Norman on the Isle of Wight and is a conversion of their civilian Islander. Equipped with a forward looking infra-red radar and a low-light television camera, it can pick up and track targets in all weather…"

"….Even before the raid last month, the compound had been infiltrated by undercover agents worried by the growing arsenal of weapons. While the agents were inside, normal telephones are believed to have been replaced by converted sets which double as microphones to relay all conversation inside a room…."

",….The cult is believed to have powerful thermal-imaging night sights on its armoury, which includes machineguns and antitank weapons. To counter that threat, federal agents have mounted powerful arc lights, ready to blind those inside…."

"…..The siege has become a focal point for the world’s special forces eager to see the latest equipment being applied in a real crisis. Observer teams from the Delta Force and British SAS have already visited Waco...."

March 22, 1993

DallasNews 2/28/00 Lee Hancock "…..FBI officials in Waco started pushing to use tear gas to end the standoff soon after it began, records indicate. And on March 22, three weeks into the siege, FBI negotiators recommended that in writing……. The day after the negotiators' recommendation went to Washington, Mr. Coulson wrote superiors saying that he believed the request was driven by fatigue and frustration of Waco personnel and by pressure from Mr. Rogers. ……. …..Three days later, Mr. Jamar told FBI headquarters to that he wanted to bash the compound with 60-ton tanks. That operation and related efforts to bulldoze the sect's cars away from the area just outside the building would be part of an escalating effort to punish the Branch Davidians for not meeting surrender demands, a March 26 outline of Mr. Jamar's proposal indicated. Mr. Coulson responded with another memo, addressed to deputy FBI director Larry Potts. "Jeff wasn't sure that we had to go outside the FBI to get approval to 'nick' the building. Ha, Ha," Mr. Coulson wrote. Although the Branch Davidians' cars were moved by FBI tanks, plans to cut away siding on the front and bash two feet into the compound's gym were not carried out. ….."

3/22/93 Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents From the 1993 Presidential Documents Online via GPO Access [] [DOCID:pd22mr93_txt-22] [Page 448-451] Monday, March 22, 1993 Volume 29--Number 11 Pages 407-456 Week Ending Friday, March 19, 1993 Remarks to Treasury Department Employees March 18, 1993 "…My prayers and I'm sure yours are still with the families of all four of the Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms agents who were killed in Waco: Todd McKeehan and Conway Le Bleu of New Orleans, Steve Willis of Houston, and Robert Williams from my hometown of Little Rock. Three of those four were assigned to my security during the course of the primary or the general election….Thank you very much. Note: The President spoke at 11:48 a.m. in the Cash Room at the Treasury Department…."

SAC Jamar called a meeting of the crisis management team to discuss strategy. The negotiators advised him that there was no clear indication that large numbers of those remaining inside would surrender any time soon. The hostage negotiation team observed that Schneider and Koresh had continued to resist all efforts by the negotiators to provide specific names, numbers, or time frames for action. Accordingly, several "stress escalation" measures were discussed. Failing a positive response from the Davidians to these actions, the negotiators recommended the introduction of tear gas as a non-lethal alternative to clear the compound. This was the first time the FBI formally considered tear gas as an option for resolving the standoff.

Because of technical problems with the telephones and with the loudspeaker system, SSRA Sage went in an armored vehicle to the compound at approximately 5:15 p.m. and spoke to the individuals inside through a bullhorn. Schneider, came a few paces outside of the compound to speak to SSRA Sage, and informed him that Koresh appeared to be getting weaker. The FBI decided to lay groundlines for a field telephone system to facilitate communications. The field telephone was delivered to the compound at 7:45 p.m., and conversations began again at 8:00 p.m.

March 23

Livingstone Fagan, age 34, came out of the compound at 10:05 a.m., after discussions between the negotiators and Schneider.

AUSA William Johnston in Waco wrote a letter directly to Attorney General Janet Reno. In the letter, Johnston complained about the FBI's handling of the crime scene, and about U.S. Attorney Ederer's handling of the situation. The Attorney General directed Mark Richard, a Deputy Assistant Attorney General in the Justice Department's Criminal Division, to look into the matter and make recommendations for a solution.

At 4:45 p.m., the FBI was notified that the news media might be bringing in a special parabolic microphone to attempt to hear what was being said over the P.A. system at the compound. In response, the FBI gave orders to all agents to say nothing through the bullhorn or loudspeakers that they didn't want to hear on television or read in the newspaper. …….At 10:00 p.m., the FBI decided to direct exterior floodlights at the compound all night and, instead of music, play tapes of previous negotiations, and messages from those who had exited the compound.

March 24

During the pre-dawn hours of March 24, the floodlights were directed at the compound, and Tibetan chants, Christmas music, and tapes of previously recorded negotiations were played over the loudspeakers. After several attempts, the negotiators reached Steve Schneider at 9:52 a.m. still angry over the loud music, Schneider refused to talk any further that day.

Throughout the standoff the FBI was concerned about its ability to maintain the security of the perimeter around the compound, to prevent people from entering or leaving. This concern became a reality when, at approximately 6:30 p.m., the FBI observed a shirtless male, later identified as Louis Alaniz, knocking at the compound door. The Davidians allowed him to enter. Alaniz had slipped through the perimeter and eluded the HRT. The negotiators immediately attempted to find out who he was and suggested to Schneider that he be sent back outside.

March 25

At 4:00 p.m., there was no activity from inside the compound. The armored vehicles moved into the compound and removed a number of -motorcycles and go-carts. Those inside the compound simply watched by holding mirrors in the windows so that they could see outside. At 6:12 p.m., Schneider claimed that if he could see one or two ATF agents locked up, they all would come out. The negotiators refused to discuss this suggestion.

March 26

Once again, the noon deadline passed with no activity. At 12:10 p.m., the armored vehicles moved back into the compound and removed eight vehicles. ……The perimeter was compromised again on March 26. Sometime between 11:00 p.m. and midnight, an unknown male, who had apparently snuck past the HRT, entered the compound.

March 27

Lights, music, and helicopter activity occurred throughout the night. At 8:50 a.m., a banner was hung outside that read "Tank Broke Phone Lines". A new telephone was delivered, and contact was re-established with Schneider at 12:32 p.m. ……… The negotiator gave Schneider until 1:45 p.m. to send out at least ten people, or else the FBI would take some additional action. Schneider responded that they were not concerned with FBI actions, and that "you can burn us down, kill us, whatever."

Schneider was contacted at 1:30 p.m. He informed negotiators that no one wanted to come out. The 1:45 p.m. deadline passed. Immediately thereafter, the FBI, with the armored vehicles, began clearing the front side of the compound.

The negotiators called Schneider again at 9:34 p.m. During this conversation, as well as overnight, the loudspeakers were broadcasting various sounds such as sirens, squawking birds, and laughter. Schneider proclaimed that he was looking forward to God putting an end to the earth; however, he also stated that there would be no suicide. Schneider also said that no one could be convinced to come out.

Schneider called back at 10:29 p.m., saying that two people were guarding Jesse Amen and Louis Alaniz. This conversation, with one short interruption, lasted until after midnight. During this conversation, Schneider denied that Koresh was Christ, confirmed that some individuals had been sent out for drinking, and recommended that the building be set on fire to force everyone out…

March 28, 1993

DallasNews 2/28/00 Lee Hancock "…..FBI records show that on March 28, Mr. Jamar sent a more aggressive proposal to FBI Deputy Director Potts: he wanted full "discretion" to carry out a "mass" tear-gas assault any time in the next week because of the approach of Easter and Passover - key dates to Mr. Koresh's doomsday prophecies.. …..…..In an apparent response to Mr. Jamar's request for full discretion on carrying out the plan, the notes stated that the FBI's Waco command had authority to launch an emergency operation - using gas and tanks - only if the FBI got wind that the sect was about to commit mass suicide. "[The] only thing left to the discretion of on-scene commander is the emergency response," the notes stated…….. FBI leaders, including Mr. Potts, told Congress in 1995 that Mr. Jamar acted properly when he ordered tanks to tear into the building on April 19 - even though the tear-gas plan approved by Ms. Reno called for starting the demolition of the compound only after 48 hours of gassing. ….."

At 12:30 p.m., another individual attempted to enter the compound but was arrested. ……. In response to the missed deadline, the FBI continued using armored vehicles to clear away cars, fences, trees, and other obstructions from the exterior of the compound during the afternoon. During these operations, adults inside the compound were observed holding up children in the windows.

At 7:00 p.m., local police warned the FBI that approximately 60 people were travelling to Waco to assist the Branch Davidians.

Late March, 1993

The FBI received a fax in late March urging agents to "step aside" and let the Texas Rangers, a state police force, negotiate a peaceful solution and have an independent grand jury investigation. "The shedding of more blood through more bungling will only further damage the credibility of the FBI and the federal government," the fax says.

March 28 – April 1, 1993

Ft.Worth Star-Telegram 9/25/99 Jennifer Autrey "....Dick DeGuerin, Koresh's attorney, thinks he knows whether Cavanaugh was telling the truth to Koresh about gunfire from the helicopters. DeGuerin visited his wounded client's bedroom, atop the 4-story observation tower at Mount Carmel, on March 28 29 and 30 and April 1, 1993. Government officials allowed De Guerin to enter the compound in hopes that he might be able to help end the standoff. "The ATF on the first day fired machine-gun rounds from the helicopter into that room." DeGuerin said. "I saw the bullet holes." DeGuerin said he saw that the Sheetrock was punched out and pieces of it were hanging from the ceiling, indicating that shots had come from almost directly above. Zimmermann, who represented Branch Davidian Steve Schneider, and who entered the compound with DeGuerin, said he also believes that the building was fired upon from the helicopters. "I saw rounds that had come from the sky. If they didn't come from a helicopter somebody was standing on the roof shooting." Zimmerman said. DeGuerin said videotapes from the scene make clear that no one was on that portion of the roof during the raid. "There was no way those bullet holes could have gotten there any other way." ....."

March 29

The proposed face-to-face meeting between Koresh and DeGuerin caused significant controversy within law enforcement. SAC Jamar made the decision to permit the meeting, clearing it with U.S. Attorney Ederer. The AUSAs and the Texas Rangers, who would be responsible for the eventual prosecutions, strongly opposed the meeting. Jamar was focused on resolving the standoff safely, while the prosecutors and the Texas Rangers were focused on the integrity of future court proceedings. The prosecutors and Texas Rangers were afraid that the defense attorney would give advice to Koresh which could result in the destruction of evidence and cause a more difficult prosecution.

March 30,1993

New York Times 9/5/99 Philip Shenon "……In a report dated March 30, nearly three weeks before the final assault on the compound, the Special Operations Command responded to an "F.B.I. request for assistance" at the site. The exact nature of the request is not clear in the heavily censored copy of the document that was released by the Defense Department. But the request clearly was important because the report prepared by the Special Operations Command was forwarded to the highest levels of the Pentagon, including Defense Secretary Aspin, and to the Joint Chiefs, then led by Gen. Colin Powell…."

March 31

Pursuant to the instructions of the Attorney General, Mark Richard of the Criminal Division, accompanied by departmental and FBI supervisors, held several meetings in Waco and San Antonio. The meetings were held with SAC Jamar, AUSA Johnston, Texas Rangers supervisors, and U.S. Attorney Ederer in an attempt to determine the reasons for the coordination problems and to make recommendations to the Attorney General.

April, 1993

FOX NEWS AP 12/31/99 "…."The negotiators' approach was working until they had the rug pulled out from under them" by aggressive tactical actions, a Justice Department investigator was told in August 1993 by Agent Gary Noesner, FBI negotiation coordinator for the siege's first half. ….. "

Friends in High Places 9/13/99 Webb Hubbell excerpt pages 207-218 "….I knew the President wanted to be informed about this. Bernie and Bruce said they would tell him…..."Trust your own judgment," Vince said. "You'll do the right thing." We talked just between us about the issues that were now taking up our days. This wasn't just practicing law; this was life or death. Even I was losing weight. Vince was unhappy. ….Lisa knew nothing of the problems Vince was wrestling with…… The FBI said that if we didn't go forward with it, maybe it was time to turn things over to the Texas Rangers while the hostage rescue team retrained. I could tell they didn't relish that idea…."

April 1

On April 1, Mark Richard returned to Washington, D.C. and reported his findings to the Attorney General. The Attorney General approved a plan wherein a senior prosecutor, Ray Jahn, would be assigned as lead counsel in the Branch Davidian case. AUSA Jahn would report directly to the Acting Assistant Attorney General for the Criminal Division in Washington, D.C. AUSA Jahn was charged not only with the responsibility for prosecution, but also with ensuring better overall cooperation between the numerous agencies involved.

DeGuerin and Zimmerman met with SAC Jamar and told him that Koresh and his followers would leave the compound on either April 2 or April 10. The disparity in dates was due to confusion over the dates for observing the "Passover" holiday in the compound. The attorneys also informed Jamar that they had instructed their clients not to speak to law enforcement except to arrange the final surrender of those inside the compound. Jamar, after consultation with the United States Attorney's office, declined to recognize the attorneys' instructions. The FBI continued to maintain contact with Koresh and Schneider, and Koresh and Schneider continued to maintain contact with the FBI.

April 2

At 7:52 p.m. Schneider and Koresh called negotiators and told them that they would not come out until after Passover. They were not specific as to exactly when this would be; they only stated that they followed the Jewish Passover (which was to begin April 6). Koresh told the negotiators concerning the date to "figure it out themselves."

April 4

After the meeting, DeGuerin and Zimmerman spoke to the FBI and stated that the meeting had been "very productive." However, they had been unable to determine with any precision exactly when the "Passover" would occur. According to the attorneys, Koresh reiterated that everyone would come out after "Passover." The attorneys also informed the FBI that Jesse Amen would be coming out at approximately 6:00 p.m. Jesse Amen left the compound at 5:38 p.m.


April 5, 1993

Newsweek 4/5/93 Barbara Kantrowitz Peter Annin Ginny Carroll Bob Cohn "…In the bungled Waco raid, federal agents may have been shot by their own men. The first shots were fired shortly after 9:30 on that bloody Sunday morning in Waco more than a month ago. An hour later, four agents from the federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms lay dead or dying. Sixteen others were injured. …* In phone interviews with NEWSWEEK, jailed cult members who left the compound complained that the Branch Davidians have been unfairly demonized and that the ATF shot first….."

April 6

There was no activity on April 6, except that at 8:00 p.m., Schneider called the negotiators to complain about the music and noise being broadcast over the loudspeakers. He said that if it were not turned off in honor of Passover, he might never speak to them again. The FBI continued broadcasting music throughout the night.

April 7, 1993

10:00 am, a person tried to leave the building - FBI agents fired two "flash-bangs" at him. Soldier Of Fortune 12/99 Report to the Deputy Attorney General on the Events at Waco, Texas - February 29 to April 19, 1993

There was no activity until 10:00 a.m. when an individual exited the compound and walked into the courtyard. The FBI activated two "flash bangs" (a "flash bang" is a stunning device emitting bright light, sound and smoke to divert the activity and attention of the subject) into the courtyard, causing the person to go back inside. At 10:59 a.m., Schneider called about the "flash bang" incident, claiming that no one had been outside. Koresh came on the line and said that "Passover" would be observed for seven more days.

Among documents introduced Friday was a phone message taken at the FBI's headquarters command center on April 7 announcing that Mr. Jamar and Mr. Rogers had decided not to try to fight a fire if one broke out during the gas operation. ......The FBI leaders said they weren't aware that the Washington, D.C,. fire department had two armored firetrucks in 1993 or that a California firm had offered free use of Czech-made, remote-controlled armored firefighting vehicles if the FBI arranged to have them flown to Waco. ... Lee Hancock 6/24/00 The Dallas Morning News

Plaintiffs' lawyers ended the day by airing part of an FBI briefing on April 7, 1993, given to FBI agents assigned to help carry out the final tear gas assault. In the video, the head of a bureau SWAT team told other agents that FBI leaders in Washington had decided against trying to use tanks to bash holes into the compound. "It would be conceived by the Davidians, the people inside as an act of aggression, an attack ...and they will retaliate, so headquarters rejected that," the agent said in the briefing. … Dallas Morning News 06/23/2000 Lee Hancock Brenda Rodriguez


April 8

At 12:02 p.m., the negotiators established contact with Schneider, who confirmed that everyone would eventually come out. Schneider also predicted an unspecified chain of events which would surprise everyone. He would not be more specific.

April 9, 1993

7:03 p.m. [Koresh's aide] Schneider exits the building and walks toward armored vehicles. Agents fired a "flash-bang" near him. 7:30 p.m. another male exits the compound into the courtyard. Agents fired a "flash-bang" at him. Soldier Of Fortune 12/99 Report to the Deputy Attorney General on the Events at Waco, Texas - February 29 to April 19, 1993

The Dallas Morning News 3/2/00 Lee Hancok "….. Hours after a federal prosecutor cautioned the FBI about the need for firetrucks at the Branch Davidian compound, the bureau's Waco commanders sent a message to Washington saying they wouldn't even try to fight any blaze that broke out. FBI records show that the two exchanges occurred on April 9, 1993, as FBI leaders were finalizing plans to assault the sect's compound with tanks and tear gas....... "If the fire had been extinguished in its early stages, there probably would have been little, if any, loss of life," Mr. Kennedy's [Davidian expert] report stated. A document filed with the Branch Davidians' Wednesday motion, a two-page FBI summary of an April 9 briefing, indicated that Assistant U.S. Attorney LeRoy Jahn asked FBI leaders in Waco "if there was a firetruck available in case the Davidians attempted to torch the compound." A second document, described in the sect's motion as a phone report filed at FBI headquarters at 7:30 that evening, reported that Waco FBI leaders were sending Washington their plan for emergency medical treatment during the proposed tear gas assault. But that report added, "per . . . Rogers, there would be no plan to fight a fire should one develop in the Davidian compound." ……..The one-page document detailing his April 9 report to FBI headquarters was filed under court seal. Justice Department lawyers turned that document over to the Branch Davidians' lawyers on condition that it be kept confidential and not released to the public, Wednesday's court pleading indicated. ……… ...... "

Washington Times 9/20/99 Lawrence Criner "….. memo from Ron Noble, then assistant secretary for enforcement at the Treasury Department, dated April 9, 1993, also indicates pressure on Treasury from the Justice Department. He writes, "Web Hubbell, associate attorney general [designate], is so concerned about the potential impact of our review . . . that he plan[s] to raise it directly with the president. . . . [I]f we don't throw some 'bone' to the Justice Department . . . this may exacerbate Hubbell's concerns." . . . . Just what the White House's role was in Waco has never been clearly determined. One thing is certain, Clinton confidant Vince Foster died thinking he was responsible for what happened, his wife reported. . . . . …."

At 3:35 p.m., Schneider called the negotiators, then left the compound to drop off a letter from Koresh to the FBI. According to Schneider, Koresh dictated the letter to Judy Schneider. Schneider directed the negotiators' attention to the last page of the letter stating that it was "very important." …..The last page is as follows:

Learn from David My seals or, as you have said, bear the consequences. I forewarn you the Lake Waco area of Old Mount Carmel will be terribly shaken. The waters of the lake will be emptied through the broken damn. [sic] The heavens are calling you to judgment.
Please consider these tokens of great concern.
Yahweh Koresh

At 7:03 p.m., Schneider exited the compound without any prior notice to negotiators and walked toward one of the armored vehicles. The agents released a "flash bang" near him, and he returned to the compound. At 7:30 p.m., Schneider spoke with the negotiators. He was extremely angry about the "flash bang." Schneider screamed at the negotiators and said that he would come out anytime he wanted.

Also, at 7:30 p.m., another male exited the compound into the courtyard and was "flash banged."

On this date, the FBI began to finish plans for inserting nonlethal Orthochlorobenzalmalononitrile (CS) tear gas into the compound. Discussions began at FBI Headquarters and with the Attorney General to determine if the plan would be approved and, if so, to decide when it would occur.

April 10

In a conversation beginning at 1:53 p.m. and lasting until 2:56 p.m., Schneider informed the negotiators that he had a second letter from Koresh to the FBI.

Beginning at approximately 2:30 p.m., members of the HRT, covered by the armored vehicles, began to install concertina wire around the compound. The negotiators explained to Schneider that the purpose of the wire was to limit entry into the compound as well as to control exit from the compound for safety and security reasons. Although the installation was started, it was never finished because of the extreme danger posed by the necessity of agents having to work in the open, directly in the line of fire of the weapons in the compound.

Schneider dropped Koresh's second letter outside the compound at 3:30 p.m. The letter was analyzed by the experts, who determined that it contained only Biblical passages and teachings with no clear significance to the situation at hand.(7) In any case, microphones inside the compound had recorded Schneider, not Koresh, dictating the letter at approximately 8:00 p.m. on April 9. Koresh's role, if any, in preparing the second letter is unknown. Schneider also delivered a third letter, that was identical to the first letter sent out on April 9. …..

[Material redacted as required by statute.]


April 11, 1993

6:55 a.m. a person left the courtyard area. FBI "flash-banged" him. Soldier Of Fortune 12/99 Report to the Deputy Attorney General on the Events at Waco, Texas - February 29 to April 19, 1993

Even after the FBI took control of the operation after the ATF's failed February 1993 raid, a significant contingent of ATF agents remained on the scene. The FBI documents show that on April 11, 1993, the ATF advised that it still had 136 agents there. "After the initial raid, ATF's role was strictly a support function," said ATF spokesman Jeff Roehm.

During the early morning hours, the lights remained on while the noise and music continued over the loudspeakers. At 6:55 a.m., the FBI activated a "flash bang" device when a person left the courtyard area.

April 12, 1993

Major Case #80: Assault on a Federal Officer Briefing for the Attorney General April 12, 1993 "….Provide one driver and one TC to operate CEV #2. Mount the remainder of the team in BV #3.
Man the crew served weapons position at Sniper #2. Mount the remainder of the team in BV #4.
Snipers will occupy the Sniper position #1 to provide real time tactical intelligence, long range precision and suppresive fire to support an armored vehicle's approach to the compound. (See the attached Annex for details)
Snipers will occupy the Sniper positions #2 and the Sniper #3 positions and provide real time tactical intelligence, long range precision and suppresive fire to support an armored vehicle's approach to the compound. (See the attached Annex for details) ……"

Freeper aristeides 1/30/2000 "…..I have started to read the book "No Heroes. Inside the FBI's Secret Counter-Terror Force" by retired FBI official Danny O. Coulson. …..….And this I think is the critical passage in Coulson's book, on how the decisions were made, from pp. 445-8: …Sessions, Clarke, and Potts briefed Attorney General Janet Reno and her aides on the tear gas option on April 12, exactly a month after she had been sworn in. The strategy developed by Jamar and Rogers contemplated inserting gas into the compound section by section, announcing our intentions first so that the people inside could clear out. The idea was not to gas the people but to make large parts of the compound uninhabitable. ……A second briefing, on April 14, featured a panel of military experts on CS, including Dr. Harry Salem, chief scientist for life sciences at the U.S. Army Chemical Biological Defense Command [this guy goes unnamed in the WND report on this meeting; on the other hand, Coulson here does not mention the presence of special forces people, Col Boykin of Delta Force and Gen. Schoomaker from Ft. Hood, and their discussion of the tactical plan]. This session persuaded Reno that tear gas wouldn't do permanent damage to the people in the compound and wouldn't ignite. …..The same day, Dick DeGuerin told Jamar that Koresh had set a new timetable for surrender. He would come out after he had written a manuscript that interpreted the Seven Seals, the mystery of God's plan for the world's end, referred to in the Book of Revelation……… On April 17, after receiving this document, Reno approved the tear gas plan, to be executed on Monday morning, April 19. She briefed President Clinton on April 18, explaining that the talks were stalemated, the FBI could not sustain its high alert level indefinitely, and as time passed, the danger to those inside and outside increased. …."

The New Yorker 5/15/95 Peter Boyer "…… During a briefing by the FBI on April 12th, Reno was told that the plan was tentatively scheduled for April 14th. Reno asked the question that President Clinton would late ask her: "Why now?" The FBI officials, led by then Director William Sessions (whose job was under attack, and who desperately needed to save his career), argued that Koresh's surrender seemed unlikely any time soon. Reno did not approve the plan. On April 16th, Hubbell reported a decision: Reno's answer to the FBI's gas plan was no. But, instead of accepting her decision, Sessions and his two top deputies, Floyd Clarke and Larry Potts, came to the Justice Building, and Sessions asked to see Reno personally. Reno, still unconvinced of the urgency, asked for a documented statement outlining the plan, the current state of negotiations, and the situation inside the compound. By the next day--a Saturday--Reno had received the documentation. She then reversed herself, and approved the plan. The tanks moved in on Monday. …."

At 5:00 a.m., an individual was arrested at one of the roadblocks while trying to get into the compound.

During the afternoon, Attorney General Reno, Acting Associate Attorney General Webster Hubbell, FBI Director Sessions, and other high ranking officials within the Department of Justice and FBI met. At this meeting, the Attorney General was briefed on the FBI's proposed plan to insert CS gas into the compound..


April 13, 1993

The Dallas Morning News 10/8/99 Lee Hancock David Jackson ".... * On April 13, then-Associate Attorney General Webster L. Hubbell advised the FBI that the Clinton administration wanted "military experts' opinion of the operation."

The Dallas Morning News 11/15/99 Lee Hancock David Jackson "…Notes from the FBI's hostage rescue team indicate that its commander went to Washington to brief the White House along with two senior U.S. Army special forces commanders during the final days of the standoff. Justice and Defense Department officials have said the officers, veterans of the Army's secret anti-terrorist Delta Force unit, visited Waco and then briefed Attorney General Janet Reno about the FBI's plans for a tank-and-tear-gas assault on the compound. But notes found earlier this fall at the hostage rescue team's headquarters in Quantico, Va., offered a different account. The notes, dated April 13, 1993, stated that the FBI's chief tactical commander and the Army officers were summoned to Washington to ``brief White House -- liaison Hubble (sic),'' adding ``Hubble want (sic) military expert's opinion of the operation.''…..…Other notes found at Quantico indicate that a formal plan for a tear gas assault on the Branch Davidian compound was faxed to the White House in early March as FBI commanders sought a ``green light'' to take action against the sect….."

Freeper JC Huntington analysis 9/11/99 David Hardy ".... On April 13, 1993, six days before the conflagration consumed the Davidian Complex, David Koresh talked to the FBI and the FBI recorded the conversation. During the conversation an FBI negotiator asks Koresh how it came to pass that the ATF "got their asses all shot up like that?". This prompts Koresh to recount the beginning of the gunfight.....
FBI: How come if you knew they were coming you didn't just come out and meet 'em
Koresh: I did! I did! I did! It's on the tape! Look at the tape!
FBI: How come they got their asses all shot up like that?
Koresh: Huh?
FBI: How come they got their asses all shot up like that?
Koresh: Well Look at the tape! I came out on the on the front porch ...
FBI: Why ... I mean where did all that ... where did all that frickin' gunpower come from?
Koresh: Gerald, you know, you've seen the tapes. Be honest now. Be Honest! Here I am ....
FBI: You're gotta help me out cause I came in here just a couple of weeks ago
Koresh: Well, John, ask to review those first tapes.
FBI: Alright
Koresh: Ok -- Here I am at the front door totally unarmed, my my my feet out on the front porch the the door in my left hand (unintelligible) behind me, my right hand up and the exact words that I hollered out as they were all blowin' out of the back of the trailer ... my my exact words were, you know "Get back! There's women and children here! Let's talk about this!"
And all of a sudden they were comin' around you know ... that that shot was fired and it was right here in the door in the very angle where I was, and the door kicked . . . and at that point there, you know ah ah ... its all on tape I know you all got that tape, because I saw the guys right across the street when I was on the front porch, over there taping it!….."

April 14, 1993

Washington Times 9/20/99 Lawrence Criner "….. …. Robert M. McNamara at ATF headquarters suggests why in an interoffice memorandum dated April 14, 1993. He writes, "DOJ does not want Treasury to conduct any interviews or have discussions with any of the participants, who may be potential witnesses; the prosecutors do not want us to generate additional Jencks, Brady or Gigolo material or oral statements which could be used for impeachment." In other words, prosecutors don't want a damaging record of the agents' activities at Waco that they would have to give to defense attorneys…..

St. Louis Post-Dispatch 1/29/2000 Terry Ganey "..... Gene Cullen, a senior case officer with the CIA's Special Forces Group, reports on camera he was "initially told they would just be observers. But at (an April 14) CIA briefing, we were told there were more than 10, and that they would be actively participating" in the April 19 attack. March Bell, who headed the staff of the last congressional investigation into Waco, tells the filmmakers: "They were in the tanks and the sniper posts. They were not giving advice back in some conference room - they were working shoulder to shoulder with the (FBI's) Hostage Rescue Team." .......... But CIA agent Cullen says he met Delta Force operators in Europe who "told me not only were they forward deployed at Waco, Texas, but they were actually involved in a gunfight with the Branch Davidians." Steven Barry, a retired Special Forces sergeant, concurs: "I did talk to some Combat Applications Group guys, and they did confirm that, yes, portions of B Squadron were there pulling triggers." ...."

April 14 meeting involving Reno, then-FBI Director William Sessions, then-Associate Attorney General Webster Hubbell, two Army officers, an "unknown scientist (expert on CS)" from the Army and several FBI agents

Wall Street Journal 8/2/95 James Bovard "….The coverup continued on April 14, 1993. That day, the Treasury Department assistant general counsel, Robert McNamara, sent a memo to several top-ranking Treasury officials stating that the Justice Department "does not want Treasury to conduct any interviews or have discussions with any of the participants who may be potential witnesses" because of fear of creating exculpatory material. The memo noted, "While we may be able to wait for some of [the witnesses] to have testified in the criminal trial, the passage of time will dim memories." The Justice Department also warned the Treasury Department not to contact outside experts to analyze the original raid: "DOJ does not want us to generate gratuitous `expert witness' materials; the prosecutors are concerned that these people won't have all the facts upon which to base a thoughtful opinion and could play into defense hands." …."

From 10:21 a.m. to 11:32 a.m., DeGuerin and Zimmerman spoke over the telephone to Koresh and Schneider. The attorneys advised the FBI at the end of this conversation that Koresh had established a new precondition for his coming out. Koresh would only come out after he finished writing a manuscript which explained the Seven Seals.

In the afternoon, there was a meeting in FBI Director Sessions' office to brief the Attorney General on the military and medical perspectives of the proposed plan to insert CS gas into the compound. Two military experts provided their assessments of the plan, while a medical doctor summarized the results of studies of the effects of CS gas, particularly on children, pregnant women, and the elderly

Pursuant to an inquiry from the Attorney General, the FBI began to gather information about the compound's water supply. The Attorney General wanted to know how long the Davidians could hold out if the status quo continued.

April 15, 1993

5:15 p.m. a male exited the compound - FBI fired a "flash-bang" at him. He went back inside, then returned a few minutes later. He was again "flash-banged." ……. So it went all the way up to the fatal fire on 19 April.. …." Soldier Of Fortune 12/99 Report to the Deputy Attorney General on the Events at Waco, Texas - February 29 to April 19, 1993

At 7:30 a.m., FBI Air Operations reported that the water storage tank in the rear of the compound appeared to be full. This information was immediately made part of the report to the Attorney General. The report concluded that the compound had a sufficient water supply to last a significant period of time.

[Material redacted as required by statute.]

At 5:15 p.m., the FBI activated a "flash bang" device when a male exited the compound unannounced. He returned inside for a few moments, then came back outside. The FBI activated another "flash bang." Observers from inside the compound watched through every available window as this occurred.

April 16, 1993

From the David Hardy website"… Transcripts of FBI negotiation tapes show Koresh at this point made it clear he was going to surrender. He is writing his explanation of the Seven Seals, discusses Tabor and Arnold, jokes with negotiators. Once he's done, he tells negotiators,
Koresh: Then I'll be out - yes - definitely.
FBI: I know you'll be out, but that could - excuse me I've got a cold. That could mean a lot of things David. That could mean -
Koresh: I'll be in custody in the jailhouse. You can come down there and feed me bananas if you want.
FBI: I know - I know that some point in time that's true. But I'm getting from you - I'm asking you, "When that is finished, are you than telling me that you are coming out the next day, or two hours after you send that out or what?"
Koresh: Oh, I'll probably - when I - when I bring it out - see - my attorney is gonna get the - get to the copy.
FBI: Right.
Koresh: OK? And as soon as he hands it over to the scholars - the theologians - right?
FBI: Um, hm.
Koresh: That's when - he's gonna come back, and that's when I'm going to go out with him, because he said point blank that -you know - one of the guarantees of me arriving down there is that he is gonna go with me.
FBI: So you go on paper here and said that David Koresh told me that as soon as he finishes this manuscript - the seven seals -of which you've finished the first chapter dealing with the first seal -
Koresh: The first seal - right.
FBI: That you're gonna make that available -
Koresh: I'll be splitting out of this place. I'm so sick of MRE's - Dick - that ah -
FBI: Well, I just want to make sure that I have this right - that you're coming out. As soon as that's finished -
Koresh: That's what - it was said by the attorney's -
FBI: Well, I know - I know.
Koresh: That's what I'm saying -
Koresh: It's clarified. Lock, stock, and barrel it.
Later on April 16, Koresh adds "I'm giving you the simple answer. Yes. Yes. Yes. I never intended to die in here."


Freeper amom 5/15/00 (see 4/18/93 segment) Narration: The tape breaks off abruptly at this point, and I'll close this tape with a final short segment from Friday April 16.

FBI: Now are you telling me David - I want to get this clear in my own mind. Are you telling me here and now that as soon as you reduce the seven seals to a written form that you're coming out of there. I don't mean two days later -
Koresh: I have no reason - I have no reason to -
FBI: I know what you're saying, but answer my question if you would please - definitely. I mean - I want to get an answer to this, "Are you coming out as soon as your done -"
Koresh: I'm coming out.
FBI: Or are you coming out afterwards at some point in time.
Koresh: After I get the thing - see Dick, you don't seem to understand. We are going to fulfill our commitment to God. Now, if you would allow me to show you what has been pre-written by the prophets you would know what I am doing.
FBI: Well, I'm asking you -
Koresh: You see -
FBI: A simple question though. I -
Koresh: And I'm giving you the simple answer. Yes. Yes. Yes. I never intended to die in here.


Meanwhile, in Washington, D.C. the Attorney General and the Director of the FBI met with other officials to consider the tear gas plan. The Attorney General directed the preparation of a statement describing the situation inside the compound, the progress of negotiations, and the merits of the proposed plan to insert CS gas. She directed that supporting documentation be provided for all factual assertions and that the statement be delivered to her the following day.

April 17

At 3:50 p.m., Louis Alaniz, the first person to sneak into the compound, departed. Prior to his departure, the court-ordered electronic surveillance intercepted a conversation in which Schneider attempted to talk Alaniz out of leaving.

In the afternoon, the Attorney General approved the FBI's plan and directed that it be put into effect beginning Monday, April 19. The FBI commanders in Waco were notified of the Attorney General's decision at 7:00 p.m. The FBI began preparations for inserting the gas.

On April 17, after FBI tanks began removing parked vehicles from around the complex, the Davidians talked about plans that Arnold interprets as fulfilling a catastrophic version of the prophetic end of the siege. He said that before April 17, sect members believed there would be a peaceful end to the confrontation. They believed Koresh would be able to write his interpretation of the Seven Seals in the biblical Book of Revelation while the FBI waited. Arnold said he believes that after the interpretation was completed, they would all leave the complex peacefully When the tanks began removing the cars, it was a signal in the Davidians' minds that the siege would end in a fiery climax, Arnold said. In one conversation, Schneider was heard to say, "They could bring the fire trucks, but they couldn't even get near us." Koresh replied, "That's all right," and made a sound imitating gunfire. -St. Louis Post Dispatch 5/31/00 Terry Ganey

In conversation captured by FBI bugs, one of two intruders who managed to elude the FBI and enter the compound during the siege could be heard explaining why he now wanted to leave. The man, Louis Alaniz, announces that he wants to preach what he has learned from Koresh to try to save his those outside. A compound occupant - apparently Koresh lieutenant Steve Schneider - warns that true believers don't leave. ………"She doesn't choose to go out unless David tells her to. She don't, he don't, I don't," the Davidian says. "There's not one person that ever goes out unless they've been told to. ….."Sure, you can do what you want, but you've got to answer before the living God, and God doesn't, it's not his will that you go out there. I 'm telling you, you're gonna - you'll learn the hard way." …… Dallas Morning News 6/20/00

In another conversation captured by FBI bugs on April 17, Several Davidian males are talking:
"Nobody comes back here.''
"Make sure."
"That's what I say."
"What would they do ..."
"Catch fire, and they couldn't even bring the fire truck 'cause they couldn't get near us."
"That's right." (laughter) Dallas Morning News 6/20/00



April 18, 1993

FoxNews 10/19/99 David Leeson "....On April 18, a listening device the FBI had planted close to the front door picked up a conversation between two unidentified Davidians. "They can't destroy us unless its God's will they do," one of them said. "Haven't you read Joel 2 and Isaiah 13, where it says 'He's going to take us up like flames of fire?'..."

Freeper Buckeroo "……The truth is, "Triangle" landed on April 18th in Dallas-Ft.Worth; this is a CIA owned and operated aircraft. The massacre occurred the next day. Only recently (say six months ago) has the government admitted to Delta team "observers." Indeed, military and intelligence personnel from England and France were involved………

Freeper Ada Coddington 4/29/00 David Hardy "…… Carlos also told me, last month, that he'd seen FLIRs from nights before 4/19, and that it was apparent that the FLIR aircraft was being used to monitor the Davidians' water supply. The water was stored in those big plastic tanks at the rear of the building, and the coolness of the water inside showed up as a darker area. It was apparent that the water supply was shrinking, and by 4/19 was almost gone. He had heard the aircraft crew talking about it, and noting that the level was going down. …….." 9/8/99 Carl Limbacher "…A California newspaper editor who doubles as his town's vice mayor claims that three Texas hospitals were warned to set aside burn beds at least a day before the government's April 19, 1993 assault on the Branch Davidian compound at Waco…… Napa Sentinel editor Harry Martin told Inside Cover on Tuesday that he covered the tip about the burn beds in several radio interviews prior to noon the next day, when the first flames appeared in the windows of the Davidian compound. "On the eve of Waco we got a call in which we were told that they had reserved burn beds in three hospitals including Parkland in Dallas," said Martin. "I mentioned it on various radio shows that night, so it was logged into history."………."

St. Louis Post-Dispatch 1/29/2000 Terry Ganey "..... Most chilling of all, Sgt. Barry reports: "Their [Delta] operators had penetrated the building on several occasions, and on one occasion, late April 17 or early on the 18th, they saw Koresh within six feet of them. They radioed back to the Tactical Operations Center for permission to grab him, and within minutes the word came back from the Justice Department, 'No, we already have a plan in place,' that being what happened on April 19. ....."

Freeper amom 5/15/00 "…..Last recorded words of David Koresh...18th April... . This next segment of the tape is indeed the last recorded words, or conversation of David Koresh. It was recorded on April the 18th - Sunday - the day before the fire at about two o'clock in the afternoon. Koresh called the FBI negotiators. He's quite upset and angry, because they've begun to remove cars and clear the area in front of the building. First of all, he is upset that evidence might be destroyed that would relate to what had happened on February 28 in the initial BATF raid on Mt.Carmel. Secondly, he is concerned about property damage in general. And it's clear from the tone of his voice that he suspects that something might be up, and that indeed the agreement that he feels he's reached with the FBI to write the manuscript, and then exit peacefully, could fall apart and not be carried out. From The Last Recorded Words Of David Koresh Recorded April 16 & 18, 1993
Narrated by Prof. James Tabor, author of Why Waco?
(University of California Press) Transcribed by Mark Swett at The Reserach Center in Westbrook, Maine.

FBI: This is Henry.
Koresh: Ah - Henry, this is Dave.
FBI: Hi Dave.
Koresh: Look. The ah - the generals out here - right? You have a hard time controlling them, right?
FBI: I don't control them. No.
Koresh: OK. Well look. We have done everything we can to be able to communicate in a nice, passionate way. We've ah - you know - I've told you what our work with God is. And ah - we've been kind. We've not been your everyday kind of cult. We've not been your everyday kind of terrorist which I'm sure you - you're familiar with having to deal with.
FBI: Um, hm.
Koresh: And a lot of the things that the FBI, or these generals are doing is just kinda way beyond the scope of reason. And they're not only destroying private property, they're also removing evidences. And this doesn't seem like that ah - these are - these are moves that should be made by a government who says to a people that we're going to be able to take this up in a court of law. I mean - they're not ever - they're not going to be able to replace a lot of things here. Like that 68 SS El Camino that belonged to Paul Fatta?
FBI: Um, hm.
Koresh: They'll never be able to replace that. They don't have any more of those. And ah - the 68 Camaro and other things out here in the front.
FBI: Um, hm.
Koresh: They can't replace that. They just can't replace it.
FBI: Um, hm.
Koresh: And - ah - they keep - they keep doing these kind of things it's just proving to us that they're not - they're not showing good faith in their part, and I just - I just suggest they shouldn't do it.
FBI: I understand what you're saying, and I will impart that ah -
Koresh: In all courtesy's please - please impart that, because - because it's coming to the point to where ah - you know - God in heaven has somewhat to do also. And it's just really coming to the point of really, "What - What do you men really want?"
FBI: I think what - you know - just - this is - I'm just imparting to you what my perception is. And my perception is that - that - what they want is they want you and everybody to come out. You know - I -
Koresh: I don't think so. I think what they're showing is that they don't want that.
FBI: Well, I think that - that is exactly what they want.
Koresh: No. They're not gonna - they're not gonna - they're not gonna get that. They're not gonna get that by what they're doing right now. They're gonna get exactly the opposite - exactly the opposite. They're gonna get wrath on certain people. They're gonna get anger from certain guys. Now I can't control everybody here.
FBI: I think you can.
Koresh: No. I can't. You gotta understand John -
FBI: Henry.
Koresh: Henry - I'm sorry. In 1985, I presented a truth. And everybody that's here - I had to debate and I had to talk to, and I had show from the scriptures. I had to prove my point for many hours, days, months, and sometimes years with certain people here.
FBI: Um, hm.
Koresh: They went to scholars. They went to theologians. I have a very unique group here.
FBI: Yes. You do.
Koresh: Not ignorant people - not stupid people. Now there are some people - that in the beginning - that went out like Kevin and Brad. Individuals that were - you know - people that were out there - bar rollers and stuff like that. Rough and tough guys. Now they're not - they're not the theologians of the world, but they're guys that need a lot of patience, and - you know - with a little bit of refinement and a little bit of proof to them - they can - they can be good people.
FBI: Um, hm.
Koresh: But ah - but I would really and in all honesty and in good faith tell these generals to ah - to - to back up. They don't need to tear up anymore of this property. You tell us out of one side of the mouth, we're going to be able to come back here and all this. And ah - you know - we're gonna take this up in court, and on the other hand you're showing us there's not gonna be nothing to come back to.
FBI: I think the problem with this thing David is that this thing has lasted way too long.
Koresh: Oh, it - it - it has. It should have never gotten started this way -
FBI: You're right.
Koresh: And that was not our fault.
FBI: Ok. But -
Koresh: Now you don't wish to speak to the issues of the beginning of this -
FBI: No. I don't. And - and what the issues were - you know at that time is something else. The problem is not what the issues were at that time - the problem is this has lasted way too long. You know -
Koresh: I'm gonna finish my book or I'm not gonna finish my book.
FBI: Well, I hope that you do.
Koresh: Well, let me tell you this. These men who everyday we try to show them good faith. They've walked out in front of us, they've driven their tanks up to us, they've bust in the side of the building a little bit one time. You said that was a mistake - it was not in your control - that wasn't in the commander's wishes. You know - all of this has been shown that if these guys want to fight - Now I don't want to fight. I - I want - I'm a life too, and there's a lot of people in here that are lives. There's children in here.
FBI: That's right.
Koresh: And we're also American's. And I think - I think that America has a patronage - a very clear patronage of individual citizens who - who - who - who have a breaking point.
FBI: Well, that's true.
Koresh: Now if the government is gotten this stronger - it can come on to something that we have worked for hard. We worked when we got on this property. Al lot of hard hours. This place was a dump. We fixed it up. We built this little house here. It's not extravagant. You know - there's a lot of people here with a high commission and a lot of love and concern, not just for our own lives, but for everybody's life. And if this is the way our government is showing the world that its tactics are to get someone to - to - to - to - to do as they wish when realistically, our - our rights have been infringed upon right and left.
FBI: But there's a way to resolve that David.
Koresh: Yes. Yes.
FBI: And the way to resolve it is for you to come out and lead your people out.
Koresh: Your way - your way is that you're gonna keep - you're gonna keep destroying our property.
FBI: This - this probably would not have had to happen -
Koresh: It never did have to happen.
FBI: That's right. And - and then - you know - if you would have come out on - on the day that you indicated that you promised that you were gonna come out none of this would have taken place.
Koresh: Look. You denounce the fact that I have a God that communicates with me. That's - that's the first mistake that we - that we make.
FBI: Nobody - nobody - nobody is saying anything about your religious beliefs, your thoughts. your ideas -
Koresh: Listen. But you are -
FBI: Or anything like that.
Koresh: You're - you're saying -
FBI: The same things that you can do there you could do out - out here.
Koresh: That's what you say. I - I think that you are lying. As a matter of fact, I know that when the first month or so that I'm out, I'm gonna be bombarded all of the time with nothing but people wanting to know Koresh - asking this - asking that.
FBI: And if you were working on the seven seals - I mean - nobody would bother you. I mean - why would you - why would that have to happen?
Koresh: I have my responsibility also you know. Come on, look at the reality of things.
FBI: And the reality of things is that there are priorities.
Koresh: OK. But you put your priorities -
FBI: And you're priority and everybody's priority should be in the safety of the children -
Koresh: All right.
FBI: And the safety of the women, and the safety of everybody
Koresh: You're fixing - you are fixing to ruin - your commanders are fixing to ruin the safety of my and my children. My life - the lives of my wives - the lives of my friends - my family. You're fixing to step across the ribbon.
FBI: I think that - that was something that you brought on. It has nothing to do with the commanders, David.
Koresh: All right. I brought on - if this - if this is the corner of the box that you place me into -
FBI: I think that you're placing yourself in that David. I don't think anybody is forcing it -
Koresh: No. No. You're the one who moving forward. You're the one who - who has violated - your generals have violated our constitutional rights. You have made us guilty before proving so.
FBI: I don't think so.
Koresh: You actively brought a band of - of - of people who didn't announce themselves. They came - I was at the front door. I was willing to talk to them. They shot at me first.
FBI: See, now you're talking about - you're talking about the ATF.
Koresh: About something that you don't want to prove as a matter of a fact. You're telling me - now you've - now you telling me that I am under arrest. I have to come out and I -
FBI: When somebody's under arrest that doesn't mean that it - that you've already been proven guilty. It just means that you've been charged.
Koresh: No. I'm being punished. We've already been punished. We've been placed in jail. We're being punished as guilty.
FBI: Well, that is something that you chose for everybody inside.
Koresh: That is not correct.
FBI: Sure it is because -
Koresh: That is something that you chose as a confinement.
FBI: Because if you had walked out on that day as you promised, by now who knows where we would have been You know - you probably would be out on bail for God sakes.
Koresh: John - all I can say is - is that if you want to - to - to place this in the history books as one of the saddest days in the world -
FBI: Well, I think that the - the - the rules for your safety still apply. There's no reason - you know - to think that - that - that they shouldn't apply.
Koresh: OK. I understand your rules. I'm just simply asking you in all good faith, and all good manner to - you tell the general it's enough to tear up our property.
FBI: I will tell them exactly what you said. But you need to understand that - um - I'm talking up. It's not - you know - talking down. So - you know - what I suggest and what I will suggest is exactly what you said. I've suggested that and I've suggested other things. I have no - no problem in - ah - you know -
Koresh: You tell em we love em. We love em and - you know -
FBI: And you're willing to send out thirty people.
Koresh: Look.
FBI: Fifty?
Koresh: Whoever wants to go out can go out.
FBI: No. No. No. No. Don't tell me - don't tell me that. Tell me that you're sending somebody out.
Koresh: I'm not going to - you don't - see - you don't understand about these people yet.
FBI: And you don't understand about the people here yet either.
Koresh: OK. Well if that's the way we want to play then we come to a point where -
FBI: I'm not wanting to play anything -
Koresh: But it - you are playing.
FBI: No. I'm not. I'm telling you.
Koresh: Everyone in the tanks - everyone in the tanks out there is playing.
FBI: No. Nobody is. People just want to see some progress.
Koresh: Look some progress is being made. You don't realize what kind of progress is being made. There are people all over this world who are going to benefit from this book of the seven seals. You don't seem to understand.
FBI: And what you don't seem to understand is - is that the people here want to see that kind of progress, but other kind of progress. There's no reason why you couldn't be doing the same very thing that you are doing now within the place out here.
Koresh: That's not true. What you're saying is not based on truth.
FBI: Why not? Why not? What do you mean it's not -
Koresh: Because it's just not.
FBI: Your attorney is gonna be your attorney whether you're in there or out here. Anything that you want your - all you - all you'd have to do is - is furnish it to him.
Koresh: An attorney -
FBI: Why would he not comply with your wishes?
Koresh: That's - the legal system is not the majority of the attorney. The legal system is a completely sophisticated - lot's of - lot's of Indian chief - ah -system. It's not just where you got one guy who is hired to speak in your behalf in a court case in front of a jury.
FBI: Yes. But - but what I'm saying -
Koresh: There's more to it than just - I was in jail in 1988.
FBI: And - and how did it come out?
Koresh: It came out wonderful, because -
FBI: Well, there you go. There you go.
Koresh: Well the thing of it is - is that you don't understand the amount of cost it takes to get that legal representation too.
FBI: Well -
Koresh: And this was something - this was something that the Sheriff's department got us in.
FBI: Well, that was - that was then. You have an attorney now. You know - the same work that you're doing there you can be doing out here.
Koresh: It's a different more high profile case type situation. I just - I just suggest that it - it would be a very bad thing for you to - to keep destroying all this evidence out here.
FBI: Well - you - know - I really don't have any control over that.
Koresh: I mean what are they doing? Are they - are you covering up the ATF? That's exactly what it appears you're doing.
FBI: David, what we're trying to do is were trying -
Koresh: It's wrong! You're doing wrong before God - before man. You are doing wrong! You adding to your wrong.
FBI: David, you're the one that's doing wrong.
Koresh: No. No. No. No. No. No. No.
FBI: You seem to have -
Koresh: No.
FBI: No concern about -
Koresh: You know we can't stay in here forever.
FBI: Anybody within the place except yourself.
Koresh: You know that we can't stay in here forever.
FBI: You know - if you could send - OK. Well send fifty people out. Send fifty people out right now.
Koresh: Does fifty of you want to go out?
FBI: You don't have to ask. All you have to do is say, "Look, I want fifty volunteers," and they'll come out. If you send fifty people out.
Koresh: They're saying because of these things they want to stay the more.
FBI: And I guess that you have no control over anybody. You know -
Koresh: You've got to understand, what I have control -
FBI: This is your responsibility. This is your responsibility because you're the leader. Their safety is in your hands. These people look –

On the morning of April 18, the Attorney General notified the President that she had approved a plan to use CS gas at the compound the next day. The President indicated that he concurred with the decision of the Attorney General.

At 1:53 p.m., in preparation for the insertion of the CS gas into the compound, the armored vehicles began to remove the remaining vehicles from in front of the compound.

The FBI warned the Branch Davidians to stay out of the tower during the operation to clear the automobiles. The tower provided the occupants with an ideal sniper post. Nevertheless, while the armored vehicles were removing the vehicles, adults held up children in the other windows of the compound. In addition, an HRT sniper saw a cardboard sign placed in one of the windows of the compound that read "Flames Await." The sign had flames drawn on it as well. The sniper reported what he had seen to the command post.

[Material redacted as required by statute].


April 19, 1993

05:55 --Tanks go to front east and west of building and back of the gymnasium.

05:59--FBI tells a Davidian the gas attack is about to begin. The FBI alleges Davidian throws the phone out the window. Davidians deny this.

05:59 FoxNews 10/19/99 David Leeson "...."At 5:59 on April 19, 1993, Sage …… called to warn them that the FBI would be injecting tear gas into the compound unless they surrendered immediately.... "This is not an assault!" Sage shouted at Davidians over the public-address system. "Do not shoot. We are not entering your compound."...."

05:59 SSRA Sage called into the compound and told the person answering the telephone that it was very important that he speak with Schneider or Koresh. Another individual came to the telephone and Sage informed him that gas was about to be introduced; that it was not an assault; that no FBI agents would enter the compound; and that no one should fire weapons. The individual hung up the phone. Two CEVs, or Combat Engineering Vehicles, approached the compound to begin methodically injecting tear gas through spray nozzles attached to their booms. At this point, SSRA Sage began reading a message over the loudspeaker system to those inside the compound, advising them to come out immediately and that they were now under arrest.

06:00--FBI loudspeakers begin demanding surrender, continue through the morning. Bradley vehicle begins delivering "liquid ferret tear gas rounds," i.e., gas grenades, into the underground tornado shelter.

06:00 Tank inserts 6 canisters (1.5 gallons) of CS and over the next 6 hours FBI shot 400 Ferret rounds at 3.7 grams each.

06:00 FBI Agent Byron Sage (in telephone call to the Davidians announcing the tear gassing of the compound): OK, we're in the process of putting tear gas into the building. This is not an assault. We are not entering the building. Not an assault. Branch Davidian Steve Schneider: You are going to spray tear gas into the building. Agent Sage: In the building ... We are not entering the building. This is not an assault. Unknown male: Tear gas (unintelligible) Agent Sage: Do not fire your weapons. If you fire, fire will be returned. Mr. Schneider: Everybody grab your gas masks. ...

06:01 Mr. Schneider: Everybody wake up. ... Let's start to pray (unintelligible) ...

06:02 The plan to insert the gas was initiated

06:04--Agents allege Davidians are firing on the tanks FBI opts to speed up delivery of gas, begins launching first of 400 gas grenades into the building.

06:04 the Davidians began shooting at, and hitting, the CEVs. Once the Davidians opened fire, the FBI was authorized to insert gas into the entire compound. The FBI began deploying "ferret" rounds (canisters containing gas) through the windows. SSRA Sage continued broadcasting his announcement over the loudspeaker system while the armored vehicles continued to insert CS gas at intervals. The intervals occurred during the approximate one hour period that it took to reload the gas canisters in the vehicles. During these intervals Sage urged the people to come out before more gas was inserted. The Davidians continuing firing at the FBI vehicles.

06:05 Unknown male: You want it poured? Unknown male: They're hitting the building. Whoa. Unknown male: Pablo, have you poured it yet? Unknown male: Huh? Unknown male: Have you poured it yet? Unknown male: In the hallway. Unknown male: Things are poured, right (unintelligible) ...? Agent Sage (via FBI speakers outside the compound): Do not fire any weapons. Unknown male: Need to get the fuel out. Agent Sage: We do not want anyone hurt Uknown male: Do you want me to pour it already? Unknown male: We want the fuel. Agent Sage: The gas will continue to be delivered until all ... Unknown male: You want some here? Agent Sage: ... are out of the building. Come out now.

06:07-6:31--Tanks poke holes in building and insert gas at front east and west sides of building. Four Bradleys deploy gas grenades through the windows.

06:12 Unknown male: Go get another mask. Unknown male: You got to get the fuel ready. Unknown male: I already poured it. It's already poured.

06:16 Unknown male: All the kids, all the kids. All the kids are down in the (unintelligible) ... Unknown male: OK, if you (unintelligible) face, man. Unknown male: What you doin' now? Unknown male: Don't move around (unintelligible) get ready. Don't let anybody come in. Unknown male: Nobody comes in, huh? Unknown male: Nobody ... (unintelligible) Unknown male: Right.

06:24--FBI tells Davidians to hang out a white flag if the phone is not working. Davidians place dark blanket in the front door.

06:41 someone threw the telephone outside the front door of the compound.
[Material redacted as required by statute.)

06:45-7:04--Tanks deliver more gas grenade rounds to every part of the building.

07:20 Unknown male: Whoa, whoa, whoa. Unknown male: Don't fire. Don't fire. Don't fire. Unknown male: Pat, they just rammed into the wall. Unknown male: Get out, get out. Unknown male: Look at the gas. Unknown male: Looks like acid? Unknown male: Tear gas is irritating (unintelligible). Unknown male. I know. They're (unintelligible) said there are fire there.

07:23 Unknown male: Is there a way to spread fuel in there? There. Unknown male: I don't know. I know that one (unintelligible) Unknown male: So we only light 'em as soon as they tell me last chance, right? Not if they (unitelligible) Unknown male: Well, that's the fuel. We should get more hay in here. Unknown male: The fuel has to go all around to get started. Unknown male: Well, there are two cans here. If that's poured soon (unintelligible) to take. Unknown male: All kinds of (unintelligible) Unknown male: All kinds of what? Unknown male: Somebody shootin' live cannons (unintelligible) (tank sounds)...

07:24 David Koresh: Yeah, Lord. You're waging a storm, in the whirlwind. You're way, way. All we can do is wait.

07:30--Tank rips hole in front east first floor of building and inserts gas.

07:30 Tank inserts 6 canisters of CS

07:58--Tank breaches a hole in the second floor back east corner of building. Tank rips into second floor womens' quarters.

07:49 Dallas Morning News 10/8/99 Lee Hancock "..... The supervisor testified at trial that he and three other agents were monitoring the bugs that day, but government lawyers disclosed in legal filings this week that 24 FBI agents were monitors on April 19. An April 19, 1993, video recording only recently disclosed by the FBI captured a radio transmission in which Mr. Jamar discussed how a device he called ``the box'' was picking up Davidians' voices near the interior ``cooler.'' On that transmission, an FBI agent can be heard telling hostage rescue team commander Richard Rogers at 7:49 that Davidians were being told ``to stay low and stay ready, as if they were expecting some type of assault.'' Agent Jamar can be heard saying that Davidians were ``taking their masks off and on. In fact, one person asked, `Have we been gassed?' So there's an area that we're not getting gas into.'' ....."

09:00 Tank inserts 4 bottles of CS

09:10--Davidians hang out banner that reads, "We want our phones fixed.

09:17--Tank breaks through the front door, wedging doors against barrier.

09:20 Mr. Koresh: The got two cans of Coleman fuel down there? ... Huh? Mr. Schneider: Empty. Mr. Koresh: All of it? Mr. Schneider: Think so. Mr. Koresh: Did you check? Mr. Schneider: Nothing left. Mr. Koresh: Out of both cans? Mr. Schneider: I got some mineral oil here.

09:28--Tank enlarges the opening in middle front of building; may have collapsed stairway near kitchen at this time. "CEV2" breaks down and a new CEV2, which is not equipped with tear gas, replaces it.

09:30 According to Jamar (2/16/00) the listening devices had picked up conversations from a large group of women and children who had gathered in the kitchen.

09:44 (Mr. Schneider has been discussing how the sect might repair a telephone line that was severed by the tanks within minutes after the tear-gassing operation began. It is the sect's only means of talking with the FBI) Mr. Schneider: Just respond accordingly ... 'cause we do want to get a line to say at least something to 'em. ... We've asked that we can finish the seven seals. Here's the manuscript. The first one is about completed. It was worked on all last night. But there's no way to know. I gotta work with David ... you know."

09:47 a.m., an individual exited the compound and retrieved the telephone. However, the telephone lines had been cut, and contact was never re-established, despite the efforts of FBI technical personnel.
[Material redacted as required by statute.]

09:49-9:54--The FBI says phone will be connected only if there is a clear signal it is for surrender purposes. Graeme Craddock exits, discovers the phone line has been severed, and signals that. The FBI does not reconnect phone.

10:00--(11:00 Eastern Time) Attorney General Janet Reno leaves the Justice Department for a speech in Baltimore. Calls President Clinton at this time.

10:00-11:00--Bradleys continue delivering gas grenades through various openings.

10:30--Bob Ricks holds FBI press briefing and announces, "We're not negotiating," and mentions plans for dismantling building if necessary.

10:41:58--Infrared video camera begins taping.

10:47:16-10:52:57--Period of missing infrared video tape.

10:42 until 12:16 - no sound on the tape Terry Ganey St. Louis Post-Dispatch "……The agent who flew the surveillance plane that took infrared videotapes of the siege of the Waco complex later wondered if the tape's audio had been erased at FBI headquarters…."

11:15 Unknown male: He's up in his room. (unintelligible conversation, broadcast interview in background) Unknown male: Putting on prayer (unintelligible) Unknown male: What? For what? Unknown male: (unintelligible) Unknown male: Oh, (unintelligible) God says (unintelligible). Come down here. Go low 'cause they shoot high. Unknown male: (unintelligible) They're getting it fueled. Unknown male: No problem. Unknown male: Where is (unintelligible) Unknown male: They're lighting 'em here. (unintelligible) through the ditches. (unintelligible) place (Radio broadcast in background) Unknown male: When are they gonna go bring the children? ...

11:16:27 the tank or CEV (combat engineering vehicle) first appears.

11:18:40-Q1 the tank starts to demolish the rear wall of the gym. This continues on until 12:09:02-Q3 when the tank leaves the rear area of the gym. There were a total of 19 instances that the tank penetrated the gym.

11:19-26--Tank begins demolition and enters fully into the gymnasium.

11:20 According to Jamar (2/16/00) the converted tank began knocking into the gym to make a path for the tank equipped with a boom for the tear gas

11:23:02-Q3 & Q4 the tank has penetrated the gym for the 6th time.

11:23:23 the tank is completely inside the gym.

11:24 St. Louis Post Dispatch 3/5/00 William Freivogel Terry Ganey "……No government agents are visible in the approximately 200 aerial photographs that the FBI shot of the April 19, 1993, siege of the Branch Davidian complex near Waco, Texas, according to a Post-Dispatch review of the photos. …..[Caddell[ He said he had found a five- or six-minute gap between photos around 11:30 and another 10-minute gap from 11:45 to 11.55 That means that there are no photos for some key periods when flashes appear on the infrared tape. …..The batch of still photos came to light in January when the Post-Dispatch published one of them. That photo had been timed as having been shot either one second before or 35 seconds after a burst of flashes that appeared on the infrared film at 11:24 For that reason, it appeared to show that the flashes did not come from gunfire. Caddell says he has carefully timed that photo and that his analysis of the damage to the gym indicates it was shot more than five minutes later. Justice Department sources say, however, that they have performed their own tests and that there is no question about the 11:24 time. ….."

11:24 Waco Tribune-Herald Mark England 10/21/99 "..... Even if an infrared camera could detect sunlight reflections from falling leaves, glass, water puddles, metal, etc... that would not explain these flashes, which are seen only on the (back) side of Mount Carmel from 11:24 until 12:12 p.m." Caddell concluded bitingly, "Are we to believe the sun shone on April 19 for only those 48 minutes, and then only on the side of Mount Carmel not visible to the media?" .............

11:24:16 to 36: shots from two locations into hole made by CEV in gym.

11:24:17-Q2 two unknown subjects appear from underneath the tank.

11:24:30:16-Q2 and 11:24:36-Q1 the unknown subjects shoot into the hole made by the tank in the gym wall.

11:24:50-Q4 and 11:25:04 there is a response in the form of gunfire from the inside of the gym directed at the 2 unknown subjects.

11:25 Unknown male: Tell (unintelligible) are you kidding. Light 'em. Unknown male: (unintelligible) Go and see if you can light up the torches. Unknown male: (unintelligible) go in the house. Unknown male: (unintelligible) give me the torch. Unknown male: Is it lit? Unknown male: Look out for that. No. They're already lit. Unknown male: What are you gonna do? Now we're committed. Unknown male: (unintelligible) Unknown male: Whatever you've got, you use. (unintelligible). Unknown male: (unintelligible) the idea. When you're (unintelligible). They're just lying to you. Unknown male: That's what I say. (unintelligible) Unknown male: (unintelligible) Unknown male: (unintelligible) In here. Unknown male: (unintelligible) have to move. Unknown male: Go get with the kids.

11:26:04-Q2 the tank breaks through the front wall of the gym.

11:26:13-Q1 and 11:26:27-Q1 additional gunfire comes out of the gym directed at the 2 unknown subjects. This gunfire has pinned down the 2 unknown subjects on the ground.

11:26:26-Q1 the tank backs over the 2 unknown subjects. The approximate height of the tank is 20 inches and 6 feet in width between the tracks.

11:26:39-Q4 one of the 2 unknown subjects is clearly visible exiting out the hole in the front wall of the gym the tank previously made. The unknown subject turns to the right into the courtyard.

11:28:04-Q1 and 11:28:14:04-Q4 there is gunfire emitting from the position the unknown subject was seen at 11:26:39-Q4 (the courtyard) the direction of this gunfire is into the structure.

11:28:18-Q4 and 11:28:22-Q4 there is a response of gunfire coming out of the structure.

11:30-35--Tanks continue demolition of gymnasium. Tanks smash into both the front door and the middle front of the building. Agents try to call into compound. FBI steps up operations. Tank smashes through gymnasium wall and roof collapses.

11:30:09-Q4 and 11:30:15-Q4 there is gunfire from the same area in the courtyard directed into the structure.

11:31 , an agent is heard on the radio traffic of the incident to report, "It's coming down." There was no response from Jamar

11:33:51-Q4 there is gunfire between the gym wall and the swimming pool. The direction of this gunfire is into the structure (possibly unknown subject #2) since the infrared signature from this weapon is different from the rounds fired in the courtyard.

11:34:32-Q4 there is one gunshot directed at the unknown subject on 11:34:33-Q3 that is running and hiding between the gym and the swimming pool.

11:34:33-Q3 and 11:34:34-Q3 unknown subject is being shot at.

11:34:45-Q4 and 11:38:31-Q3 there is gunfire coming out of the structure.

11:38:34-Q3 and 11:38:36-Q3 an unknown subject is seen hiding in front of the tank.

11:40--FBI claims last gas grenades delivered.

11:40 Unknown male: (unintelligible) Unknown male: I want a fire around back.

11:42--Tank rams middle front of building and building debris that looks like flame is seen on front of tank.

11:43:34-Q4 is the 3rd time the tank enters the front middle section of the structure. This is the side facing the cameras from the media. The tank enters the front part of the structure on numerous occasions and is fired upon every time it enters the structure.

11:43:36-Q4 and 11:59:03-Q3 there is gunfire from the second floor front side directed at the tank.

Unknown time--Tank boom rams through window and wall of the second floor old arms' room.

11:45 Tank inserts 4 canisters of CS

11:48 Unknown male: They're gassing (unintelligible). Unknown male: (unintelligible) gas. Unknown male: (unintelligible) stay down (unintelligible) Unknown male: Let's keep that fire going (unintelligible)

11:49 Unknown person: Look out ... (sounds of running feet, tank crashing into wall)

11:52--Tank smashes into front door again. Both front doors have are pulled away from the building.

11:54 (loud crashing noise) Unknown male: ... Be cool (unintelligible)

11:56 (loud crash)

11:55-11:59--Gymnasium dog run collapses; tank smashes around inside gymnasium.

11:56--The FBI claims tank through front door destroys surveillance device.

11:56 -12:02 p.m. Approx.--Largest tank smashes through front door, finishes collapsing stairway. It probably collapses part of concrete room's ceiling, killing women and children. Tank knocks over several gallon containers of lantern fuel in south end of chapel.

12:01--A loudspeaker message mocks Koresh: "David, we are facilitating you leaving the compound by enlarging the door. David, you have had your 15 minutes of fame. . .Vernon is no longer the Messiah. Leave the building now.

12:01 The last of the FBI’s listening devices went dead; a few minutes later fires broke out – ABC Ted Koppel 7/6/95 Nightline

12:03:59-Q2 unknown subject appears next to the tank in the rear of the structure.

12:04 FBI claims Davidians started fire in front hallway. Arson investigators found no fire began here......."

12:05:17-Q2 1st time the tank inserts the boom into the corner of the front tower.

12:06--Tank rips away part of the east front corner of exterior wall, ground floor level; boom smashes into second floor. "A few minutes later, from the section of the building, a flicker of orange could be seen. Survivor Renos Avraam claims tank knocked down lantern in second floor room above where tank ripped away wall and started a fire.

12:06:18 Last tank ram

12:06:24 CEV-1 leaves structure, possibly clipping southeast corner tower while turning away.

12:07 the Davidians started fires at three separate locations within the compound. At approximately the same time, an HRT observer saw a male starting a fire in the front side of the building.

12:07:41--Infrared video indicates first fire on second floor, east front

12:07:41 A small heat signature is observed in the southeast corner tower window, second floor, immediately over where CEV-1 had been operating a minute or so before.

12:07:42-Q4 the fire is now visible in the infrared spectrum coming out from the window of the second story tower.

12:08:11--Infrared photo shows large fire already developed on dining room wall and tank sitting north of collapsed gymnasium roof. News video shows tank west of dining room from which smoke is seen billowing.

12:08:12-Q4 unknown subject comes out of the tank and shows up at 12:08:51-Q3 shooting at the other unknown subject that appears at 12:08:34-Q4.

12:08:17-22--Infrared photograph shows two large flashes in end of dog run.

12:08:18 Fire detected first floor dining room.

12:08:31-Q4 and 12:08:32-Q3 a cluster of thermal anomalies appear at the corner of the gym.

12:08:31 Possible heat plume detected near gym.

12:08:34 and 12:08:44: unknown subject runs from the area where the thermal anomalies were seen, hops over rubble, and hides in gym.

12:08:34-Q4 and 12:08:44-Q4 unknown subject runs from the area where the thermal anomalies are. The subject hops over the rubble and hides in the gym.

12:08:49 A large heat signature is observed at the rear of the dining area and at the base of the tower.

12:08:51: automatic gunfire into area where previous subject hides.

12:08:51-Q3 and 12:08:52-Q3 there is automatic gunfire into the area where the unknown subject at 12:08:44-Q4 was hiding.

12:08:56 As the FLIR aircraft circles the structure, sight is lost of the southeast tower but an explosion of hot gas is observed emanating from the southeast side. This appears to be consistent with a flashover and/or backdraft of the room of original fire origin. However, a flashover may have occurred earlier while outside the visual range of the camera.

12:08:56. A flashover of the second floor room of southeast corner tower occurs, This appears on the FLIR at 12:08:56 but appears to be already in progress. The flashover could not have been observed earlier because the FLIR operator had the southeast corner tower out of the field of view.

12:09 Dallas Morning News 3/5/00 Lee Hancock "….. One investigator also says the appearance of distinctive white smoke characteristic of M-651 pyrotechnic tear gas grenades on video shot by a Waco television station about 12:09 p.m. suggests that one of the rounds might have been fired as the sect's compound began burning. "With all that we are seeing, it seems quite probable that the HRT fired more pyrotechnic rounds than they've ever fessed up to," said the investigator. "You have to remember: They were running out of tear gas that day." …..Congressional committees and the office of Waco special counsel John C. Danforth are looking into the matter with the Rangers' help…..Video footage recorded by Waco television station KWTX at about 12:09 p.m., just after the compound fire began, shows wisps of white smoke moving low to the ground from the side to the front of the compound. That smoke is similar to the white plumes that appeared in an area where FBI agents fired pyrotechnic tear gas grenades at that area earlier in the day. A CBS television crew recorded video footage of the agents opening a Bradley hatch to fire that M-651 and the appearance of billowing white smoke where that device landed. One investigator said the appearance of similar white smoke after noon raises concerns because it is strikingly different from the black smoke rising from the burning building. He said it is also being looked at closely because it appeared well before the fire became hot and big enough to spread to the ground surrounding the building. ......"

12:09:02-Q3 rear tank leaves the area.

12:09:07 Tank departs after demolsing gym.

12:09:12 A large heat signature appears in the front windows of the southeast tower. A long heat signature is observed streaming in the wind and spreading to the adjoining roof of the front of the structure.

12:09:25--Infrared photo shows second floor front fire is well developed. Tank sits outside church area throughout fire.

12:09:31 A very large heat signature, consistent with fire and hot smoke, is seen breaking out around the eaves of the southeast tower.

12:09:44 A very large heat signature, consistent with hot smoke, gas or flame, is seen at the rear of the structure in the vicinity of the dining room area.

12:09:45--Chapel fire first visible on infrared. Approximate time Graeme Craddock escapes from the west side of chapel and makes way to concrete building next to water tower. He hears gun shots fired from within building and "elsewhere.

12:09:50 A small heat signature is observed in the windows of the chapel on the southeast side of the structure.

12:10--One FBI agent 300 yards south of building claims he sees a man start fire near the piano, in the area where front doors had been. News video shows no fire in this area for at least another 5 minutes. Another FBI agent north of building notes collapse of gymnasium.

12:10 St. Louis Post-Dispatch 1/29/2000 Terry Ganey "..... At 12:10 p.m. on April 19 the overhead FLIR footage shows at least two automatic weapons being fired into the rear of the dining room, the only remaining undamaged exit from the now-burning building. According to a Justice Department report, at least 15 people were found shot to death at this location. ..."

12:10:00 A small heat signature is observed in the windows along the back of the front corridor of the structure and is consistent with hot gas, smoke and possibly flame travelling down the corridor.

12:10:22 A growing heat signature is observed in the wreckage of the gym and is consistent with fire growth from the chapel.

12:10:40--Infrared photo shows room between chapel and collapsed gymnasium on fire and dining room wall fully inflamed. Gymnasium fire meets chapel fire. After this point fire burns too brightly for infrared video to be of use.

12:10:41 to 12:11:15 numerous rounds shot from center of courtyard, directed at structure……Past this point, nothing of importance since fire overloads FLIR, but visible media and the soundtrack of FLIR indicates that gunfire did continue…….He notes that events at 11:24:31, 11:24:35 and 11:28:14 may have involved more than one shot……..He notes that a pattern was apparent: Davidian return fire only occurred following penetration of the building by an armored vehicle. "Total number of events that occurred between 10:41:57 and 12:16:13: 198."

12:11 Fire is rapidly engulfing entire building.

12:11:02 A very large heat signature emanates from the southeast corner, dining area and gymnasium. Hot fire brands are seen blowing off of corner tower roof and landing in vicinity of the dining area.

12:11:05 Firebrands are seen blowing off of the southeast corner tower roof and are sucked into hole in chapel area wall by ambient external wind and internal venturi effects…."

12:12--An FBI agent notes fire in gymnasium.

12:12 the compound was on fire in several locations. At 12:12 p.m., SSRA Sage broadcasted an urgent message to Koresh not to put the people through this (the fire), and to lead them out to safety.

12:13--The FBI calls fire department.

12:13 the FBI requested assistance from the fire department.

12:16 a male left the compound from the second floor roof. At first, he refused assistance from the FBI. Two minutes later he jumped off the roof and surrendered.

12:20-12:25 Approx.--Four story tower collapses. News videos show tank smashing into front of building as it burns, possibly preventing Davidians from escaping. Chief negotiator Byron Sage has a trophy photograph taken of himself with the burning Mount Carmel in the background. Huge fire ball explodes near concrete room.

12:20 - 12:30, seven additional individuals came out of the compound and were arrested. At approximately 3:10 p.m., the last survivor emerged from the compound. A total of nine Davidians survived the fire.

12:25 and/or 12:30--Agents report sounds of gunfire inside Mount Carmel Center. About same time SWAT team video footage indicates gunfire which might be coming from outside building.

12:25 numerous agents heard what they described as "systematic" gunfire in the compound. The gunfire was described as "systematic," as opposed to rounds "cooking off" from the intense heat of the fire. Several agents believed at the time that the Davidians were either killing themselves or each other.

12:34--Fire vehicles arrive, but are held back by the FBI.

12:34 the fire trucks arrived; however, because of the danger of gunfire, firefighting efforts did not begin until 12:41 p.m.

16:00 3/10/00 "……[David] Keys, a 17-year veteran of the Texas Department of Public Safety, said that about 4 p.m. on April 19, over an hour before Texas Rangers took possession of the Mt. Carmel site, his superiors ordered him to permit a white van to enter the area "to pick up a body," according to James Brannon, an attorney for the plaintiffs. The trooper said he saw an empty body bag inside the van. …. When the white van left the compound, Keys said he saw the body bag containing what looked like the shape of a corpse, Brannon said. "The van that Keys saw could only have been kept secret, at that level, by the military," Brannon told reporters……"Keys also says that he saw something as big as a door being loaded into a U-Haul truck. One of the doors from Mount Carmel has been missing since the day of the fire - the door that might prove that during the Feb. 28 raid, the ATF fired first," Brannon added. …..Keys also testified that earlier on April 19, 1993, while he was at the DPS Waco commando center, he overheard an FBI agent say that a "firefight" was under way at the back of the Mount Carmel compound, Brannon said. …."

Freeper Ol’ Dan Tucker: "….Here's a list I compiled of the gunshot wound victims, the locations where their remains were recovered and the type of wounds they suffered. Click on the locations to see the body recovery chart.

7 - Steve Schneider - gunshot wound, mouth
8 - David Koresh - gunshot wound, mid-forehead

20 - Jimmy Riddle - gunshot wound, mid-forehead
21 - Steven Henry - gunshot wounds
22 - Phillip Henry - multiple gunshot wounds, head and upper torso

Inside Pantry
31A - Aisha Summers - gunshot wound to the left chest
31D-E - parts of human skull, 11-14 yrs., gunshot wound to left skull
43 - Lisa Ferris - gunshot wound to the left head
44 - John Doe - gunshot wound to the left chest
45 - Mary Jean Borst - gunshot wound of the back
47 - Jane Doe - gunshot wound to the head
53 - Jane Doe 5-5.5 yrs. - gunshot wound to the left chest
66 - Jane Doe - gunshot wounds to the left back and thorax
67-B - infant - gunshot wound to the head

Pantry Roof
34 - Sonobe - gunshot wound of the head
35 - Shari Doyle - gunshot wound left posterior head
36 - David M. Jones - gunshot wound of the head
39 - Novellette Hipsman - gunshot wounds of the head and chest
41 - Neil Vaega - gunshot wound to the head ......"

Dallas Morning News 9/12/99 Lee Hancock "….A recent government audit of military assistance during the standoff stated that the FBI's arsenal at Waco included 250 40-mm high-explosive rounds. Bureau officials have said they do not know why the rounds were obtained from Fort Hood, Texas, but they have said that none were used in Waco. After the compound fire, a Ranger found a strange shell casing among debris left by the FBI. Rangers who were military veterans said at the time that the it looked like a ``thumper round,'' a high-explosive Army munition, the report indicated. ….."

Dallas Morning News 2/24/00 Lee Hancock "… Local firefighters were kept away for almost 45 minutes after they responded to the blaze. Mr. Jamar later said he could not let them near the compound sooner for fear that sect members could have shot them. But Mr. Caddell said Wednesday that Mr. Coulson's testimony could strengthen the sect's claims about government negligence in failing to prepare adequately for a fire. "He acknowledged that the attorney general had instructed them to ensure that adequate firefighting equipment was there and told them that cost was not an issue," Mr. Caddell said. "The FBI had acknowledged investigating the use of armored firefighting equipment, but for reasons unknown to Mr. Coulson, they didn't have any." Instead, draft plans for the tear-gassing indicate, FBI officials decided to rely on the closest nearby civilian fire department. That largely volunteer department then had only three paid employees, FBI records indicate……"

The Dallas Morning News 3/2/00 Lee Hancok "….. Federal prosecutor's notes stated that one agent reported firing "three rounds into kitchen & at same time less than 30 sec later he saw white smoke." That agent fired military pyrotechnic tear gas rounds at a bunker near the compound in the first hours of the gas assault. Ms. Reno banned the use of any devices capable of sparking fires that day. ..."

Transcript of White House Press Briefing by George Stephanopoulos 4/20/93 "…..
MR. STEPHANOPOULOS:……. Once we were fairly clear on what was happening on the ground in Waco, the President issued a statement. He spoke with the Attorney General again yesterday evening.
Q At what hour was that?
MR. STEPHANOPOULOS: It was quite late. I believe it was after he returned from the Holocaust Museum. He took a tour of the Holocaust Museum last night. ….. 4/19/93 "....REMARKS OF THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES AL GORE AT THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE WARSAW GHETTO UPRISING WARSAW, POLAND ........A half century has passed since the Nazis set out to destroy the Jewish Ghetto here in Warsaw. Hitler had long since decided to exterminate the Jews in a world where few could believe that any government could deliberately, methodically, and ruthlessly carry out the mass murder of millions. Indeed, not even the Jews themselves could at first grasp the full truth about the horror being inflicted upon them. But the Jews of the Warsaw Ghetto fought back. And on this April day fifty years ago, the Nazis were stunned by the fierce resistance into temporary retreat. For weeks, a few hundred poorly armed freedom fighters fought on against impossible odd with their greatest weapon the courage of a righteous cause.....Those who seek power through violence and oppression, rather than the consent of the governed, ignore the bitter lessons of history. Tonight, petty tyrants in other lands seek to distract their people by finding someone different--a different religion, a different ethnic identity, a different heritage of any kind--as a target against which to focus fear and hatred and oppression....."

St. Louis Post-Dispatch 1/29/2000 Terry Ganey "..... Congressional investigator March Bell says the treatment of those bodies was "very troubling. The bodies were preserved in a semi-frozen state in two trailers for the purposes of investigation. For some reason those trailers under the control of the FBI were allowed to not have any electricity running to them and the bodies deteriorated beyond the point where any sort of forensic evidence could be gathered. We were very disturbed by that." Indeed, the scene of the massacre was declared a "bio-hazard," and since the FBI had predetermined this was a mass suicide, "The FBI investigators were instructed to sift, wash, and bleach the evidence associated with the bodies, destroying much of its evidentiary value." ..."

St. Louis Post-Dispatch 1/29/2000 Terry Ganey ".....The FBI bulldozed the "bunker" to rubble. Six years later, in 1999, when Davidian attorneys were granted permission to recover the portion that might bear traces of the explosive used, that portion of the bunker ceiling was found to be missing. Gen. Partin concludes the rudimentary gunpowder possessed by the Branch Davidians would not have been capable of blowing that hole through six inches of reinforced concrete. Special Forces Sgt. Steven Barry reports the damage inside the records vault was "consistent with a shaped charge," as does retired USAF ordnance engineer Col. Jack Frost. "In military operations, it's standard procedure to do this," Barry explains, in order to reduce casualties among the attacking forces...."

Capitol Hill Blue 10/9/99 Jim Burns "....A now retired US Army Colonel who assisted the FBI at the Branch Davidian siege in Waco, Texas in 1993 says the feds knew from the very beginning the breakaway religious group's plans to destroy the compound. Colonel Rodney Rawlings of Austin, Texas said recently in a news story "You could hear everything from the very beginning, as it was happening." Rawlings said he heard bug transmissions from speakers in an FBI monitoring room at the FBI's main Waco command post……. Rawlings told the Dallas Morning News, "Among the most chilling transmissions was Mr. Koresh's order to set the fires, a command followed by the sounds of gunshots. The bugs then broadcast the voice of Mr. Koresh declaring that God did not want him to die, and his chief lieutenant's response that the sect leader wasn't going to get out of this."....."

The New American 3/93 Robert W Lee "….. In the wake of the tragic fire, FBI spokesman Bob Ricks told reporters on April 19th that one of the surviving sect members reported that the children had been safely placed in a bunker before flames swept the compound. "It appears that this was one final lie on David's part to assure the people that the children had been taken care of," Ricks asserted. "It appears once again his final act to the American public was to go through a lie." But on May 14th, the Associated Press revealed, "As it turned out, it was no lie: Most of the children were found huddled in the concrete bunker, enveloped in the protective embraces of their mothers."

Friends in High Places 9/13/99 Webb Hubbell excerpt pages 207-218 "….We had a phone hookup with the commander in an armored vehicle. He kept mentioning the wind. ….. No one wanted to admit that the plan wasn't working……The President called for Janet at 10 A.M. She told him we were hopeful. No agents had been hurt and we just had to be patient. He said let him know if anything changed….. No longer were the vehicles "merely" inserting gas; they were now pushing down the walls of the compound. Director Sessions explained that the field commander was afraid Koresh was holding people against their will. They were opening an escape route. This, he said, was also part of the plan-it was just happening sooner than expected. I stared at the TV. Where were the people? Why wasn't the gas working? Then I saw smoke coming from a window. "Oh, shit," I said. Everyone in the room turned and looked at me….….The White House was on the line; they wanted a report. I had to phone Janet and give her the news. …….…."

".In Jakarta, James Riady likes to brag about where he was on the afternoon of April 19, 1993…... As might be expected, the White House was a busy place that afternoon, and the president was preoccupied. Bill Clinton was not too distracted, however, to chat with his leading contributors James Riady, John Huang, and Mark Grobmeyer in his little study off the Oval Office*. James Riady later told Indonesian diplomats that, during their chat, a television in the corner showed the Waco compound burning "over and over" as CNN repeated its coverage. Bill Clinton even took time to show his visitors the White House Situation Room, then on Full Alert **. White House logs confirm that James Riady and his companion were in the presidential offices (West Named) of the White House that day. …"11/17/98 from the Year of the Rat:

Freeper Jolly 4/21/93 San Diego Union-Tribune Tom Blair "…SD Democratic Rep. Bob Filner was told Monday's dinner (April 19th) was to be a gathering of intimate friends in celebration of the 32nd birthday of Coronado's Shelia Lawrence. Among the handful of intimates at Georgetown's 1789 restaurant: Pres. Bill Clinton, who managed to get away from the White House for about 45 minutes, despite the unraveling Waco crisis. Filner says the president poked at his food before finally yielding to the temptation of the crabcakes. (Shelia and husband M. Larry Lawrence, the Hotel del Coronado owner, have taken a second home at Georgetown; a major Clinton supporter last year, Shelia's been mentioned for a White House protocol post.) . . . "

Following the fire, the FBI and Texas Rangers searched the remains of the compound. The search uncovered the remains of most of the Davidians who perished. The search also uncovered over 100 firearms, including .50 caliber weapons and fully automatic assault rifles, and approximately 400,000 rounds of ammunition. In addition, the ATF assembled an arson team consisting of experts from around the country. The arson team concluded that the Davidians had started the fire at three separate places inside the compound, and that the FBI's actions did not cause the fire. The arson team also concluded that the Davidians could have escaped the fire if they had wanted.

The bodies of Koresh and Schneider were found in the communication room of the compound.
Koresh and others in the compound were acutely aware of the secular consequences of their acts. Texas has the death penalty by lethal injection


April 20, 1993

Wilcher received initial information that Waco was a mass murder

April 23, 1993

Unlimited Access 1996 Gary Aldrich pp 144-5 "…On 19 April 1993 1 was working at the White House on some investigative reports, when my wife called and told me to turn on the television. I asked what channel. She said any channel….. As soon as the initial shock was over, I listened in disbelief as the White House and Janet Reno claimed we'd just witnessed a "mass suicide." That's not what it looked like to me….On 23 April, four days after the burning of the Branch Davidian compound, I again listened to President Clinton try to explain to the nation why and how such a nightmare had occurred. He steered attention away from the White House, which had approved the plan of attack on cult leader David Koresh, and focused on the FBI for having developed the harebrained scheme in the first place. But knowing the FBI as I did, I was virtually certain that Janet Reno had been presented with a variety of options. I was sitting in Deborah Coyle's office when the president walked around the corner….. "Hello, Mr. President. I'm Gary Aldrich, one of the two FBI agents assigned here at the White House." "Well, FBI, huh? Howdja like the way I defended the FBI just now-did you hear the press conference I just gave?" What was I supposed to say? That I had just about gagged when I heard him lay the entire mess at the FBI's door? "Mr. President, since you asked, I must say I'm just a little confused at the characterization of this as a mass suicide. I can't see how children can make a decision to commit suicide." "Well, hmm, ah, well, these kids were badly abused. Reminds me of a similar circumstance in Roman times, when the forces of. . . " …."


April 26, 1993

International Workers Bulletin 4/26/93 "... There was no talk of constitutional rights for the Branch Davidians; none of whom was ever convicted of a criminal offense before they were wiped out to the last man, woman and child. The actions of the Clinton administration are far more dangerous and its defense of the Waco massacre far more chilling than anything done or said by David Koresh and his band of fundamentalists..... " Freeper remark "It seems that even the Marxists among us were onto this one...."

April 27, 1993

Wilcher received confirmation of the April 20th information

April 28, 1993

Fort Worth Star-Telegram 9/2/99 "…It was April 28, 1993, and Attorney General Janet Reno, in a dramatic standoff with Republican critics, had gone before the House Judiciary Committee and claimed none of the tear-gas devices fired at the Branch Davidian compound on the tragic last day of the siege was capable of causing the inferno that ended the ordeal. ``I wanted and received assurances that the gas and its means of use were not pyrotechnic,'' Reno said in a jammed House hearing room before a panel considered the most partisan in Congress……"

Months after 4/19/93

The Dallas Morning News 08/27/99 Lee Hancock "......……In the months after the Waco tragedy, Mr. Cullen said, he heard from associates in Delta Force that the secret unit's involvement there amounted to far more than observation or tactical discussions…........Since he resigned, Mr. Cullen has appeared on the PBS documentary program Frontline to discuss his involvement in the Special Forces' operations in Somalia, a deployment that ended in tragedy when U.S. Army Blackhawk helicopters were downed and Special Forces soldiers died in a Mogadishu gunbattle…….. Immediately after the Branch Davidian standoff began, Mr. Cullen said, he learned from associates within the CIA and Special Forces that the FBI had called in Delta Force personnel "as observers." ……. "The bureau was very concerned. They weren't quite sure what David Koresh had inside that building anyway," Mr. Cullen said. "They were leaning on Delta. If there was something that blew up in their faces, they were interested in having Delta on the scene to respond and be fully equipped, operational and ready to go on a moment's notice." ..Documents released under the federal Freedom of Information Act to a Tucson, Ariz., lawyer indicate that the military's Special Forces Operations Command at MacDill Air Force Base in Florida was heavily involved in helping the FBI in Waco. Military personnel provided technical and equipment support, the defense records indicate. …….The command oversees Delta Force, Navy Seals and other units…….….. The chairman of the Texas Department of Public Safety told The News on Thursday that evidence in the hands of Texas law enforcement personnel may support the account given to Mr. Cullen. "I'm advised there is some evidence that may corroborate" the allegation that Delta Force participated in the assault, said James B. Francis Jr., the DPS official. …….

May, 1993

The Dallas Morning News 9/15/99 David Jackson Lee Hancock "….A May 1993 report from a Ranger who led the search of the house indicated that an FBI hostage rescue team member turned over 11 of the .308 caliber shells and all 24 .223 shell casings to the Rangers on the day after the compound burned. The report stated that the agent and his FBI colleagues "took custody" of the casings during the siege. Three days later, Rangers searched the house themselves and found two additional shell casings, including one .308 shell stuck under a closet door and another shell of unspecified caliber buried in sand from sandbags, the May 1993 Ranger's report indicated. But the Ranger, Sgt. Ronny Griffith, testified in 1994 that he could not determine where any of the shell casings came from. Asked whether the casings all came from ATF weapons, he responded, "I don't know for sure."…."

Dallas Morning News 8/27/99 Lee Hancock "… A once-classified memo written to the Army Special Forces command, which includes Delta Force, indicated that three of its personnel watched the final tragedy unfold. The May 1993 memo stated that the observers did not participate and were warned not to videotape anything that happened. Mr. Francis said evidence in the hands of Texas law enforcement suggests that more than three Delta Force personnel were at the compound on April 19 and involved in the assault. "I have been advised that there are some police officers who have developed some evidence that needs looking into with regard to what the role of Delta Force was at the Branch Davidian compound," he said, declining to elaborate. "I think it's a subject that the FBI director and the attorney general need to look into," Mr. Francis said. "The $64 question is whether they were advisory or operational, and I think some of the evidence is problematical" …. …."


May 3, 1993

Wilcher received specific information on how the April 20<SUP>th</SUP> information was carried out


May 5, 1993

Wilcher's originally scheduled appointment with Reno

May 12, 1993

The New American 3/93 Robert W Lee "….. Filtering fact from fiction in the wake of the disastrous confrontation between federal agents and the Branch Davidian religious sect led by self-styled "prophet" David Koresh will be quite a task. Crucial evidence and key witnesses were consumed by the fire that destroyed the sect's complex near Waco, Texas on April 19th. Then on May 12th, government officials, citing a need to fill holes and cover trash and raw sewage for safety and health reasons, rolled bulldozers across the burned-out ruins, further depleting the inventory of evidence. Moreover, many important aspects of the entire 51-day standoff have become muddled as federal agencies and officials struggle to justify their actions….."

May 13, 1993

Freeper jedediah smith 4/19/00 Army experts advised Reno on Waco Jeff Nesmith/Cox News Service ".......... Army terrorist experts, including the commander of the top secret "Delta Force," attended the 1993 meeting at which Attorney General Janet Reno approved use of tear gas against members of the Branch Davidian group near Waco, Texas. It is the first indication that the Delta Force, whose presence at the fatal raid was disclosed this week, was involved in planning the operation. ........ Documents released to Cox Newspapers on Friday by the FBI indicate that Col. William G. Boykin, then commander of the Delta Force, and Brig. Gen. Peter J. Schoomaker, then the assistant division commander of the First Cavalry Division at Fort Hood, Texas, were the previously unidentified officers who told Reno use of "CS gas," a potent form of tear gas, would make the compound "untenable." .................. Both men were among the original captains of the Delta Force when it was established by the late Army Col. Charlie Beckwith and both participated in the failed mission to rescue U.S. hostages from Iran in 1980. ........ The document, which was written on May 13, nearly a month after the fiery end of the Waco standoff, was a synopsis of an April 14 meeting involving Reno, then-FBI Director William Sessions, then-Associate Attorney General Webster Hubbell, two Army officers, an "unknown scientist (expert on CS)" from the Army and several FBI agents. ................ "In summary, we assessed that if the objective of the FBI was to make the building uninhabitable, then CS would accomplish that," the memorandum's author -- whose name was also blacked out -- stated. "We stated that it was our belief that if enough CS was inserted, eventually the inhabitants would not be able to remain inside." "Finally, the plan which was executed at Waco was an FBI plan, which neither (name deleted) nor I helped prepare," the memorandum writer said. "At the same time, I did believe that they had a reasonable chance of accomplishing their objective of forcing the occupants out of the building. Their approach was substantially different than anything that I have encountered. They were not assaulting the compound and they were not there to rescue anyone." ......."

The Dallas Morning News 08/27/99 Lee Hancock "......…….A May 1993 Special Forces memo stressed that the military in Waco played only "a supporting role." It was written by an officer who helped the FBI persuade the attorney general to approve the tear-gas assault………The officer, whose name was blacked out, stated that the discussions with Ms. Reno before the assault did not include any mention of "the use of the military." ……The memo stated that Special Forces observers who stayed in Waco through April 19 understood the legal restrictions on their activities......"….."


May 21, 1993

Wilcher gave a 100 page report to the Department of Justice. On the cover page he says "….The lives of key participants, other witnesses, and even myself are now in grave danger as a result of my passing this information to you..." This is the first outside report of Delta Force involvement at Waco - it was not confirmed until summer of 1999.

June, 1993

World Net Daily 9/14/99 Joe Farah "….Yesterday, the Fort Worth Star-Telegram reported that FBI agent Charles Riley said all the way back in June 1993 that he heard shots fired from a sniper post occupied by agent Lon Horiuchi, according to court documents filed by Branch Davidians and relatives as part of a wrongful-death suit scheduled to go to trial next month…. ….. "


Around June 11, 1993

Wilcher disappeared


June 18, 1993

(according to a memo allegedly written by Wilcher's informant/Client Russbacher) Wilcher was picked up at his apartment, questioned in Vienna, VA for about 2 hours, fed pizza and at 3:40 p.m. given .025mg of Curare via DSMO (as stabilizer) applied to the coating on a Pepsi bottle whereupon he died. His face was disfigured and his body placed in the trunk of a grey Ford Victoria (Maryland plates) and taken to his apartment where he was placed on the toilet.


June 23, 1993

From the Death Report 93-875. At 1000 hours Ms Sara McClendon called the missing persons section of the DC Police complaining of a possible missing person. Lt. Quigley responded along with the DC fire department to Wilcher's home. Paul David Wilcher's badly decomposed body was found. The report says cause unknown, found inside bathroom, wearing striped shirt. Doctor Carol McMahon pronounced him dead at 1430.


June 30, 1993

RICO civil filing was scheduled with Judge Parsons in Chicago, but the judge also died similar to Wilcher and all the documents disappeared.

July, 1993

Freeper jedediah smith "……..Here is what Gunther Russbacher said about Waco in a July 1993 interview of him in prison, by Alexander Horvat:
Russbacher: Among a number of other things, he [Paul Wilcher] was also working on the Waco debacle. And I gave him stacks of information of who really went into Waco. Who in fact lit the operations, and who sanctioned them. And it was not the FBI.
Horvat: Or the BATF.
Russbacher: Of course not.
Horvat: OK.
Russbacher: It was Delta Group Special Forces.
Horvat: They were there.
Russbacher: They were not only there, but the Special Operations Group from those symbiotic units went in. If you'll remember at the time when Waco went down, directly, approximately 15-20 minutes before all hell, fury broke loose, you saw a helicopter overhead. And winching, people were being inserted into the compound. Into the building proper.
Horvat: OK.
Russbacher: And the intent was not to leave any living survivors.
Horvat: But there were some.
Russbacher: Yeah, there were, much to everybody's chagrin and regret.
Horvat: Yeah, and really nothing's ever been heard from them since.
Russbacher: How do we even know they're even still alive?
Horvat: Yeah, well-
Russbacher: How about the ones that were taken into "protective custody?"
Horvat: True, true. Yeah, we haven't heard anything from any of those folks-
Russbacher: How about the ones that were charged, formally charged, they weren't contemplating formally charging in United States district court?
Horvat: Oh, no doubt about it, very suspicious.
Russbacher: Absolutely……


July 1, 1993

Gunther Russbacher smuggled the alleged memo out of prison via handwritten notes. He writes in all caps "RENO IS IN ON ALL OF IT" and in the left margin "Sessions has been notified."


July 9, 1993

In another three pages attached to the Wilcher report, obviously not written by Wilcher and somewhat contradictory to his report, very curiously dated July 9, 1993 - there are clues as to the identity of the WMD we were looking for in the "Theory" threads. It is titled "Discussions with William Sessions" and "Do not publish names. Quid pro quo" The quid pro quo is for safety of the ones who wish to come forward about Waco….. Names are omitted from the excerpt below:

  1. Purpose of the Waco raid was to target and remove seven sleepers (MK-Ultra) who refused to adhere to ASA and DIA standards…..
  2. Waco compound members had almost completed assembly of a nerve gas toxin devise massive/large enough in quantity to target and destroy all organic life in 432 square mile area. A city the size of Oklahoma City was intended. However, Houston, Texas was designated as principal target……Method of dispersal was propeller craft with running air speeds of no more than 60 miles per hour. Max cross seeding to be done at 2500 feet for East-West axis, with 2000 feet for North-South axis.
  3. The device in Waco was in very few hours of completion. Order to go in was not made by Executive Branch!!! Orders assumed "Code Actual" when the infiltrator agent residing within the complex stated "Code Blue." At that time our man (redacted) had pulled out. ATF had men in place (inside) up until two days before siege began.
  4. Reno spoke with (redacted) about a D.G.F. insertion. Reno acted as if she knew nothing about the real problem – the device!


  1. Material for the device was appropriated through A/F 1324-B. The nitrate component was acquired from Ft. Devens, MA; the volatility stabilizers were brought, via truck, from Ft Mead, MD. All raw and processed materials was provided from military stores. The gravity fuse detonators were acquired from Carewell USAF, Ft. Worth, TX.
  2. Transport personnel was found from AAA services: a subsidiary of Snelling of St. Paul, MN. There were 2 ATF officers from Galveston in the compound as the shipments arrived.
  3. Technical assistance in handling and construction were flown in to Dallas from Dover, Delaware. The techs were ASA and USA Chem Corps personnel (redacted.) CHEMICAL RAW WEIGHT – PRIOR TO (CHEMOPECTRA) SEPARATION - UNKNOWN
  4. Molten metal fused to Kitchen appliances – 65kg of sulfur/zinc volatile mass. It did not ignite past prima stage!!! The cerebro neuro toxins of the C-2 nerve gas propellant ignited under a stress measure of .25pnd/PSI, causing neuro-toxins to incinerate at 0 level. Immediate reports were unavailable for 11 hours (according to media because it was too hot to enter) due to unresolved neuro-toxic density at 0 level (entire first squad wore toxic suits and double masks.) Total recovered mass at incineration site-124 pounds(+-) Numerous base mineral clusters were found fused to small ordnance. That means: the device was in 5 parts, kept in separate munitions bunkers (level 2&3.) The mineral/gaseous mass found at ground 0 were massed to various kitchen appliances and indicate that the compound of the mass was jellied! (color believed to have ranged from green to dark olive green- prior to incineration.) Incineration occurred through the introduction of 80/90 MM 20 pound glycerine canisters which hold a flash point of 175F to accelerate the focused flash point. A C-2/4 tear gas (canister form) was inserted via 90MM Bradley barrels into the ripped structure to facilitate ignition. A combination of Oxygen and dimethyl alcohol was injected into the structure at intervals. Ignition occurred electronically; ignition for secondaries was delivered via mercury acid fuses located at canister base.

DFG removed themselves from acute perimeter by doning ATF blue jackets and baseball caps. DFG blended with ingoing ATF as they meandered back and forth to their command vehicle. The amount of lives saved at ground 0=7.

Inserted team terminated 12 by projectile to the base of skull or forehead, 10 minutes before incineration commenced.

End of report.



July 19, 1993

William Sessions FBI Director was abruptly fired.


July 20, 1993

Deputy White House Counsel Vince Foster was found dead of an apparent suicide in Fort Marcy Park, just outside Washington, D.C. That evening, White House aides Patsy Thomasson and Margaret Williams, led by then White House Counsel Bernard Nussbaum, secretly searched Foster's office and removed key documents

Fall, 1993

Independence Institute Homepage 1996 David Kopel Paul Blackman "…The fall 1993 Treasury Department report on the BATF raid on the Branch Davidians insisted that the investigation of alleged drug use was valid.[46] Treasury reasoned that the sheriff's office had planned to collect the lab equipment but found no record it had done so, "raising the possibility that the illegal equipment might still have been at the Compound."[47] The Treasury Report ignores the fact that Marc Breault (a disaffected ex-Davidian), the source for BATF's information that there had once been a meth lab at Mount Carmel, simultaneously told BATF agent Davy Aguilera that the building in which the meth lab was housed had burned down in Spring 1990.[48] Koresh was thoroughly anti-drug, and it is improbable that he would have started operating a methamphetamine lab after telling the sheriff about its presence.

October, 1993

THE WASHINGTON TIMES 2/14/00 Bill Gertz "….. The Justice Department did not prosecute the former head of its intelligence division despite his admission to investigators that he disclosed classified information, The Washington Times has learned. Richard Scruggs, a friend of Attorney General Janet Reno's, who brought him to Washington, provided secret information to two reporters about an electronic eavesdropping FBI operation against the Japanese group Aum Shin Rikyo in 1995, according to Justice Department officials familiar with the case. ….. Mr. Scruggs worked with Miss Reno when she was a prosecutor in Florida and was offered a job on her Justice Department staff in the early 1990s. He was placed in charge of writing the 350-page "after action report" on the Justice Department's handling of the Branch Davidian standoff. The report was submitted in October 1993, six months after the incident……Some officials suggested Mr. Scruggs was not punished for disclosing intelligence because of his friendship with Miss Reno and because he helped protect her from criticism after the Waco affair….."

Washington Times 9/14/99 Jerry Seper ".........In an Oct. 30, 1993, report, the Justice Department said the FBI and the ATF acted responsibly during the siege and that Branch Davidian leader David Koresh was to blame for the carnage. Records show the FBI told Justice within months of the raid it had used incendiary devices, but the department never made the information available to Congress or the public....."

Omitted on the official reports:

1. The hole in the roof of the bunker - which smacks of high explosives and special military training, and

2. The ATF dealings with the military prior to the failed raid - they were requesting Close Quarters Combat/Close Quarters Battle training by U.S. Army Special Forces - and were dealing with senior officers (

The Dallas Morning News 9/13/99 Lee Hancock "….Some of those defense attorneys still harshly criticize Johnston. Several note that they learned only after the trial that one government memo suggested Johnston had stopped an ATF internal review of the initial raid because it was uncovering evidence that might help the Davidian defendants. Johnston says he knew nothing about the memo, written by a Treasury Department official. The prosecutor said he stopped the ATF inquiry only because he knew that senior ATF officials were lying about what had gone wrong in their raid and he believed the matter needed to be investigated by an outside agency. He remains bitter that the ATF's two raid commanders weren't prosecuted for lying to Texas Rangers about how the raid went wrong. The two men, Chuck Sarabyn and Phil Chojnacki, have denied wrongdoing. Johnston said the case was derailed in Washington. ``There are lingering issues of accountability in this case,'' Johnston said. ``The Rangers and I both hoped and expected they would be prosecuted. The public deserved that.'' …."

A review of the FBI's tear-gas assault exonerates the FBI and Justice Department. Later, Harvard professor Alan Stone files a dissenting report blaming the FBI. - The Associated Press 7/21/00


October 8, 1993

Washington Post 9/3/99 Richard Leiby "…The Justice Department's voluminous report on the FBI's actions at Waco notes: "The gas delivery systems the FBI used were completely nonincendiary." Delivered on Oct. 8, 1993, the report was written by a special assistant to Reno, Richard Scruggs, now a federal prosecutor in Florida…..."

December, 1993

Washington Times 9/14/99 Jerry Seper ".........In a December 1993 report, the FBI said it had found "a fired U.S. military 40 mm shell casing which originally contained a CS gas round" and two other "expended 40 mm tear gas projectiles." That information was listed on the last page of a 49-page report the FBI gave to Justice and the Rangers. Justice said last week only the first 48 pages of the report were turned over to Congress, which held hearings on the siege in mid-1995......


Washington Post 9/3/99 Richard Leiby "…In 1994, a Waco television reporter, Joe Calao, found footage of what appears to be smoke rising near the Davidians' storm shelter between 7:30 and 8:30 a.m. on April 19, hours before the fire started shortly after noon. Calao said he consulted numerous tear gas experts, who concluded that the FBI must have been using pyrotechnic rounds that morning, based on the clouds of smoke and gas. Calao said he contacted the Justice Department for comment, and then-spokesman Carl Stern told him the camera must have captured a cloud of dirt, not smoke. Stern said this week he was relaying what he'd been told by Scruggs and others who had conducted the official inquiry, that no burning tear gas rounds were used. By 1996, Calao's footage came to the attention of attorneys who had filed a wrongful death suit for the relatives and estates of the dead Davidians against the federal government. A photograph of a 40mm munition found at the scene surfaced in the civil lawsuit, suggesting that the FBI had fired a type of tear gas ordnance it had never disclosed. …."

Dallas Morning News 9/12/99 Lee Hancock "….The report also indicates that some evidence initially reported missing during the 1994 criminal trial had inexplicably reappeared. Among the items found by Mr. McNulty during his visits to the evidence lockers was a watch cap worn by a Branch Davidian who was shot to death by ATF agents as he tried to approach the embattled compound on Feb. 28. ATF agents testified that they shot the man, Michael Schroeder, nine times after he fired first at them. He was shot several times in the head, and DPS photographs of his body showed that he was wearing a watch cap when he died. But defense attorneys for the Branch Davidians were told that the cap couldn't be found before the criminal trials. McNulty said the hat contains visible residues that should be tested to determine whether Schroeder was shot at close range or ``finished off.''…."

During 1994 the BATF started visiting private gun owners who held FFLs and hitting them with zoning violations, even though they were in compliance with all state and local regulations. The BATF offered to "drop" the charges if the FFLs were surrendered. Most people did so. – Michael Rivero

January, 1994

Dallas Morning News 9/12/99 Lee Hancock "….After the compound fire, a Ranger found a strange shell casing among debris left by the FBI. Rangers who were military veterans said at the time that the it looked like a ``thumper round,'' a high-explosive Army munition, the report indicated. The Ranger said he was approached by an FBI agent in January 1994, just before the Ranger testified in the federal criminal trial against 11 Branch Davidians. He said the FBI agent reported that the shell was used against a door ``in an attempt to knock it down.'' The shell was ultimately identified as part of a CS gas round, but the account raises questions about what else the FBI may have used….."

January 14, 1994

Investigators Revered Roger Howard, his 17 year old son Manual Howard and James Ray Dobbins – died 1/14/94 – they were hit and struck by a car with 2 men in it. The accident was witnessed by a lady who called for an ambulance. The 2 men fled the scene. Other investigators have been followed.

February 1994

Jury convicts five Branch Davidians of voluntary manslaughter and two of weapons charges. - The Associated Press 7/21/00


April, 1994

Daily Oklahoman - Scripps Howard News Service 9/3/99 John Parker "…It was April 1994, a year after the Branch Davidian standoff ended in disaster, when Bob Ricks had his chance to quiz Attorney General Janet Reno. He had finished his job as chief FBI spokesman during the 51-day siege outside Waco, Texas, but it still bothered him that the Justice Department later ordered agents, he said, not to speak about the operation. Reno was in Oklahoma City to promote a congressional crime bill and met with employees of the local FBI office. ``I said, 'You probably don't realize it, but in the Midwest, Waco is still extremely a big deal out here, and it's the subject of much conversation. As you know, we've been ordered not to respond or say anything, and I think that that could ultimately end up being a problem,''' Ricks said Friday…… The ex-agent said Reno replied, "I don't think the American people care about Waco anymore." A Justice Department spokesman said Reno denies making the comment…."

April 29, 1994

At 1:50 PM the BATF raided the Slidelle Louisiana home of Ron and Elaine Miller. They kicked down the doors, used a torch on the floors of the house and destroyed a family vehicle in the search for weapons. They then left taking every weapon in the house including a knife collection. They made several mistakes including not bothering to have the search warrant signed before they broke down Mr. Miller's door. – Michael Rivero

May, 1994

The Treasury report describes the involvement of Army Special Forces from Fort Bragg in South Carolina in training BATF agents at Fort Hood. It asserts they simply constructed stand-alone windows for practicing breaking and entering, outlined the dimensions of Mount Carmel with marking tape, and gave agents medical and communications training. In a May, 1994 article James Pate revealed "military sources" told him that Special Forces trained BATF agents in the use of flash-bang grenades. Moreover, they allegedly trained them "after hours" in techniques of "room-clearing, fire-and-maneuver and building takedown," methods of indiscriminate killing of uncooperative enemy forces--and "subjects Special Forces are forbidden to teach civilian law enforcement." Pate writes that a source told him: "Are we worried about being found out? Of course we're worried. . .- The Davidian Massacre by Carol Moore

May 25, 1994

The BATF raided the home of Harry and Theresa Lamplugh, who promoted gun shows. The BATF started in the morning and refused to allow either Harry of Theresa to dress until the BATF left at 3 PM, after trashing the place (and leaving the remains of the BATF's pizza lunch all over the floor). Typical of the BATF's actions that day was female agent Donna Slusser, who deliberately stomped to death a cherished Manx kitten, and kicked it under a tree. When the Lamplugh's lawyer requested a copy of the warrant for the raid, the local federal judge sealed it and it remains sealed to this day. When the Lamplughs went public, they were subjected to death threats and harassment. – Michael Rivero

July 13, 1994

Dressed in their Ninja-style outfits, agents of the BATF stormed into the bedroom of 21-year-old Monique Montgomery. The BATF says it was looking for drugs in the home of the St. Louis woman, but it found none. (The BATF does not have jurisdiction in drug cases) The BATF says it was looking for illegal guns, but it found none. As the agents knocked down this young woman's door at 4:00 a.m., Miss Montgomery , seeking to protect herself against unidentified and uninvited intruders, grabbed a firearm she lawfully owned for personal protection. The BATF shot her four times. They had raided the wrong house! – Michael Rivero


August, 1994

Roger Altman resigned in August 1994 due to his involvement in the Whitewater investigation

September, 1994

In September, 1994 the BATF raided the North Carolina Military Museum, and confiscated the museums legally owned collection of weapons and deactivated military memorabilia. – Michael Rivero



Investigator Eddie Pack – died a mysterious death from a burst of microwave energy causing cancer, he supplied footage to McNulty early on

February, 1995 Steven Mack Presley Lieutenant Commander Medical Service Corps, U.S. Navy ……C&SC Class 96 Research Paper submitted to the Faculty of the U.S. Marine Corps Command and Staff College ".........In February of 1995, President Clinton introduced a counterterrorism bill into the Senate and House of Representatives. Among other extremely controversial proposals in the bill, the Department of Defense would be assigned an increased role in assisting in the investigation of domestic terrorism incidents in which chemical and biological agents were used (currently the military can be utilized in cases of terrorism in which nuclear weapons or devices are suspected or confirmed

April 1995

Several civil lawsuits filed by family members of Branch Davidians and survivors are consolidated and transferred to U.S. District Judge Walter Smith, who presided over the criminal trial. - The Associated Press 7/21/00

April 19, 1995

Murrah Building in Oklahoma bombed, purportedly in retaliation for the Waco massacre. 136 people killed; no BATF were on site, however, as they'd taken an unannounced day off.

May, 1995

Dallas Morning News 10/14/99 Lee Hancock David Jackson ".....Already declassified military documents state that U.S. special forces went to Waco to help operate classified military equipment. A May 1995 memo states that those soldiers were ordered not to videotape anything that happened on April 19........." 8/30/99 "…In May 1995 the Washington Times obtained a copy of [Foster’s widow] her FBI interview, reporting the bombshell under the headline: "Foster Felt Waco Debacle Was 'His Fault.'" The longtime Clinton friend's distress about Waco and his own role in planning the ill-fated raid had not been previously disclosed But according to a then-newly released Justice Department report on Waco, the White House was briefed on the FBI's decision to end the standoff with tanks and tear gas six days before the April 19 conflagration. The FBI met with top Clinton aides Bernard Nussbaum, Webster Hubbell, Bruce Lindsey and Foster for 45 minutes that day…..None of Clinton's people present at the meeting voiced objections to the planned escalation, said the Times. The participants made no mention of allegations that Branch Davidian leader David Koresh had been abusing children in the compound -- the reason Attorney General Janet Reno offered later to justify the attack. Foster's death was ruled a suicide by government probers based in part on a suicide note the White House produced six days after his death. In that note one line reads: "FBI lied in their report to the AG (attorney general)." …"

May, 1995 issue of Soldier of Fortune, James Pate presents evidence that there was indeed a written plan, but that it was such a patent violation of the posse comitatus law that the military, BATF and Treasury purposely covered up its existence. Pate notes that BATF spokesperson Jack Killorin referred to a plan that was "months" old. Also, BATF Deputy Assistant Director Dan Conroy stated, "I want to once and for all, unequivocally state--the raid plan was submitted. . .It was granted 100 percent by headquarters." Then-Brigadier General John M. Pickler's order authorizing the use of Green Berets to train BATF agents notes "ATF has already planned their operation." ……Pate goes on to describe what he believes are the details of the suppressed original raid plan. A memorandum by Army Major Philip W. Lindley criticizes BATF's plan for proposing to illegally use Special Forces trainers in a plan where "civilian targets" are "to be attacked." BATF also requested Special Forces to be "in proximity" to "the target" during the raid. The original plan anticipated a significant number of casualties and BATF wanted access to Bradley vehicles from the start in order to remove them. Moreover, immediately after the failed raid, BATF again requested Bradley vehicles and did in fact contemplate a second assault on Mount Carmel on February 28th with them, something 9-1-1 tapes reveal that Davidians feared. The FBI prevented such an assault…… He also named four Green Berets who were present at Mount Carmel--wearing "civvies"--during the February 28th raid. - The Davidian Massacre by Carol Moore

July, 1995

Detroit News 7/95 David Morri s AP "….….. In testimony Friday, former FBI Director William Sessions and Hubbell were among the witnesses who defended the decision to use tear gas. Sessions, who knew at the time that Clinton was working to replace him, said the plan was carefully thought out by the FBI before Reno was asked to approve it. He also said Reno considered the request at length -- and rejected it once -before finally giving the authority to proceed…… He said he had no contact with the White House during the 51-day siege. Hubbell, one of Clinton's closest friends, said he didn't discuss Waco with the president until after the fire. He added, however, that he did inform the White House counsel's office of the decision to use gas and assumed that the lawyers notified Clinton. He also said Reno notified the president of her decision. Bernard Nussbaum, then-White House counsel, declined to testify, citing attorney-client privileg…."

Two congressional subcommittees hold joint hearings over 10 days in an attempt to provide "a full accounting" of what happened at the compound. - The Associated Press 7/21/00



July 2, 1995

Washington Post 7/2/95 Steve Higgins (former head of BATF) "…. As the former director of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF), I have personally answered my share of similarly posed questions. And I continue to be surprised - even after five sets of congressional hearings and extensive government reviews - at how much misinformation still persists about the event surrounding Waco. It's probably evidence that what people hear first is what they remember longest, even when subsequent reviews may show the original reports to have been in error……The day has long passed when we can afford to ignore the threat posed by individuals who believe they are subject only to the laws of their god and not those of our government…….With all that has transpired, what will another round of hearings tell us? ……"

July 15, 1995

Washington Times 2/10/00 Robert Charles "...... During the 1995 House Waco investigation, for example, White House Counsel Abner Mikva argued that White House documents surrounding the incident were too sensitive to be disgorged to Congress. A few mornings later, on July 15, 1995, Congress awoke to find a senior associate White House counsel had taken highly sensitive "copies of original notes" concerning Waco home with her, and these notes, placed in a gym bag, had reportedly been stolen from her car......."


July 21, 1995

Washington Times 9/20/99 Lawrence Criner "….. As Mr. Danforth begins his inquiry, he might want to look at the public record, specifically Tim Evans' testimony on July 21, 1995, before the joint House Subcommittees on Crime and National Security that conducted the last hearings on Waco. Mr. Evans' statement goes into those "dark questions" at the heart of Mr. Danforth's investigation….. Mr. Evans is a Texas defense attorney who cleared British citizen Norman Allison of false charges that he conspired to murder federal agents in Waco on the morning of the botched raid…. At the Waco hearings, Mr. Evans furnished sensitive government memoranda that showed prosecutors had instructed federal investigators not to generate any unfavorable material about "what went wrong" that might make them the subject in an inquest…… "

August 1995

FRONTLINE DOCUMENTARY 8/95 "…Excerpts from FRONTLINE interview with Dr. Nizam Peerwani, Chief Medical Examiner for the Tarrant County Medical Examiner's District, in Northcentral Texas……

Q: In your analysis of cause of death, what did you find?
A: We had a total of 33 bodies from within the bunker. There were 25 children, and the remaining were adults, mostly women, I remember there was one or two adults -- young adults, males, there. Most of them had died as a result of smoke inhalation or suffocation. And a couple of them had died as a result of blunt trauma due to collapsing debris. There was this young Jane Doe who had a fractured neck, a cervical fracture. She probably died quickly as a result of that. But there were at least three kids who had been shot to death. And one was stabbed to death. The remaining, of course, died of suffocation or smoke inhalation.
Q: Were you able to determine how many, if any of them, died prior to the fire?
A: We did discover the presence of carbon monoxide as well as evidence of inhalation in at least 50 of the victims throughout the compound. Now, remember there were some 75 bodies left in the compound, that died as a result of the 19th of April disaster. Of these, there were 50 we could document presence of carbon monoxide as well as some evidence of smoke inhalation. So we're pretty sure they were alive when the fire broke out….The remaining 25, because of state of decomposition, or perhaps because they were wearing face masks or perhaps because of the location in the bunker, we did not detect or see any smoke or any carbon monoxide present. We couldn't say with absolute certainty that all of them had perished -- perished as a result of fire. But you can say that some had died of suffocation, at least nine. There was one particular case that we didn't know why the person died. We left the cause as undetermined…….
Q: Was there any residue from the propellant used in the launching of the ferret rounds--any sort of combination of chemicals or residue?
A: No. We did a rather comprehensive drug analysis and separate cyanate studies. Cyanate, of course, is a toxic gas but usually as a result of fire also. We did pick up a small amount of cyanide in the bodies of some of the victims. In fact 40 of them had cyanide. But every living person has cyanide. Some of them had slightly higher amount of cyanide. Fire of course produces a lot of cyanide. Especially if there are plastics. And we did what is called a mass spectrometry screening for anything and everything that's possible within a certain range of spectrum. And we picked up nothing extraneous. So I can tell you that we didn't detect any propellants or any of the CS gas in the bodies.
Q: You did pick up cyanide though on 40 victims?
A: Yes.
Q: And there's no way to tell if in fact the cyanide that was produced in the process of gassing had any role in the deaths of the victims?
A: Let's put it this way. We did not attribute CS gas as a cause of death in any of those cases…."

August 1, 1995

Drudge 9/21/99 Ann Coulter "…At the same hearings on August 1, 1995, then-Representative Chuck Schumer was more concerned about someone, somewhere believing a "conspiracy theory" than the possibility that the federal government staged a military assault on American citizens. Straight away, he announced that one of only two "criteria" for judging the hearings a "success" was whether they avoided giving "new life to conspiracy theorists."

…… "

December 22, 1995

Link for the interview with Gordon Novel, October 17, 1996 from Freeper aristeides Freeper frankm from part three Gordon Novel, October 17, 1996 "...There's a missing five and a half minute section of the tape from 10:40 to 11:02 or somewhere in there, 10:47 to 11:02 AM in the morning and I saw that tape in New Orleans on December 22, 1995 and Colby didn't want to release that tape because he says if I give you that, he says, they're going to know who, who is getting all this information and ah, as a result, we saw them using blinding lasers being fired at Davidians who tried to come out of the building in the rear and they were blinded and then the tanks came up and drove them into the building and pushed the blade directly at them. But it was all on the missing five minutes tape...."



Associated Press 9/14/99 Michelle Mittelstadt "…….. ``The Justice Department dumped 100,000 documents on the committee three days before the hearings, knowing that they couldn't possibly go through them,'' the Indiana Republican said in an interview. Although Burton was on the Government Reform Committee in 1995, he was not on the subcommittee that led the investigation. Burton also noted that the Justice Department was forced to acknowledge last week that it failed in 1995 to give Congress the key page from a 1993 FBI lab report mentioning the use of military tear gas. The final page of that 49-page report, with the key tear gas mention, was missing, he noted. ``I don't think that's a coincidence,'' he said….."

Dallas News 3/6/00 Lee Hancock "…..Retired FBI Agent Peter Smerick, whose psychological profiles were termed the best predictors of the Waco tragedy by experts and negotiators involved in the siege, told FBI interviewers that he believed "the FBI misled the attorney general by giving her 'a slanted view of the operation' in Waco." A 1995 report obtained by The Dallas Morning News says that Mr. Smerick blamed FBI headquarters for convincing the attorney general that using tear gas was the only way to end the standoff peacefully. …… He said that he and one of the FBI's top negotiators had by then "concluded that the best strategy would have been to convert the Branch Davidian compound into a prison and simply announce to [sect leader David] Koresh that he was in the custody of the United States. This idea was not endorsed, however.". ….. "

L. A. Times 1995 D’Jamila Salem "…… A close examination of the evidence, however, raises questions about the government's contention that the Davidians were solely responsible for the fires. The official Justice Department report lists one agent--not three as initially announced--as having seen the Davidians light the fire. The FBI has neither disclosed the identities of other witnesses nor furnished accounts of their observations. Only Special Agent John W. Morrison was called during the Davidians' murder trial last year to testify about arson activity because he was considered the government's best eyewitness, prosecutors said....... ..."

L. A. Times 1995 D’Jamila Salem "……Because the Waco encounter began with the ATF raid, the Administration went outside the federal government and used an "independent" team assembled by the Texas Rangers, according to the Justice report. But the Texas police agency was never consulted, according to Capt. David Byrnes, the Rangers task force commander at Waco. "Nobody in the Rangers participated in selecting" the arson team, Byrnes said. "I can say that without any qualification.". …."

L. A. Times 1995 D’Jamila Salem "……The FBI refused an offer from Flamechek International, a Santa Paula, Calif., company, to use Czech armored, remote-control tanks that would allow firefighters to extinguish flames while being protected from gunfire, said Jan Bezucha, the firm's marketing director. And, just as the government outfitted Army combat vehicles with special equipment to spray tear gas, the same modifications could have been made for cannons to shoot water, experts say. "I can't explain why there weren't any other precautions taken," Gray said. ......"

May 6, 1996

Retired CIA Director William Colby – died in a canoe accident 5/6/96 – he had provided information to McNulty.

July, 1996

American Spectator 12/99 James Bovard "….At the press conference in July 1996 releasing the House report on Waco, I asked co-chairmen Bill Zelliff and Bill McCollum how much cooperation they had received from federal agencies. They said the cooperation had been pretty good-except for the Pentagon, which had refused to give them almost any information….The "national security" excuse repeatedly invoked for not turning over key files to congressional investigators is wearing thin. …."

Summer, 1996

In the summer of 1996, a private investigator named Gordon Novel - a thin, bearded, tightly wound character who'd been enmeshed in conspiracy investigations since the JFK assassination - brought a piece of surveillance tape to Ghigliotti's office for examination. - Washington Post 5/28/00 Richard Leiby


July 31, 1996

The Village Voice 10/6/99 James Ridgeway "….Among others present were representatives of Britain's elite Special Air Services, infamous for its counterinsurgency operations in Northern Ireland. In a July 31, 1996, letter to Senator Charles Robb, unearthed recently by the Irish Echo, John E. Collingwood, head of the FBI's Public and Congressional Affairs office, revealed that "two SAS soldiers visiting at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, requested and were granted a courtesy visit. The main purpose . . . was to experience how the FBI operated its command post.…"


August 2, 1996

Newsmax - Inside Cover 9/22/99 Carl Limbacher "...the notion that there hasn't been any official disagreement by Waco probers over the last six years has one serious flaw. It's not true. In fact, in a four-page dissenting opinion to the House's August 2, 1996, report on the "Investigation into the Activities of Federal Law Enforcement Agencies toward the Branch Davidians," many of the same nagging questions that have driven a month's worth of recent headlines on Waco were presented quite starkly. The extraordinairly prescient report, submitted under the name of the late Rep. Steven Schiff (R-NM) and actually authored by Rep. Bob Barr (R-GA), critiques the findings of the majority of a joint House committee that probed Waco in 1995, asserting that the official conclusions failed to address "several extremely important matters that came to light during the hearings and which deserve far more scrutiny than accorded heretofore." .... There it was in black and white, an official report issued by Congress three years ago with all the "dark questions" about Waco laid bare for the world to see. Yet the establishment press didn't breathe a word....."

..."Unfortunately, we saw in the Waco tragedy the blurring of the lines between domestic law enforcement and military operations: an operation carried out pursuant to a strategy designed to demolish an 'enemy,' utilizing tactics designed to cut off avenues of escape, drive an enemy out, and run roughshod over the 'niceties' of caring for the rights of those involved. ...."

.... On further examination of the FLIR tapes, after the hearings and in discussions with private parties who have reviewed the tapes, I believe sufficient questions have been raised to warrant further study of these two issues: were there shots fired from outside the compound into the compound on April 19th, and were the fires started - intentionally or unintentionally - by the armored military vehicles or personnel therein."

……."Government documents clearly show deliberate efforts by Government attorneys to stop the collection of evidence and possibly cover-up evidence the Government did not want to be available later on.... I consider it extremely serious, especially when considered with evidence that two of the ATF agents [were] first disciplined and fired and then later reinstated and [had their] records sealed.... Documents explicitly showed that - 'DOJ [Department of Justice] does not want Treasury to conduct any interviews...[that might] generate...material or oral statements which could be used for impeachment'- of Government witnesses....."

……."Important evidence was not available [to the committee] because of tactics by the Government and minority members of the subcommittees to keep evidence out of our hands, such as the weapons taken by the Government from the burned Davidian compound. We were never able to test the weapons to determine whether they were in fact unlawful weapons as the Government charged (which provided a primary justification for the Government's initial action against [David] Koresh and the Branch Davidians)."

From: ``Investigation into the Activities of Federal Law Enforcement Agencies Toward the Branch Davidians,'' House Report No. 104-749, 8/2/96 "....The involvement of the White House occurred in several ways. According to White House Chief of Staff Mack McLarty, two parallel lines of communication existed_one from Acting Assistant Attorney General Stuart Gerson to McLarty, and the other from Gerson to White House Counsel Bernard Nussbaum. Senior advisor Bruce Lindsey also kept informed on developments in Waco.(598) \598\ Justice Department Report at 242......"

House of Representatives Report 104-749 8/2/96 Committee of Government Reform & Oversight "..."The staff also had an opportunity to inspect the physical evidence taken from the ruins of the residence after the fire, much of which had been used in the criminal trial of surviving Davidians. By prior agreement with the Justice Department, a potential witness at the hearings, Failure Analysis Associates, Inc., was to inspect some of the physical evidence in order to respond to tampering allegations. It was believed that the views of scientists from Failure Analysis, who had often performed scientific evaluations for the Federal Government, including the Justice Department and NASA after the Challenger explosion, would be beneficial given public suspicions about the firearms recovered from the site of the Davidian residence…... When the scientists arrived in Austin, the Department declined to make the firearms available to them. The Department agreed instead to conduct the tests itself and present its findings to the subcommittees. A short time later, the Department urged, for cost considerations, that the tests not be performed. As a result, no tests were performed on the firearms." ....."

8/2/96 House of Representatives Committee on Government Reform Dan Burton and Committee 104th Congress 2nd Session Report 104-749 HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES INVESTIGATION INTO THE ACTIVITIES OF FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES TOWARD THE BRANCH DAVIDIANS…Executive Summary ……… The Department of Justice…
1. The decision by Attorney General Janet Reno to approve the FBI's plan to end the standoff on April 19 was premature, wrong, and highly irresponsible. In authorizing the assault to proceed Attorney General Reno was seriously negligent. The Attorney General knew or should have known that the plan to end the stand-off would endanger the lives of the Davidians inside the residence, including the children. The Attorney General knew or should have known that there was little risk to the FBI agents, society as a whole, or to the Davidians from continuing this standoff and that the possibility of a peaceful resolution continued to exist. …
3. The CS riot control agent insertion and assault plan was fatally flawed. The Attorney General believed that it was highly likely that the Davidians would open fire, and she knew or should have known that the rapid insertion contingency would be activated, that the Davidians would not react in the manner suggested by the FBI, and that there was a possibility that a violent and perhaps suicidal reaction would occur within the residence. The planning to end the stand-off was further flawed in that no provision had been made for alternative action to be taken in the event the plan was not successful.
4. Following the FBI's April 19 assault on the Branch Davidian compound, Attorney General Reno offered her resignation. In light of her ultimate responsibility for the disastrous assault and its resulting deaths the President should have accepted it. ……"

October 6, 1996

Interview with Gordon Novel 10/6/96 Freeper Ol' Dan Tucker "....Well, StarTech got the big 250 gallon propane container that the government swore up and down blew up and made that fire ball. And it's sitting over there. It was dead empty and had never been filled up. The government arson investigator, Paul Gray, swore before the Congress that he saw it blown up. The pictures of it, we have the original receipts now. We have the original-- It was an absolutely empty container. The University of Maryland was paid a quarter of a million dollars by the Justice Department to write a report that attributed that explosion in that blast over the church vault as being a hundred gallons of propane. Well, there's no-- And it's dead over the vault. The only propane container back there was an empty one and we now have it photographed so...."

October 17, 1996

Radio Interview of Gordon Novel (Installment 8) 10/17/96 Freeper aristeides "….
I: --so, we've got Gordon Novel on today, and we're going to go to him and he's talking to us from jail there and where you at, Gordon?
C: Zanesville, Ohio, but not for long I'm told.
I: All right, what'd they tell you?
C: Well, they're not exactly happy about these shows. From what I gather some, some guys say I'm trying to become an American Mandella so, that's not exactly true. Because I'm not really deep into politics, and as you know I run a security company called Force One which does investigations particularly forensic criminology at a science level and so I'm just giving you some background. All of my friends that I'm talking to are saying, you know, I won't live through this but I may be able to give you some reasons today, with a little life insurance and try to give you some more insight to this Clinton Administration…..
….. so let me just say that I made a statement that I saw the D Plan that was used to genocide the Davidians on July 3rd as the result of one of Colby's friends getting it right before he was killed and drowned or whatever you want to call it. That's a euphemism around the CIA because it seems anybody at the CIA has to be terminated by somebody else's agency they tend to drown and it's been very, very common over the years because it's sort of difficult to trace a drowning death particularly when a frogman grabs you and pulls you down off your canoe and it gets kind of tough to survive it….
….But, let me just say that the bomb material that-- Waco is always symbolized by the bomb that went off over the building at the middle of the fire. We have done an invest-- rather an in depth research into that. We have the bomb container. We have the photographs of the rocket-like blasted hole in the top of the church vault where 28 women and children were killed by the bomb and many of them were obliterated.….. ….
….There's about 66 gun shots or 76 by my count, 66 by some other counts but those shots were fired in the back of the building. The press was 2 ? miles away in a one square block area, isolated by the FBI so they couldn't see what was going on particularly behind the building. There was a courthouse SANITAIRE(?) of about five miles around the building and a flight? no one was allowed to fly over the building. No press was allowed to fly over the building for up to-- I don't know, thirty or forty thousand feet…..
….. The bomb material, gentlemen and , at the hostage rescue team was, as you know as detasheet, d-e-t-a-s-h-e-e-t, which comes in olive drab waxed paper in 10 x 20 inch lengths and was put into a 20 inch camping container which we have all the photographs of and this is a PETN plastic explosive….
…... At the height of the fire, 40 or 50 rounds being directed at the women and children trying to flee the church vault in the back of the building because they could only exit from the back of the building so when the government tells you they didn't murder these people, they are absolutely lying to you……
……Colby, when he supplied me this FLIR tape, their were dozens of people who became aware of it in order to protect me and to protect him, but we apparently didn't protect him and I'm not sure we protected me very well because I really wouldn't be here. ….. ….. But what I'm telling you is that Colby felt that Clinton was the most morally corrupt president that, in the history of the United States. I've got to say I agree with that. …… ….
I: Gordon, what was that ARV Plan that you were talking about?
C: Well, what, if I tell you what ARV stands for then, I'm going to be, there are going to be people who are going to say, "Now wait a second. That's kind of heavy duty. So I'm not going to tell you what it means. ……..
By heavy duty I mean so outrageously unbelievable that you wouldn't know. But I can just tell you this. And if anybody in the Defense Department is listening, pay attention gentlemen. If this mess in Ohio is not cleaned up when I walk out of here and if I don't walk out on February 7th, on my birthday, I promise you I'm going to publish world wide your secret ARV Plans and the technology behind them, cause Colby gave them to me. And I can only tell you it probably cost him his life. ……

December, 1996

Washington Post 4/18/97 Richard Leiby Jim McGee "…..The FBI says an examination of the entire FLIR tape -- which runs for several hours -- would provide context and further discredit the gunfire theory. Yet the government has delayed releasing the entire tape to attorneys who filed a Freedom of Information Act suit in Arizona. The bureau also hasn't provided a full copy to The Washington Post, which first requested one in December 1996. Why the delay? "National security issues," says a Justice Department spokesman. …….."


Dave Hardy "…..I remember talking to [Carlos Ghigliotti] outside his office, after the first visit, standing there in the parking lot after dark. He'd mentioned that the guy with Infraspection Institute, who had analyzed the FLIR for 60 Minutes back in '95 or '96, and found FBI gunshots and shooters on it, had been terrified. In fact, he'd sent copies of the tape to Carlos and to several others in the IR field, with notes saying "If anything happens to me, you'll know why." (The same guy later called me, said he didn't want his name used, that "there are too many people already in their graves over this." I wrote him off as him being rather nervous.). I asked Carlos, there in the parking lot, if he'd ever been fearful. He said only for a while, between the time he made his findings and the time he reported them to the Committee.. …"

Dave Hardy "….I think a lady runs (ran) Infraspection, but the analyst was a guy. He was the one who first told me about Carlos, back in '96 or so. He was scared ****less, too. Called me up, I could hear his voice shaking, said "too many people have ended up in their graves already over this!" Said he had another analyst who'd be willing to look at the tape. I thought him a trifle nervous at the time. Since he was the one who recommended Carlos, I suspect wherever he's living now, he's in his basement with a rifle pointed at the staircase. I can't say as I'd blame him too much, which is one reason I carefully avoid using his name here……" 2/14/00 Lee Hancock "….A military scientist told Justice Department lawyers in 1996 that the FBI's infrared camera was capable of recording gunshots at Waco. But the government never pursued his proposal for tests to determine whether gunfire caused repeated flashes recorded at the end of the Branch Davidian siege, officials said. ……. ….The scientist was questioned at Mr. Danforth's St. Louis office and interviewed in Washington. Officials familiar with his account said he told investigators that he was working at the National Air Intelligence Center in late 1996 when he was contacted by Justice Department lawyers. The center, part of Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio, evaluates foreign military technology………. ……"

August 1996

A federal appeals court upholds the convictions of six Davidians, saying federal agents did not use excessive force in trying to arrest Koresh. - The Associated Press 7/21/00



St. Louis Post Dispatch 2/13/00 William Freivogel Terry Ganey "…..At the Justice Department's request, the expert, Capt. John Perry, [in 1997[ used an infrared camera like the one used by the FBI at Waco, to see if it would record M-16 rifle fire as flashes. Sources said he concluded that he could not rule out the possibility that flashes on the tape were from gunfire without performing field tests. But the Justice Department did not ask him to go forward with those tests. ……. Lawyers for the Branch Davidians say that the Justice Department dropped Perry like a hot potato because it did not like his answers.. ……. …..Last week, congressional investigators also sought to discredit a 1997 analysis of the infrared tape by the Maryland Advanced Development Laboratory, a defense contractor. ...... The Maryland lab analyzed the 1993 infrared tape using its VIPER anti-sniper computer program. The program can pick out small arms fire in an infrared scene. The lab concluded that the flashes on the Waco tape were not gunfire, partly because they were too long in duration. . ..."

January 5, 1997

Lubbock Avalanche-Journal AP "….Suspicious fires destroyed three small buildings at the former Branch Davidian compound where cult leader David Koresh and 75 followers died after their 51-day standoff with federal agents. …… The blazes leveled the home of Amo Bishop Roden, former common-law wife of one-time Branch Davidian leader George Roden, and two museums she used to chronicle the group's history, including the deadly 1993 standoff. "There was no wind and it had been damp. It's hard to believe an electrical fire or other accidental fire could have spread to all three buildings,'' said Terry Fuller, a detective with the McLennan County Sheriff's Department. ….. A man living in a van on the property reported awakening early Thursday to find the buildings and a car parked nearby burned. The man called cult member Clive Doyle, who called the sheriff's department, Fuller said. The man in the van apparently had permission from Ms. Roden to stay on the property, Fuller said. ….."


April 18, 1997

Michael Reagan's Hot Topics 4/18/97 Committee for Waco Justice "..... The House of Representatives held 10 days of 'Waco' hearings in the summer of 1995. The Senate held two days of such hearings in the fall. The hearings did reveal over-aggressiveness and duplicity by agents and officials of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (BATF) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). " Nevertheless, citizens continue to produce new books and films cataloguing compelling evidence that hyped-up BATF agents shot first as David Koresh opened the front door, even as other agents shot from helicopters, killing four Davidians. BATF left ample bullet hole evidence in the walls and roofs of the building of this indiscriminate and illegal gunfire.:

June, 1997

8/7/97 Michael Reagan's Hot Topics "….In early June Lewis C. Merletti, who led the Treasury Department's investigation of the 1993 raid on the Branch Davidians, was sworn in as the 19th director of the Secret Service. …."

December 9, 1998

BIG SPRING -- Preliminary autopsy results indicate former Branch Davidian leader George Roden died of heart disease, Howard County Justice of the Peace China Long said Tuesday. Roden was found dead Monday outside the Big Spring State Hospital. He had been missing since Saturday night and officials presumed he had fled the mental institution, as he had done on two prior occasions. …The 60-year-old Roden had been a patient in Texas mental institutions since 1989. He had been driven from the Branch Davidians in 1987 in a gun battle with David Koresh. …"

December 10, 1998

Freeper amom "….I see that the IsraelWire found George's death worthy of reporting. "….. (IsraelWire-12/10-19:00-IST) Former Branch Davidian leader George Roden, who had been in state care since he was declared insane in 1989, was found dead outside a mental institution. Roden, 60, escaped from the Big Spring State Hospital (USA) late Saturday, his third escape from a state institution since 1993. An employee found his body on the grounds Monday morning. A preliminary autopsy report indicated Roden likely died of a heart attack, Justice Of The Peace China Long told the Waco Tribune-Herald. ….. Three years ago, he fled Big Spring for three days before being caught outside the Israeli consulate in New York City, where he reportedly caused a disturbance after being denied a visa to Israel. Roden, who claimed to be Jewish, said PLO-trained hit-men were trying to kill him. ….Roden's mother owned the 77-acre site of the Branch Davidian compound near Waco known as Mount Carmel. She named Koresh as the trustee of her will….." I just did a quick check thinking that IsraelWire might be American but it's not. From AskReggie
Virtual Communities Inc. (VHLISRAELWIRE-DOM)
POB ##### Rechov Hasadna #
Jerusalem, Israel #####

March 11, 1999

MAJOR GENERAL JOHN DOESBURG, COMMANDER, U.S. ARMY, U. S. ARMY SOLDIER AND BIOLOGICAL CHEMICAL COMMAND MR. RAYMOND DOMINGUEZ, DEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF DEFENSE FOR FORCES AND RESOURCES "…In the wake of the bombings at the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City and the World Trade Center in New York, it became readily apparent that we as a nation were less than well prepared to respond to terrorist incidents involving WMD. As a result, President Clinton has undertaken significant efforts to galvanize federal agencies and prompt them to work more effectively, both together at the interagency level and in support of first responders, to provide our nation with an enhanced, flexible and integrated response capability….. Specifically, the President has signed Presidential Decision Directive 62 (PDD 62)-the Combating Terrorism directive-which highlights the growing threat of unconventional attacks against the United States. ……..Because we see this training mission as one more attuned to civilian agencies, facets of this program are being transferred to the Department of Justice. This will also have the benefit of placing the training and equipping roles in one location, as part of the "one stop" shop consistently requested by first responders.. …"


June, 1999 web site 8/27/99 "…As the DPS said shortly after the fire at the Branch Davidian compound in 1993, the Ranger inquiry, which was requested by the U.S. Department of Justice, would be the most complicated in the organization's history. Nearly a third of the Texas Ranger Division, working with DPS crime lab personnel, DPS Special Crimes investigators and other DPS personnel, collected thousands of pieces of evidence at the scene. Though the fire occurred six years ago, the DPS undertook the renewed inquiry in June, at the direction of DPS Public Safety Commission Chairman James B. Francis Jr. in response to questions raised concerning some of the evidence. We think it is important to make this point: The DPS is not investigating the FBI or the U.S. Department of Justice. Once the Rangers have completed their inquiry, the results will be sent to the U.S. Attorney's Office in Waco, which has jurisdiction in this matter…."

Ft Worth Star-Telegram 9/14/99 Ron Hutcheson Gabrielle Crist ".... The report also includes a June 1999 interoffice memo from Ranger Sgt. George L. Turner, who says he recovered a "thumper round" from the scene, which was later identified as the 40 mm cartridge believed to have been used to knock down the door. Turner's memo says the FBI fired the thumper round, which is highly explosive. Turner notified Rangers and FBI officials of his findings but he did not pursue the matter further. "I never came forward with the information that would seem to indicate that an explosive projectile was fired on April 19, 1993," Turner wrote in the memo. "But I was never asked the question. If I had been, I would have naturally responded with the truth." Turner said Ranger officials who testified in the 1995 Senate subcommittee hearings were reminded of the "possibility of an explosive round having been fired." ...."

Associated Press Writer Michelle Mittelstadt 9/18/99 "…. James B. Francis Jr. was busy raising money for George W. Bush's presidential campaign and overseeing the Texas Department of Public Safety when he gave the order this summer that reignited the Waco controversy. After inquiries from an independent filmmaker and a lawyer who had long challenged the government's version of events, Francis instructed the Texas Rangers in June to reopen the vaults that contained 12 tons of evidence gathered from the scorched remains of the Branch Davidian compound…… Though an ardent supporter of Texas Gov. Bush, Francis insists politics wasn't the motivation behind a decision he says "unleashed a series of forces that were apparently a lot bigger than what I recognized." " …."

July 1999

Smith pares the number of defendants and plaintiffs in the wrongful death lawsuit, but rules that the case can reach trial. - The Associated Press 7/21/00


July 27, 1999

Washington Times 8/4/99 Paul Craig Roberts "...In July 27, the chairman of the Texas Department of Public Safety, James B. Francis Jr., told the Dallas Morning News that evidence in possession of the Texas Rangers calls into question the federal government's account of the deadly federal assault and subsequent fire that claimed the lives of scores of men, women and children in the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas, in 1993. Mr. Francis wants to turn the evidence over to federal district court Judge Walter Smith. The U.S. Department of Justice is trying to block the Texas Rangers from releasing the evidence. Mr. Francis says that the Rangers have "some evidence that the world needs to see, in my opinion. The government does not want this evidence out, and yet, that's not right." Mr. Francis added: "It is a complete stonewall...."

July 28, 1999

The Dallas Morning News 7/28/99 Lee Hancock "...The head of the Texas Department of Public Safety said Tuesday that evidence held by the Texas Rangers since the 1993 Branch Davidian siege calls into question the federal government's claim that its agents used no incendiary devices on the day that a fire consumed the sect's compound……. Evidence used in the federal prosecutions was transferred to DPS headquarters in Austin for safekeeping. Although Texas Rangers had custody of the material, Justice Department officials retained authority over who could see it. They ordered DPS officials to route requests for access to Washington....Mr. Francis and others in the agency said DPS officials became increasingly frustrated as they learned that Justice Department officials routinely sent those requests back to Austin with the explanation that the evidence was in the custody of Texas officials. "It was a perfect Catch-22 to block everybody from seeing the evidence," Mr. Francis said. "There is some evidence there that the world needs to see, in my opinion. The government does not want this evidence out, and yet, that's not right." .... "

August, 1999

The Dallas Morning News 9/11/99 Lee Hancock David Jackson "...Some of the documents submitted to Congress are e-mails in which the prosecutor, Bill Johnston, tried to warn his boss and others that an inquiry by the Texas Rangers was uncovering evidence that pyrotechnic tear gas had been used in Waco.......In a series of early August e-mails to U.S. Attorney Bill Blagg, Mr. Johnston sent increasingly specific warnings that the Rangers had evidence of pyrotechnic gas being used. Mr. Blagg has said he passed each of the messages to superiors at the Justice Department...... On Aug. 26, after Justice Department officials denied news reports of pyrotechnics being used, Mr. Johnston wrote the agency's chief spokesman to complain that his warnings had gone unheeded. "There should be no real surprise," Mr. Johnston wrote. "A couple of weeks ago, I faxed the specifications on the [pyrotechnic] M-651 round to Mr. Blagg. . . . The Department has not asked me nor the Rangers for information."..."

Dave Hardy "……In August, 1999, Dan Gifford asked me to send an affidavit regarding a conversation I'd had back in 1997. I found it on my word processor, and it is set out below.

Background: after the gunshots on the FLIR were revealed by Gordon Novel (a really wild character, BTW), and confirmed by Dr. Allard, Gordon took the tape to Sixty Minutes. [As I recall, he then had a grudge against Mike McNulty, and figured to break the story on his own.]. Sixty Minutes sent the tape out for a second opinion, to a firm called Infraspection, in Vermont, I seem to remember. Infraspection confirmed that they were gunshots, and that they could see people moving around as well. (Sixty Minutes killed the story nonetheless.)

Afterward, Infraspection refused to publicly confirm its findings. Apparently it got word that its letters making the findings, then refusing to confirm them because of potential negative consequences to the firm (I think those were its words), were going to be used in the original "Waco: The Rules of Engagement." For some reason -- I think they couldn't find phone no's for McNulty or Gifford -- they called me. The guy who called was so nervous you could hear it in his voice, and said something to the effect that "there are too many people in their grave already over this." (I believe he was referring to Wm. Colby, whom Gordon said had given him the FLIR gunshot info, and who had been found dead just before this conversation.)

Incidentally, Carlos mentioned to me in one of our last conversations that the fellow had been so frightened that he made a stack of copies of the FLIR and mailed them to a bunch of fellow analysts, including Carlos, with notes reading to the effect of "If anything happens to me, you'll know why." Carlos regarded this with detachment or even a bit of amusement.

Anyway, here's the affidavit:

David T. Hardy, being first duly sworn, deposes and says:

1. My name is David T. Hardy. I am an attorney practicing law in Tucson, Arizona.

2. In 1997, I was involved in a Freedom of Information Act suit relating to the incident at Waco. I was accordingly in touch with Dan Gifford, who was working on a documentary on the subject, and with several other persons including an investigator named Gordon Novel. I knew that the documentary included infrared ["FLIR"] footage, and that the footage had been analyzed by an Infraspection Institute, which had been retained by a television network.

3. In early 1997, I was called by a Craig Kelch, of Infraspection Institute. My independent recollection is that Mr. Kelch had been trying to contract Dan Gifford in connection with the documentary, said that he had not been able to contract him, and had in some manner gotten my name and number. I recall that his tone was very anxious, and that he was quite upset that his business was going to be mentioned in the documentary. I recall he said something to the effect that he did not want his company name used, and also he did not want to be involved, for some reason relating to personal fear.

3. I have located my phone log of the conversation. My notes indicate it took place between February 28 and March 3, 1999. My notes are as follows [indecipherable words are bracketed, as are completions of abbreviations]:

Cindy Bathsky -- CBS 60 min. & Novel
Wanted no part of this -- no trust [them or this] --
Wash. Post -- my co[mpany] name -- 5th Estate
Need contact me + Gifford
If corporate name -- gonna have problem
No want to be involved in the [the or this] [ ]
Too many end in grave ........."


August 4, 1999

Dallas Morning News 8/4/99 Lee Hancock "…Justice Department officials filed a motion Wednesday agreeing to a state bid to hand over the evidence in the Branch Davidian case to a federal judge, but they asked the court to turn it over to the U.S. Marshal's Service for safekeeping….. …."

August 8, 1999

Dallas Morning News 8/26/99 Lee Hancock "… Earlier this month, DPS officials became so concerned about what their evidence vaults might hold that they asked federal Judge Walter Smith of Waco to take control of all the evidence in the case to ensure its safekeeping and proper evaluation. Judge Smith then issued an unprecedented order Aug. 8 instructing every agency of the U.S. government to turn over every document, photograph and piece of physical evidence in any way related to the incident. ….."

Mid August, 1999

Dallas Morning News 9/12/99 Lee Hancock "….The admission came only after a former FBI official told The Dallas Morning News that use of two U.S. military pyrotechnic tear-gas grenades ``was common knowledge'' among the FBI's hostage rescue team. Even before then, the Rangers had been working for several months to try to identify a shell casing that proved to be part of one of the military CS gas rounds and other projectiles that had never been properly identified. Francis ordered the inquiry after learning that the Justice Department had tried to block all public access to the evidence trove. The issue came to his attention after Justice Department lawyers defending a massive wrongful-death lawsuit filed by Branch Davidians angrily complained about an independent filmmaker being allowed to view the evidence in DPS custody last fall and this spring. Based on the questions raised by the filmmaker, Michael McNulty, Rangers began trying to identify an oddly-shaped 40-mm shell casing, several unidentified 40-mm projectiles and a number of other items never scrutinized during the initial criminal inquiry. By mid-August, Ranger Sgt. Gordon had identified the shell casing as part of a U.S. military gas grenade known as an M651. With the help of U.S. Army experts, the ranger was able to determine the two-day period in which it was made at a North Carolina factory in 1969 and even acquire two unfired M651 grenades from the same batch that were still in an Arkansas Army arsenal.

August 24, 1999

Dallas Morning News 8/24/99 Lee Hancock "…A former senior FBI official has said that the agency fired two pyrotechnic tear gas grenades on the last day of the 1993 Branch Davidian siege, a day on which federal authorities have long insisted they used nothing capable of starting a fire. The former official, Danny O. Coulson, said in an interview that two devices known as M651 CS tear gas grenades were fired from FBI grenade launchers hours before the compound erupted in flames April 19, 1993.…"

Associated Press 8/24/99 Alica Ann Love "…Retreating from its past denials, the FBI is acknowledging that federal agents fired one or more incendiary tear gas canisters during the standoff with Branch Davidians led by David Koresh, a federal law enforcement official said Tuesday. …."

August 26, 1999

Dallas Morning News 8/26/99 Lee Hancock "… A Department of Defense document released under the federal Freedom of Information Act confirmed that members of a classified Army special forces unit were in the area when the FBI's hostage rescue team used tanks to assault the compound with tear gas. The document, written by one of two U.S. Army officers who met with Attorney General Janet Reno to help the FBI convince her to approve their tear gas assault, stated that three Special Forces personnel observed "the assault . . . and were cautioned not to video the operation."….Mr. Francis said Wednesday evening that Ms. Reno and FBI Director Louis Freeh need to expand their new inquiry on the FBI's use of military pyrotechnic tear gas to address "what the Delta Force did on April 19 and whether their role was advisory or operational. "I think the role of military ordnance is a significant issue, and I am very glad that they acknowledged that military ordnance were used," he said. "I hope that they also will ask what the role of Delta Force was, specifically, and with detail and with clarity, and report that to the American people." ….."

August 27, 1999

The Dallas Morning News 8/27/99 Lee Hancock "…A former CIA officer said Thursday that he learned from Delta Force commandos that members of the secret Army unit were "present, up front and close" in helping the FBI in the final tear-gas assault on the Branch Davidian compound. The former officer, Gene Cullen, told The Dallas Morning News that he heard the detailed accounts of the military's active involvement from "three or four" anti-terrorist Delta commandos as he worked with them on an overseas assignment in 1993. "Whether it's the macho-bravo-type talk of guys in the field, I don't know," he said, declining to identify the individuals involved. "I have no reason to suspect that they lied. And it didn't just come from one of them. There were three or four guys that confirmed that, who were from Delta."…"

Dallas Morning News 8/27/99 G Robert Hillman Lee Hancok "…Attorney General Janet Reno was considering the appointment of an outside investigator to direct the review of the FBI's role in the fiery end to the 1993 standoff with the Branch Davidians, a Justice Department official said Friday. A team of FBI agents was still being assembled at the request of FBI Director Louis Freeh but their work will await the appointment of a team leader, said bureau spokesman Tron Brekke. …"


August 28, 1999

WorldNetdaily 8/28/99 Betsy Gibson "…A former Special Forces commando says he spoke yesterday to a Delta Force commando who was present at the final tear-gas assault on the Branch Davidian compound. Keith Idema, who was a member of Special Forces and Special Operations units from 1975 to 1992 and helped to train hostage rescue team personnel for both Delta Force and the FBI, says pictures from Waco released this week by the Texas Department of Public Safety have been mistakenly identified by the department as gun silencers and suppressors belonging to David Koresh and his followers which were found inside the compound after the fire. Idema says they are actually concussion grenades manufactured by a company, Defense Technology, and purchased by the FBI. …." 8/28/99 "…On Friday, White House press secretary Joe Lockhart denied that President Clinton granted a legally required waiver for an elite U.S. military unit to participate in the FBI's attack on the Branch Davidian compound at Waco six years ago. By federal statute, the U.S. military may not actively engage in any domestic law enforcement operation unless specifically authorized by the president. But a document reviewed by Inside Cover indicates that Clinton sought a role for the military in the 51 day standoff, which could link the White House to the elite military unit's involvement, now alleged to be active, in the final Waco conflagration …."


August 30, 1999

Drudge link 8/30/99 Deb Weiss "…At the White House, while the president ducked and covered, his War Room went to work to neutralize the potentially toxic effects of Waco. Their greatest asset was the national press, which crumbled at once into stunning passivity, megaphoning White House spin and trotting out push-polls that asked the questions the White House wanted asked. …."

Associated Press 8/29/99 Tom Raum "…Three Army special operations officers were present that final day, April 19, 1993, but they were not involved in the FBI operation in any way, not even in an advisory role, a senior Pentagon officer said Thursday. ……But former CIA officer Gene Cullen told The Dallas Morning News in a copyright story for today's editions that anti-terrorist Delta Force commandos told him detailed accounts of active military involvement as he worked with them on an overseas assignment in 1993. Cullen would not identify the commandos.'…. "

August 31, 1999

The Dallas Morning News 8/31/99 Lee Hancock "…Mr. Johnston said he was presented with a copy of the document last week after officials divulged that the FBI had, in fact, used pyrotechnic tear gas on April 19. ………Mr. Johnston has been assisting the Rangers since late June in an ongoing inquiry to identify questioned evidence that has been in the possession of the Texas Department of Public Safety since the Branch Davidian standoff. …..

The Dallas Morning News 8/31/99 Lee Hancock "…Mr. Johnston said he has been ordered not to discuss the specific wording of the document or the handwritten notes. The notes apparently were added after the document was prepared. The document was written by a paralegal working for the U.S. attorney's office in preparation for the 1994 federal prosecution of surviving Branch Davidians. …..…The officials said that no one involved in preparing the memo realized that the term "military gas" appeared to be shorthand for pyrotechnic tear-gas grenades. Ordnance experts say all CS tear-gas grenades used by the U.S. military are pyrotechnic devices.."

WorldNetDaily Betsy Gibson 8/31/99 "…A new memo obtained by WorldNetDaily suggests the FBI deliberately sought to conceal that it had an top military armor expert visit Waco to "assess" the situation, then meet with Attorney General Janet Reno to discuss "tactical contingency plans that may be used to bring the situation in Waco, Texas, to an end." The memo, signed by Michael E. O'Connor, Army Operations Command watch officer, meticulously notes that it is "the Department of Justice thru (sic) the FBI" that has "requested two soldiers by name," and that the loan of the two, Brigadier General Schoomaker and Colonel William "Jerry" Boykin, to the FBI for such a mission has been approved by a General Heldstab. The memo goes on to record that top executive officers, major Army commands such as Three Corps and Force Command and the U.S. Army Special Operations Command were also informed. "The FBI," the memo states, "will handle travel arrangements." According to WorldNetDaily's Special Forces source, it is a revealing break in protocol to have such military officers transported by the FBI. More properly they would travel by military or civilian aircraft..

WorldNetDaily Betsy Gibson 8/31/99 "…WorldNetDaily's source believes that the military author of the memo, O'Connor, might have been registering his queasiness with the break in protocol represented by the FBI by adding a note on the bottom to Major Wells that says "BG Shoomaker (sic) told my watch NCO (SFC Savage) that the FBI plans to pick him at Fort Hood and fly him first to Waco to assess the situation, and then on to Washington. He was not sure if MG Heldstab was aware of those plans when he approved the mission. Just wanted you to be current!" In the opinion of WorldNetDaily's military source it is telling that in the five years since the two officers in the memo met with Reno about Waco, they have, between them, collected six stars -- a nearly unprecedented rate of advancement. Boykin, then a colonel has gained three stars to become a lieutenant general in command of the U.S. Army Special Operations Command, and Schoomaker, then a brigadier general, quickly gained three stars to become commander in chief of the United States Special Operations Command, the ultimate leader of all Special Forces units, Ranger units, Air Force Special Operations wings and all Navy Seals, making him arguably one of the most powerful men in the military, after the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Dallas Morning News via Knight-Ridder newswire 8/30/99 Lee Hancock "…A Waco federal prosecutor wrote Attorney General Janet Reno on Monday to warn that ``individuals or components within the Department of Justice'' may have long withheld evidence from her and the public about the FBI's use of pyrotechnic grenades on the day the Branch Davidian compound burned. Assistant U.S. Attorney Bill Johnston said he felt compelled to warn Reno after he was given a 5-year-old document that discusses the use of ``military gas'' by the FBI on April 19, 1993. …."

Investor's Business Daily 8/31/99 "…..Further, government records indicate the Special Forces Operations Command at a Florida Air Force base helped the FBI and the Bureau of Alcohol, Firearms and Tobacco prepare for the raid with technical and equipment support, the News reported….. …"

New York Times 8/31/99 David Stout "…Freeh wholeheartedly supports an inquiry without involvement of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, a bureau spokesman, Tron Brekke, said on Tuesday evening. …."

Drudge Report 8/31/99 "…Attorney General Janet Reno and FBI Director Louis Freeh have jointly agreed on calling for of an "outside investigation" into their agencies' failure to disclose the use of incendiary devices during Waco. …."

World Net Daily 8/31/99 Sarah McCarthy "…Delta Force operators and Task Force 160 operators continually cautioned the FBI against attempting an 'open air assault' on the target, and stated emphatically that they did not want to be involved in firing on or assaulting American civilians." These official and unofficial comments went ignored, says WND, and, in fact, one Special Operations officer was threatened with court-martial if he continued to protest, the source said. ……"

Late August, 1999

Dallas Morning News 9/12/99 Lee Hancock "….``Late last month, the Ranger also identified two 40-mm projectiles as German-made ``flash-bang'' grenades, devices that emit a loud, concussive noise and a blinding flash and are used by U.S. law enforcement to stun or distract suspects. Although tests are still being completed, both appear to be German NICO flash-bang devices from a shipment of about 50 sent in 1990 to the FBI, the report stated. McNulty, who is now completing a new documentary on Waco, has questioned whether the two black-and-silver devices might be some form of exotic explosive or incendiary device used to deliberately start a fire. ….``But the report heightens other questions about what the FBI used on the final day of the standoff. It includes a statement from another Texas Ranger who recalled being told by an FBI agent that the bureau had gotten permission on April 19 to fire a device to knock down a door….."

September, 1999 11/15/99 Carl Limbacher "…. In September Judge David Pareya, one of four McLennan County officials who ordered autopsies on the Branch Davidians killed on April 19, was interviewed by the Waco Tribune-Herald. He told the paper he "has lingering questions about some of the deaths." "Pareya said he had no choice but to rule the cause of death for many Davidians as unknown because the FBI would not supply him with the results of the ballistics tests," reported the Tribune-Herald.. …."

Newsweek 5/29/00 "…… Has President Clinton received secret grand-jury testimony from Justice Department criminal investigations? That is the question raised by an internal Justice memo, obtained by NEWSWEEK, written to Attorney General Janet Reno in September 1993, by her then chief legal counsel, Walter Dellinger. ….. Dellinger concluded Reno could disclose grand-jury information to President Clinton-not just for national-security purposes, but even for general "policymaking," including ensuring the "integrity or loyalty" of appointees who might be under investigation. Dellinger says he reached the conclusion on "constitutional grounds": because the president has ultimate law-enforcement authority, he's entitled to all information in the hands of his subordinates. …. a top official said the memo has been invoked "very, very rarely" in national-security cases……"

September 1, 1999

The Dallas Morning News 9/1/99 Lee Hancock "…U.S. Justice Department lawyers on Tuesday challenged a federal judge's authority to take control of evidence in the Branch Davidian case, setting up a high-stakes legal showdown. …"

The Dallas Morning News 9/1/99 Lee Hancock "…On Tuesday, the federal prosecutor, Bill Johnston, told The Dallas Morning News that he felt compelled to go public with his warning after being given a 5-year-old document that discusses the use of "military gas" by the FBI on April 19, 1993.…."

Reuters 9/1/99 "…The White House supports an independent investigation of the FBI's siege of the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas, in 1993, an administration official said Wednesday…."

Drudgereport.Com 9/1/99 "…Late Wednesday, the Justice Department sent federal marshals to the headquarters of the FBI to impound new, previously undisclosed evidence relating to Waco! The evidence includes audio tapes of conversations between agents giving okay to use gas... … The move followed the discovery that the FBI had an audio tape on which a voice of a government agent sought and received permission to fire pyrotechnic military gas rounds near the Davidian compound, a federal official said. ….."

Dallas Morning News 9/3/99 Scott Paks Lee Hancock "…A U.S. district judge ordered government lawyers Thursday to turn over all evidence pertaining to the 1993 Branch Davidian siege by Oct. 1 or face contempt-of-court charges. ….. Instead, he [Judge Smith] rejected the Justice Department's contention that gathering, copying and transferring the evidence would be "an unwarranted and substantial burden" on the entire federal government. "The court finds this argument somewhat disingenuous since the government has been in possession of this material for six years and has been aware since 1994, when the civil suits were originally filed, that this material could very well be subject to discovery," Judge Smith wrote……"

New York Times 9/3/99 Ronald Noble "…It is one thing to call for an independent investigation, and it is another to give that investigation the power to write a credible report….. Let's remember that this would be the second investigation the Justice Department has conducted into the events at Waco. In 1993, Edward S. G. Dennis Jr., a well-respected former Federal prosecutor, wrote a report based on the Justice Department's factual account of what happened. This report largely exonerated the F.B.I. and the Justice Department but did not fully gain the confidence of those who wanted an independent investigation. In hindsight, it seems that the Justice Department made a mistake in not ordering an independent investigation back in 1993. Now the reputations of Janet Reno, Louis Freeh, Edward Dennis, the F.B.I. and the entire Justice Department are sullied. …... ……Ronald K. Noble, a professor at New York University Law School, was Undersecretary of the Treasury Department and author of its report on the role that the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms played in the raid at the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Tex….."

Washington Times 9/3/99 Jerry Seper "…Several veteran FBI agents Thursday expressed outrage that the Justice Department sent U.S. marshals to seize a videotape of the bureau's 1993 raid on the Branch Davidian compound. At the same time, Justice officials said the bureau's handling of the affair has been "disastrous." …..….."

September 4, 1999

New York Times 9/4/99 Melinda Henneberger "…At this morning's weekly press briefing, Attorney General Janet Reno answered virtually every question by saying she was "dedicated to finding the truth," wanted to "use the process to get to the truth" and planned to "continue to pursue the truth." In half an hour, she referred to the truth a total of 25 times…… …."

September 7, 1999

9/7/99 The Dallas Morning News David Jackson Lee Hancock "…Records provided to GAO for its report, commissioned by Congress to examine military assistance provided to civilian law enforcement during the 1993 siege, by a Pentagon official indicated that five special forces soldiers were sent to Waco to provide and maintain specialized technical equipment and observe government actions. But other travel records discovered in the files of the federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms indicated that eight people from special forces were present at various points during the 51-day siege, said Melissa McDowell, one of the principal investigators. McDowell said Pentagon officials asked the GAO not to directly contact Special Forces but provided requested documentation on their involvement. She said many of the documents were heavily redacted, with all information of the names and units of the military personnel blacked out. She said she also ``wasn't allowed to write down'' information that remained about when each of the soldiers was in Waco…… "

9/7/99 The Dallas Morning News David Jackson Lee Hancock "…She said military documents indicated classified technical equipment provided to the FBI in Waco included highly specialized robot-driven video equipment as well as electronic jamming equipment…..But some of the documents came from the military's joint special forces operations command, which oversees Delta, Army Green Berets, U.S. Navy SEALS and U.S. Air Force special operations teams…... McDowell said the two-year GAO inquiry was brought to a close before investigators could resolve the discrepancies between the defense department documents and the travel documents found at ATF……She noted a letter provided by the Pentagon official to GAO stated ``some sensitive equipment was loaned with three personnel and two other individuals observed justice operations.'' ``That's the amount that we were asking about. It's not eight people,'' she said. ``We were unable to find out why that was. We were never able to solve that problem.''

9/7/99 The Dallas Morning News David Jackson Lee Hancock "…The other question left unresolved was the supply of 250 40-mm high explosive rounds to the FBI's hostage rescue team. Records from Fort Hood's III Corps indicated that the Army supplied those rounds along with 50 illumination rounds and 200 practice rounds to the hostage rescue team, along with a refresher training session in mid-March 1993 at a Fort Hood firing range. FBI agents were armed with shoulder-fired grenade launchers, and they used those to fire both nonflammable tear gas and pyrotechnic tear-gas rounds during their final assault…….While military records tracked a specific FBI agent requesting and receiving the illumination and practice rounds, however, there were no records to explain who asked for the high-explosive shells and why they were needed in Waco. ``We questioned it and we weren't able to get any more information,'' she said….."

9/7/99 The Dallas Morning News David Jackson Lee Hancock "… She said the inquiry did not include an examination of FBI records and the only documents showing that the rounds were sent to Waco were computer printouts from Fort Hood that also listed the deployment of illumination and practice 40 mm rounds……``III Corps reported it. They have paperwork showing it was given and consumed and not paid for,'' she said. ``It wasn't the only thing we couldn't find paperwork for. ... We questioned it and were not able to get any information.'' …"

September 9, 1999

New York Times 9/9/99 David Johnston "…After a hurried seven-day search, Ms. Reno met with Danforth on Wednesday to discuss the scope of his inquiry and was to announce his appointment on Thursday. Earlier on Wednesday, when Danforth was interviewed briefly by Fox News after arriving in Washington, he said the inquiry "would be very daunting ….. "

The Dallas Morning News 9/8/99 Lee Hancock "…Expended U.S. military illumination flares fired by U.S. government personnel have been discovered in the tons of evidence recovered from the Branch Davidian compound, the head of the Texas Department of Public Safety said Tuesday night. Texas Rangers searching a Waco storage facility for missing pyrotechnic tear-gas grenades discovered one of the military devices, a star parachute flare…."I can't tell you whether they were [shot by] the military or FBI, but certainly, they were fired by government officials," Mr. Francis said. …. Texas law enforcement officials said the discovery of the spent flare raises troubling new questions about what else may be unknown in the tons of evidence recovered after the compound burned. "

Fox News Wire 9/9/99 AP "...Timothy McVeigh's trial lawyer says he believes full disclosure of the FBI's actions in the Branch Davidian standoff would have eliminated the motive for the Oklahoma City bombing two years later.' ..."

September 10, 1999

Cox News Service 9/10/99 Leah Quin Mike Ward ".... In an admission sure to fuel new questions about military involvement in the Branch Davidian siege, state officials revealed in an Austin courtroom Friday that parts of a Texas Rangers' report on evidence collected at the scene contain classified military secrets. Attorneys for the Texas Department of Public Safety said the report can't be made public yet because other agencies needed time to review it to see if any parts of it should remain confidential..

The Dallas Morning News 9/10/99 Lee Hancock "...A federal judge was furious Thursday after U.S. marshals in Waco hesitated to carry out his order to seize the contents of an entire government office and massive storage lockers holding evidence from the Branch Davidian standoff. U.S. District Judge Walter Smith ordered the seizure Thursday morning and was "infuriated" after the chief U.S. marshal for his district spent hours consulting with his agency's headquarters in Washington and the U.S. attorney's office in San Antonio before executing the raid on the Waco office of the federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, officials said. "He was livid," said one source who spoke on condition on anonymity. "It appears that the marshals refused to execute his order until they went to Washington." ....... ....."

September 12, 1999

Ft. Worth Star-Telegram 9/12/99 Jennifer Autrey ".... "There is some evidence that might indicate that they were more than observers," Francis said. "It is fuzzy as to what their role was." Francis said law enforcement officials and civilians have provided first-and second-hand reports on Delta Force activities. He declined to elaborate further....."

Ft Worth Star-Telegram/AP 9/12/99 AP "....As an independent inquiry prepares to examine the government's role in the 1993 Branch Davidian standoff, Tarrant County Medical Examiner Nizam Peerwani says he would like to look again into the deaths of sect members who died of gunshot wounds. "There is a feeling that one should go back and re-evaluate," Peerwani said. "The focus at the time was not whether the FBI was doing the shooting." ..... Peerwani said he wants to re-examine the deaths of 23 Davidians who died of bullet wounds. It may be possible to determine whether they were shot by someone outside the compound building, he told the WACO TRIBUNE-HERALD............"

Dallas Morning News 9/12/99 Lee Hancock "….In the report, a Texas Rangers sergeant assigned to sort through the Branch Davidian evidence kept by the Texas Department of Public Safety wrote that his efforts were slowed by the lack of a complete set of crime scene photographs from the case. ``It is my understanding that the FBI had taken all of the 35-mm film, negatives and reference material into their possession, and only a limited number of photographs were returned to the Texas Department of Public Safety,'' Ranger Sgt. Joey Gordon wrote in the report obtained by the Dallas Morning News….."

Newsmax - Inside Cover 9/12/99 Carl Limbacher "….But on Friday, one of four McClennan County, Texas justices who ordered autopsies for the Branch Davidian victims told the Waco Tribune-Herald that the FBI witheld key ballistics test evidence that could confirm charges they were killed by government gunfire. "The thing that always stayed in my mind was if they were afraid some of the ordinance or ballistics could be matched up with their weaponry," Justice of the Peace David Pareya told the paper. Because the government would not release those tests results, the cause of death for many Davidians was officially recorded as unknown, the McClennan County official said….."

Ft. Worth Star-Telegram 9/12/99 Jennifer Autrey "….Steven Barry, a retired Special Forces sergeant who sometimes trained members of the Delta Force, gave a sworn affidavit to plaintiffs' attorneys in a civil suit brought by families of dead Branch Davidians…. In the affidavit, Barry quoted a friend in the Delta Force as saying the unit set up a tactical operations center during the siege that was staffed by 10 to 20 soldiers. Barry said another friend in the Delta Force told him that the unit's "B" Squadron had been ordered to "take down" Branch Davidians. Barry said he understood from his experience in the Special Forces that "take down" meant to kill people identified as terrorists. Barry isn't alone in these allegations….…. ….."

September 13, 1999

9/13/99 FoxNews "…A dozen spent rifle cartridges of a type often used by snipers were recovered from a house used by the FBI during the 1993 siege of the Branch Davidian compound, the Texas Rangers reported Monday. For six years federal agents have denied firing shots during the standoff….. The Rangers disclosed that 12 .308-caliber casings and two dozen Israeli-manufactured .223-caliber casings were recovered from a house used by the FBI's Hostage Rescue Team during the 51-day siege. ….."

9/13/99 FoxNews "…In a report submitted to Congress, the Rangers also released a letter by a federal prosecutor who told Attorney General Janet Reno that Justice Department officials may have withheld facts from her regarding the FBI's use of potentially incendiary tear-gas canisters. "I have formed the belief that facts may have been kept from you — and quite possibly are being kept from you even now, by components of the department," Assistant U.S. Attorney Bill Johnston in Waco, Texas, wrote in his Aug. 30 letter ….."

September 14, 1999

New York Times 9/14/99 David Johnston Neil Lewis "….In a separate development, the Texas Rangers released a report to Congress today that said the Rangers, who collected evidence after the tear gas assault, had found spent cartridges from two different types of sniper rifles carried by F.B.I. agents during the 51-day siege….. the officials said they had never determined whether the shell casings came from the A.T.F.'s weapons. Federal law enforcement officials said today that the shell casings were collected by F.B.I. agents after they arrived in Waco in March 1993….."

Daily Republican 9/14/99 Howard Hobbs ".... Public attention is now centering on a clumsy cover-up which would have kept the public in the dark about a 1993 Clinton administration order sending a U.S. Army Ranger Unit to illegally take up arms against American citizens.....The documents cast new light on how the Clinton administration concealed the truth about FBI use of incendiary tear gas grenades and finally opens up some of the darker aspects of the cover-up....."

Michelle Mittelstadt, Associated Press 9/14/99 "…The federal prosecutor who raised questions about a possible Justice Department cover-up in the Waco standoff was abruptly removed from the case along with his boss, according to a court filing made public today. Deputy Attorney General Eric Holder recused U.S. Attorney James W. Blagg in San Antonio and assistant U.S. Attorney Bill Johnston in Waco from any further dealings in criminal or civil proceedings related to the siege.' …."

Washington Post 9/14/99 Lorraine Adams David Vise "... The Rangers also found a device called a "thumper round" and concluded it was designed to knock down a door and could, under certain conditions, start a fire. ....

News World Communications, Inc. Mark England Tribune-Herald staff writer ".....Edward Allard was listed among the plaintiffs' expert witnesses for the lawsuit, set for trial on Oct. 18. Allard - who made similar claims in the 1997 film Waco: Rules of Engagemen t - said he recently analyzed another FLIR tape brought to him by Mike McNulty, who is producing his second film on Waco....... "Any layman can look at what I looked at and say it's gunshots, assuming he knows something about gunshots," said Allard, who worked 10 years in the Army's Night Vision Laboratory and is a physicist at a private company in Virginia. On at least three occasions, the FLIR film he analyzed showed automatic weapons fire directed at the Davidians on April 19, 1993, once while their residence was in flames, Allard said. ....."

Ft Worth Star-Telegram 9/14/99 Ron Hutcheson Gabrielle Crist ".... The report from the Texas Rangers opens a new line of inquiry by raising the possibility that FBI snipers shot at the Branch Davidians..... "Mike McNulty has advised me that other evidence held by the DPS is crucial to proving some of his suspicions that the FBI and ATF have not been truthful in their account of the Branch Davidian investigation." Ranger Sgt. Joey D. Gordon wrote. For example, McNulty asserts that a blue knit cap worn by a Davidian who was killed during the ATF raid might provide evidence that the man was shot at close range, which contradicts reports by ATF agents who say he was shot from a distance...."

September 14, 1999

The Dallas Morning News 9/14/99 Lee Hancock David Jackson "...The government will not fight a federal judge's demand for control of all of its information and evidence tied to the 1993 Branch Davidian siege, a federal prosecutor said Tuesday….....U.S. District Judge Walter Smith of Waco last month ordered the government to turn over all evidence relating to the Davidian incident. The government initially challenged his order as excessive and unlawful, but after the judge ordered U.S. marshals to begin seizing evidence last week, Justice Department lawyers hinted that they might drop their fight.........."

September 16, 1999

AP 9/16/99 "… The Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals has denied a motion to recuse a federal judge from a trial brought by survivors of Branch Davidians who have sued the government for wrongful death. Plaintiffs attorneys tried to have U.S. District Judge Walter Smith removed from the case, arguing he is biased. In 1994, Smith sentenced eight Branch Davidians to prison for various charges, including weapons violations and voluntary manslaughter. …"

September 17, 1999

Accuracy In Media - Media Monitor 9/17/99 Reed Irvine Cliff Kincaid "….The attack on Waco was not necessarily illegal under federal law, and the use of Army troops in the final assault may not have been illegal, either. On the use of the Army, attorney Alan Woll says, "There would have to be a presidential finding under a statute or under the Constitution that he was authorized to deploy the military troops in this law enforcement activity and he was going ahead and exercising that power." Would that have to be public? "Not to my knowledge," he says. Attorney Woll is the co-author of a memorandum on the use of presidential powers to use the U.S. Armed Forces …"

September 20, 1999

USA TODAY 9/20/99 Kevin Johnson "….The heart of the FBI's defense is that the military-style tear-gas canisters fired on the Branch Davidian compound prior to the deadly conflagration were not designed as incendiary devices….. The device - known in military vernacular as the M651 cartridge - is a small, cylindrical charge with the capacity to penetrate glass and wood surfaces. Once it lands, the tear gas is blown out of the cylinder. At Waco, the canister was launched by the FBI in an attempt to crash through the plywood roof of a concrete bunker adjacent to the main Davidian compound to seal off a possible escape route…."

September 21, 1999

9/21/99 Libby Quaid AP "...The Justice Department has cleared Edward L. Dowd Jr. of improperly lobbying against a Missouri gun-rights measure while he was U.S. attorney in St. Louis, a spokesman confirmed Tuesday. Dowd, the newly appointed deputy to Waco special counsel John C. Danforth, had been investigated for months following allegations he misused taxpayer-funded resources to oppose lobby against a referendum on allowing concealed guns in Missouri. At the time, Dowd was U.S. attorney for the Eastern District of Missouri.... In March, Dowd and Steve Hill, U.S. attorney for western Missouri, co-signed a letter on official letterhead calling Proposition B ``especially dangerous for those in law enforcement.''......"

September 24, 1999

The Dallas Morning News David Jackson Lee Hancock 9/24/99 "....After days of debate, Senate Republicans created a task force Thursday to investigate both the deadly Branch Davidian siege and the Justice Department and FBI as a whole............" 9/24/99 Tommy Witherspoon "...A Ryder truck pulled up to the loading dock at the Waco federal courthouse about noon Thursday, but the vehicle, which resembled the rental truck driven by Timothy McVeigh at Oklahoma City, didn't cause federal officials to panic. It was expected and its cargo was known - tons of evidence from the Branch Davidian compound that has been stored by the Department of Public Safety since 1993. ….The truck then was driven to Waco under supervision of the U.S. Marshals Service. Jack Dean, U.S. Marshal for the Western District of Texas in San Antonio, declined to confirm that the truck contained evidence from Mount Carmel....... "

September 27, 1999

Post Dispatch Terry Ganey William Freivogel 9/27/99 "....* As the inquiry unfolds, Attorney General Janet Reno could become a target. ....... And while Dowd's selection still meets with wide approval, a few are wondering how he can be seen as impartial after working for Attorney General Janet Reno, potentially a target of the investigation. ..."

September 29, 1999

Ft Worth Star-Telegram 9/29/99 Jennifer Autrey "....John Danforth, the former senator investigating the possibility of a government cover-up in the deaths of Branch Davidians near Waco in 1993, is seeking information from a journalist whose film has raised questions about the events at Mount Carmel. But the journalist, Dan Gifford, executive producer of the Emmy-winning documentary WACO: THE RULES OF ENGAGEMENT, said he doesn't trust the special counsel's investigation and thinks it is too narrow. "For all I know, this process might have been set up to see who has been talking and smite them," he said...... ...... "

September 30, 1999


Dallas Morning News 10/7/99 Lee Hancock ".... A former government recording expert hired by the Houston lawyer said he found repeated anomalies. "There's so much editing on this tape, it's ridiculous," said Steve Cain, who spent more than 20 years as an audio and video expert with the U.S. Secret Service and the Internal Revenue Service's national crime lab in Chicago. Mr. Cain said his analysis is preliminary because he has not been granted access to the original tapes. But he said his work has turned up evidence of erasures of audio, including the one-hour, 20-minute period before the compound fire. "...."

Dallas Morning News 10/7/99 Lee Hancock "....The infrared tapes sent Monday to Mr. Caddell were described by Justice Department lawyers as "first-generation" copies of the original tapes shot at Waco on April 19, he said. Inexplicably included in the opening minutes of that tape is an eight-minute portion date-stamped April 16. That footage appears to be a frozen infrared shot of an empty field with no images of the compound. Mr. Cain said that was one of the most egregious of what he described as dozens of unexplained anomalies. "And it appears that either insert edits or other types of over recordings were made by the same or different video camera sources," said his Sept. 30 preliminary report to Mr. Caddell....."

Dallas Morning News 10/7/99 Lee Hancock "....Maurice Cox, a retired satellite imagery analyst and mathematician who worked for 33 years on secret government photo-reconnaissance projects said Wednesday that he shares many of Mr. Cain's concerns. He recently examined copies of the FBI infrared tapes released last month. "There are things that I don't understand. I don't know what they mean, but I know that you need to go to the master tapes and find out what in the hell is going on," said Mr. Cox, who lives in California. ....."

October 6, 1999

Washington Post 10/6/99 David Vise Richard Leiby "….. Based on his review, Ghigliotti said he is convinced that during the final assault on April 19, 1993, an FBI agent shot in the direction of the Branch Davidian compound. "I conclude that the FBI fired shots on that day," Ghigliotti said in an interview yesterday. "I conclude this based on the ground-view videotapes taken from several different angles simultaneously and based on the overhead thermal tape. The gunfire from the ground is there, without a doubt." After being briefed yesterday by Ghigliotti, Rep. Dan Burton (R-Ind.), chairman of the committee that retained Ghigliotti as a witness, said: "What we have heard from this expert is troubling, but we think it is premature to make any final determination. ….. Ghigliotti said he has not arrived at any conclusion on those [shots behind the compound] allegations. Rather, he has focused on three videotapes taken by news agencies that day and the new audio tape, which is part of an FBI surveillance video. The newly released FBI recording indicates that someone was firing shots about 12:44 p.m. and includes expressions of surprise from FBI employees circling in a plane overhead. "You can hear it," one FBI employee in the plane says of the gunfire, which federal agents believed was coming from a man with a handgun north of the compound. However, the tape does not make clear who was firing, and an FBI effort to locate the gunman was unsuccessful. Ghigliotti said he believes the gunfire came from an FBI agent and was picked up by his microphone as he fired. He said the videotapes he reviewed show gunfire toward the compound at the same time as the audio is picking up the shots. Several armored vehicles were clustered in the area of the gunfire, according to Ghigliotti…… ….."

Waco Tribune-Herald 10/5/99 Mark England "…U.S. District Judge Walter S. Smith Jr. of Waco on Tuesday granted Special Counsel John Danforth access to evidence in the upcoming wrongful-death lawsuit filed against the government by surviving Branch Davidians and others. …."

October 14, 1999

The Dallas Morning News 10/14/99 David Jackson Lee Hancock "....The military alone has estimated that at least 6,000 pages of its documents are classified, and CIA, FBI, Treasury, ATF, and Justice Department officials have indicated that their agencies have a number of secret documents relating to the standoff. The White House is also producing documents, and the Treasury Department has asked White House lawyers to determine whether three of its documents may be exempt from the order under executive privilege......"

Fort Worth Star Telegram 10/14/99 Maria Recio "....FBI spokesman Tron Brekke said in an interview that the agency had used a closed-circuit camera and robots equipped with cameras during the siege but could not confirm that there was a closed-circuit system continuously in use, especially on the last day...... "

Dallas Morning News 10/14/99 Lee Hancock David Jackson "..... The Branch Davidian compound was ringed with FBI closed-circuit cameras and secret government sensing devices during the entire 1993 standoff, and the cameras were in use throughout April 19, the day federal agents launched a tank and tear-gas assault, government documents show. But despite written statements from FBI agents and technicians that recordings were made, no videotape from the surveillance cameras has ever been made public by the federal government. Critics of the government's actions in Waco say their efforts to obtain such videos have been blocked for years by the FBI and the Department of Justice........"

October 20, 1999 10/20/99 Michelle Mittelstadt AP "....Lawyers for survivors of the 1993 Waco siege proposed Wednesday recreating a scene with conditions similar to the standoff's final hours. The high-stakes challenge to the Justice Department is a bid to prove federal agents shot into the Branch Davidian compound..........."

October 24, 1999

Fort Worth Star-Telegram 10/24/99 Jennifer Autrey "…... Many members of the FBI team served in such elite military units as the Army Rangers, Delta Force or Navy SEALS and have seen combat. "You have, quite frankly, some of the most deadly individuals in the entire world in the hostage rescue team of the FBI, but their commitment is to not use those talents, or that technique or that training," said Danny Coulson, the team's first commander….."

Reuters 10/24/99 ".....One of the congressional committees investigating the assault on the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas, may order ballistic tests on some bullet casings found at an FBI sniper position, according to a New Yorker magazine story to be published Monday........ "

October 27, 1999

The Dallas morning News 10/27/99 Lee Hancock "….Government lawyers have rejected a Texas attorney's challenge to join a scientific field test that he has said would prove that federal agents fired at the Branch Davidian compound near Waco just before it burned in 1993. ….."


October, 1999

St. Louis Post-Dispatch 2/7/00 "……Last October, an investigator for Waco special counsel John C. Danforth visited a federal prison in Louisiana to interview Graeme Craddock, one of nine survivors of the government's siege on the Branch Davidian complex near Waco, Texas, in 1993. What the two men talked about is secret. But Craddock gave another sworn statement later that month that provided new evidence that the Branch Davidians started a fire that killed dozens of people on the last day of the siege, April 19, 1993.. ….."

November 1, 1999

Freeper d14truth 5/2/00 "…."A November 1, 1999 New Yorker article on Waco reports: "Allard, a former physics professor, ran a bit of the video for Danforth, stopped to explain the basics of thermal imagery, and then returned to the scene of what he believes is a pitched gun battle between Davidians and F.B.I. agents firing automatic weapons. "I can look at students, and I can tell you if they're paying attention," Allard says. "The Danforth people were totally absorbed." Of one scene in the video, he says, "There's no question that's a full gun battle." As he recalls it, "What I did with the Danforth people is, I said to them, 'Look, why don't you count the fire your-self? I played the tapes, frame by frame. And as you play them frame by frame the people say, 'I see one, two, three, four. . . I see five! No, I think there's four, run it back? And pretty soon they say, 'Yeah, there's five shots from there, and there's one shot from the other side." It is probably not good news for the F.B.I. that Danforth and his staff have been counting the F.B.I.'s putative automatic-gunfire shots at Waco... However, an independent specialist in thermal imaging, Carlos Ghigliotti, viewed the F.B.I.'s FUR tapes at F.B.I. headquarters, and concluded that shots had been fired.….."

November 3, 1999

The Dallas Morning News 11/3/99 Lee Hancock "….A Waco federal judge angrily warned Tuesday that the government faces contempt proceedings within two weeks if its lawyers do not surrender every federal document relating to the Branch Davidian standoff. "The court is not unmindful that the government waits not only until the last day, but until the last minute, to respond to every order this court has issued. That practice causes the court to be suspect of the government's desire to comply with its orders," Judge Walter S. Smith Jr. wrote in a four-page order rejecting a government plea for another month to complete the turnover. ….."

The Dallas Morning News 11/2/99 Lee Hancock "…White House officials have turned over 588 pages of materials but are withholding one classified document "until further notice," according to a memo from the White House counsel's office. ….."

The Dallas Morning News 11/2/99 Lee Hancock "…Judge Smith already has shown waning patience for the government's lawyers in the case, which is set for trial in May……At least 751 original FBI documents will have to be replaced by photocopies. The originals were in an entire file box mistakenly thrown away about Oct. 10 by a Washington-area copying firm hired by the FBI to duplicate its Branch Davidian files, the government filing stated. The copying company traced the box two days later to a Washington trash hauler but not before 751 pages from it were compacted and buried in a Virginia landfill, the government pleading stated….."

The Dallas Morning News 11/2/99 Lee Hancock "…An FBI memo included with Monday's filing indicated that other Branch Davidian documents also appear to be missing from the bureau's files. Only a few photocopied pages have been found from two notebooks used by a high-ranking FBI official during the standoff, the FBI memo stated. The notebooks are thought to belong to Danny O. Coulson, who was then deputy assistant FBI director and helped supervise the bureau's Washington command center during the siege, the FBI memo stated. "We are continuing in our efforts to locate the missing original materials," the FBI memo stated….."

November 15, 1999 11/15/99 Carl Limbacher "…. Waco Special Prosecutor John Danforth has asked that the FBI conduct ballistics tests on the guns they used during the bureau's lethal April 19, 1993, assault on the Branch Davidian compound, reported on Saturday….. Still, expect Justice Department lawyers to make the "eye of the beholder" argument. One man's muzzle flash will doubtless remain another's glittering piece of broken glass. …."

The Dallas Morning News 11/15/99 Lee Hancock David Jackson "…U.S. District Judge Walter S. Smith Jr. of Waco issued a three-page order late Monday saying that he was ``persuaded'' by arguments from Branch Davidian lawyers and the office of special counsel John Danforth that the [independent field] tests are needed to resolve whether flashes of light recorded by FBI infrared cameras came from government gunfire……"

The Dallas Morning News 11/15/99 Lee Hancock David Jackson "…Previous government pleadings stated that the White House might try to withhold some records under executive privilege. Monday's filing said that the President's lawyers had sent all relevant records……But Monday's pleading indicated that Justice Department lawyers still may try to invoke executive privilege or other legal exemptions to block Branch Davidian lawyers and even Judge Smith from examining some documents. They may include records detailing the presence of secret military units and equipment and information about sensitive law enforcement equipment, including the FBI's infrared video cameras, earlier government filings indicated….."

The Dallas Morning News 11/15/99 Lee Hancock David Jackson "…It made no mention of a classified White House document described in earlier pleadings, which the president's lawyers had earlier suggested officials would withhold ``until further notice.'' ……"


November 22, 1999

Dallas Morning News via Knight Ridder 11/22/99 Lee Hancock "….The search turned up 24 items that may have evidentiary value, including parts of a MAC-10 pistol, a .38-caliber revolver and a number of what appeared to be burnt remnants of government listening devices placed in the compound during the siege, said James B. Francis Jr. chairman of the DPS board.. ``But we did not find that cannister we were looking for,'' he said. ``We don't know where it is. It may be in the FBI's lab. That's the only other place that we know it could be. Nobody else has had access to that except FBI agents over the years.''….….Texas Rangers have been trying to find the missing projectile since June, when Francis ordered a search after learning that it was not among the collection of Branch Davidian evidence held in the state agency's Austin evidence lockers…… "

December, 1999

WorldNetDaily 5/3/00 Sarah Foster "…..This past December, Hardy visited Infrared Technology a second time, and Ghigliotti showed him some of the work he was doing. …….. "Carlos wouldn't tell me everything," Hardy said, "but he did give me a 'little tidbit' as he called it. He told me the whole operation [at Waco] from the start of the siege to the end was funded out of the drug forfeiture monies that are supposed to be used only in the war on drugs. "He said not only the ATF raid -- the whole siege, most of it the FBI funded out of the drug war monies. Now those are special funds. He told me he had a lot of documentation showing the flow of money - which explains the new uniforms and new equipment the agents had at the start of the raid. "I don't know why they [the committee] put him onto this issue," Hardy continued, "but apparently he was working on it." He said Ghigliotti -- who was standing by his desk as he talked -- placed his hand on a "thick pile of manuals and memoranda" to indicate the documentation he had assembled on this most recent assignment. He told Hardy, "All the standards for when you're allowed to use that money are laid down in writing, and they [the government agencies] violated all of the standards to get at the money. And the committee knows it.". ……"

December 4, 1999

Source: St. Louis Post-Dispatch 12/4/99 William Freivogel Terry Ganey "....One other finding of the investigators who went through the Waco evidence last month was that there was no evidence to support McNulty's claim that the government may have used a high explosive "shaped charge" to blow a hole in a concrete bunker in which children had taken refuge. If a shaped charge had been used, it would have left telltale signs, investigators say. There would have been pieces of wire that are used in the charge, and the steel rods in the concrete would have been vaporized. But there were no wires in the evidence, sources say, and the rods were bent but not vaporized...."

December 24, 1999

Source: St. Louis Post-Dispatch 12/4/99 William Freivogel Terry Ganey "....When investigators for special counsel John C. Danforth and Congress recently combed through the 12 tons of evidence from the scene of the assault, their most interesting findings concerned things that were not there, according to informed sources. The most important item missing was the 44 mm pyrotechnic tear gas projectile that reignited the Waco investigation last summer....... Its disappearance could be evidence that a cover-up began shortly after the siege, investigators say...... A photographer for the Texas Rangers - identified by sources as Kent Kincaid - photographed the projectile immediately after the siege. But the projectile was not listed on an inventory of evidence, sources say, and it has not been seen since....."

December 29, 1999

St. Louis Post-Dispatch 12/29/99 Terry Ganey "…. When lawyers for the Branch Davidians sat down recently to question a government witness about what happened at Waco, they found themselves looking at a black screen. The witness, a member of the Army's highly classified Delta Force, was hidden behind a screen that had been erected in a doorway of a room in a building in Washington. Four attorneys for the Defense Department and the Justice Department were positioned so they could see the witness's face and confer with him about his answers. But for the Branch Davidian lawyers asking the questions, the witness remained in a shadow world. And when the interview was over, the Branch Davidian lawyers had to allow time for the witness to depart…….. ….."

St. Louis Post-Dispatch 12/29/99 Terry Ganey "….. "Prior to the depositions, I had personally discounted the possibility that there was any active Delta force involvement on April 19," Caddell said. "Following the depositions, I believe that is a very real possibility.…. …."

January 1, 2000

Arkansas Democrat-Gazette1/10/00 "...... Several memos from files in the Justice Department detailed the misgivings and outright objections to that blood-stained operation from various psychological experts. They'd counseled against the military approach all along, and added that they believed those in charge derailed negotiations with the Branch Davidians......"

January 13, 2000

WorldNetDaily 1/13/2000 David Bresnahan "… A newspaper claim that a single photo now proves federal forces did not shoot at the Waco Branch Davidians has come under heavy criticism by a documentary producer, as well as FBI, CIA and other officials….. …."

January 18, 2000

Associated Press 1/18/2000 "….Government attorneys failed to meet a federal judge's Tuesday deadline to turn over all evidence sought by relatives suing for wrongful death in the Branch Davidian inferno. …… "

January 19, 2000

Washington Post 1/19/2000 Lorraine Adams David Vise "… Attorneys for Branch Davidians suing the federal government over the deadly siege near Waco, Tex., say they have developed evidence that suggests a Delta Force agent may have fired on the compound, according to filings made yesterday in the case. …..They also filed a motion in U.S. District Court in Waco asking the judge in the case to compel the Defense Department to answer an interrogatory it has failed to answer after repeated requests: whether Defense Department agents fired at the compound…… ….."

January 20, 2000

St. Louis Post Dispatch 1/20/2000 "….. U.S. District Judge Walter Smith has approved special counsel John Danforth's request for temporary custody of human tissue and bone samples collected from the bodies of Branch Davidians who died at Waco in 1993. Danforth wants an independent toxicologist to conduct tests on the samples.. ……"

January 21, 2000

Dallas News 1/21/2000 Lee Hancock "…. Depositions of two U.S. Army Delta Force technicians offer the first detailed public accounts of the secret unit's role in the 1993 Branch Davidian siege. The special forces soldiers testified that their primary mission was helping the FBI use sophisticated surveillance gear from their unit and that they had no direct knowledge that any Delta Force personnel participated in the FBI assault that ended the standoff. ….. The two soldiers acknowledged that one sergeant sent in initially and a sergeant there at the end were combat arms specialists……. "

January 26, 2000

AP 1/26/2000 "….Lawyers for Branch Davidians who are suing the government over the 1993 Waco raid complained Wednesday that the government's denial of gunfire by federal agents is still incomplete. ……. The Defense Department, which acknowledges members of its elite Delta Force were on the scene during the 51-day siege in an observational role, made a similar statement ``based on currently available information.'' ….."

January 28, 2000

St. Louis Dispatch 4/19/00 Terry Ganey & William H. Freivogel "........"On Jan. 28, Judge Smith granted a request made by Danforth's office for tissue and bone samples of the human remains from the victims. Samples from someone exposed to methylene chloride will show the presence of cyanide. About 40 of the bodies show the presence of cyanide. However, investigators say hundreds of burning substances - from plastics to substances found in furniture in the complex - could have created cyanide found in the bodies............."

Dallas Morning News 1/28/2000 Lee Hancock "….The Waco special counsel's office asked a federal judge Thursday for permission to perform independent testing on tape recordings made from FBI surveillance devices on the crucial last day of the 1993 Branch Davidian siege. ……"

January 31, 2000

Dallas Morning News Via Drudge 1/31/2000 Lee Hancock "…. The Waco special counsel, responding to questions about a Delta Force commando's whereabouts at the end of the Branch Davidian siege, used a polygraph on him last week to confirm that he wasn't actively involved in the FBI's assault on the sect's compound, officials said…… The soldier and his two colleagues each said they filed no written report to document what they saw at the end of the siege, officials said. In contrast, Defense Department records indicate that earlier teams of Delta soldiers had filed detailed reports. ….."

February 3, 2000

The Dallas Morning News 2/3/2000 Lee Hancock "… Lawyers for the sect have conceded that the agent [Horiuchi] will probably be dismissed, despite recent revelations about evidence that could support the gunfire claim.. ….."

Dallas Morning News 2/2/2000 Lee Hancock "…. Arguing that the U.S. government can't be sued even if its agents' judgment calls prove negligent, Justice Department lawyers asked a Waco federal judge Tuesday to throw out two key charges in the Branch Davidians' wrongful-death lawsuit. …."

February 16, 2000

St. Louis Post-Dispatch 2/26/00 William Freivogel "…..Jamar told his story to investigators for the House Government Reform Committee in Austin, Texas, on Feb. 16....... Justice Department sources say that Jamar told this story……"

February 23, 2000

San Antonio Express-News 2/23/00 Dick Reavis "…..For the first time, a Branch Davidian survivor of the Feb. 28, 1993, shootout at Mount Carmel has admitted that he fired at two of the four U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms agents who were killed during the battle. Livingstone Fagan, who was one of 11 Davidians tried in San Antonio six years ago, said in a deposition that he shot at ATF agents on the roof of Mount Carmel. …..

February 24, 2000

Dallas Morning News 2/24/00 Lee Hancock "… A former top FBI official has acknowledged that sending tanks into the Branch Davidian compound was inconsistent with the Washington-approved plan for ending the 51-day siege, the sect's lead lawyer said Wednesday. Former deputy assistant FBI director Danny Coulson also testified in a deposition on Tuesday that he and other senior FBI leaders were stunned when they saw live network TV images of FBI tanks ramming deep into the sect's compound on April 19, 1993, said Houston attorney Michael Caddell. ….."

February 25, 2000

Dallas Morning News 2/25/00 Lee Hancock "……Efforts by federal prosecutors to access files from the government computer once used by a Waco whistle-blower prompted angry complaints to the Justice Department this week from a congressional committee investigating the Branch Davidian siege. ……Mr. Johnston said he learned about the effort to search his computer after going to his old office late last week to fill out paperwork and being met by nervous staff and an Austin-based computer technician.. ……"

February 26, 2000 2/26/00 David Bresnahan "……The Department of Defense has been asked to declassify thousands of secret military documents in anticipation of testimony by Attorney General Janet Reno, and possibly even President Clinton -- in a lawsuit on behalf of three children killed in the 1993 Waco Branch Davidian fire…….….." 2/26/00 David Bresnahan "……WorldNetDaily is in receipt of a letter from the United States Special Operations Command in response to a Freedom of Information Act request seeking military documents regarding Waco. The letter explained why the military has classified some of those documents: "Portions of the documents were found to contain information concerning military plans, weapons, or operations; and vulnerabilities or capabilities or systems, installations, projects, or plans relating to the national security, the unauthorized disclosure of which reasonably could be expected to cause serious damage to the national security." WorldNetDaily asked Cohen by fax whether the statement also applied to the documents Brannon is seeking to declassify. Cohen's office has not responded. ......"

February 29, 2000

Waco Tribune-Herald 2/29/00 TOMMY WITHERSPOON and MARK ENGLAND "…..Houston attorney Mike Caddell asked U.S. District Judge Walter S. Smith Jr. of Waco Monday to dismiss two prominent Branch Davidians from the group's wrongful-death lawsuit against the government. Caddell, lead plaintiffs' attorney, filed a motion stating that Kathryn Schroeder and Rita Riddle do not wish to pursue the lawsuit.……."

March, 2000

Freeper Ada Coddington 4/29/00 David Hardy "….Carlos also told me, last month, that he'd seen FLIRs from nights before 4/19, and that it was apparent that the FLIR aircraft was being used to monitor the Davidians' water supply. …..While I was in his lab, he showed me some footage where it was clear, beyond any doubt, that a man was moving in the wreckage of the gym. The guy gets up from behind one pile of cover and races to another. In between, you see a very long flash that exists only for an instant -- much longer in terms of physical length than could be attributed to a gunshot. He said that was a bullet imaged in flight--he'd imaged them before, while flying past shooting ranges..

March 2, 2000

The Dallas Morning News 3/2/00 Lee Hancok "…..A former secret service forensic recording specialist hired by the sect to analyse FBI audio and videotapes said he had found broad evidence of tampering and erasures in crucial government recordings. The expert, Steve Cain, stated that tapes of the surveillance recordings from April 19 that Justice lawyers described as originals to the Waco federal court all appeared to be copies. ….."

March 5, 2000

Dallas Morning News 3/5/00 Lee Hancock "….. Crime-scene records, videos and photographs from the Branch Davidian siege call into question the FBI's account of where, when and how many pyrotechnic tear gas rounds were fired by its hostage rescue team at the end of the 1993 standoff, investigators say. The Texas Rangers completed a lengthy final report last month on efforts to identify questioned evidence from the standoff and locate a pyrotechnic tear gas projectile that disappeared in 1993 after it was photographed by a Department of Public Safety photographer. The photographer's field notes show the projectile was "located about 200 yards northwest of the [compound water] tower," the Rangers report states. That means the device probably was fired from behind the building, and not from the area where FBI officials have previously said that only two such devices were launched that day, said investigators involved in the ongoing inquiries. ….."

Dallas Morning News 3/5/00 Lee Hancock "….. The discovery of a melted mass of bluish plastic among the evidence inventoried last November by the Rangers and investigators from Mr. Danforth's office fuels additional uncertainty about how the FBI deployed tear gas on April 19, an investigator said. The plastic is about the size and weight of one of the non-pyrotechnic ferret rounds used by the FBI. Those rounds have blue tips on milky white bodies, and the blob of plastic is an identical shade of blue, the investigator said. It was recovered from the bunker deep within the compound where many Branch Davidian women and children went for shelter from the gas attack and later died. …."

March 9, 2000

Dallas Morning News 3/9/00 Lee Hancock "…..Also Wednesday, Mr. Caddell asked U.S. District Judge Walter Smith to fine the Justice Department $50,000 for violating his Jan. 15 deadline for handing over all government documents in the wrongful-death lawsuit. That motion noted that 80 percent of the 163,500 pages of records that have been turned over by the government did not come until after the court's discovery deadlines, and some have continued to arrive as late as March 3. ......"

March 12, 2000

The Post-Dispatch 3/12/00 William H. Freivogel And Terry Ganey "……Until recently, the government had argued that muzzle blasts from small arms were unlikely to be detected by an airborne infrared camera. But the government now concedes that the Fort Hood test may pick up muzzle flashes. ……"

Dallas Morning News 3/12/00 Lee Hancock "…..A flamboyant New Orleans-based private investigator in the case has announced that he believes the cameras at Fort Hood will be altered in a way to ensure they do not detect gunfire. The investigator, Gordon Novel, has been tied to government conspiracy theories since he was labeled a CIA operative and fugitive witness in late New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison's investigation of the Kennedy assassination. Mr. Novel was the first to identify the flashes on the Waco tape as possible gunfire in December 1995 while working on the Branch Davidian case for former U.S. Attorney General Ramsey Clark. He said that he partially bases his suspicion on the fact that the British-based company supervising the test is owned by a U.S. defense contractor that has done past work for U.S. intelligence agencies, the defense department and the FBI. …….. "

March 13, 2000

St. Louis Post-Dispatch 3/13/00 Terry Ganey "….. The Branch Davidians' main lawyer is dropping the claim that FBI sniper Lon Horiuchi fired at the Branch Davidians during the 1993 Waco siege. Forensic experts concluded that 35 shell casings found at Horiuchi's sniper post did not come from his rifle. Instead, the casings came from weapons used by agents of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) during the initial gunfight with the Branch Davidians on Feb. 28, 1993 - 51 days before Horiuchi was alleged to have fired. ……... ……."

March 15, 2000

The Dallas Morning News 3/16/00 Lee Hancock "…… DAVIDIAN ALLEGATIONS Here are some of the allegations by attorneys for the Branch Davidians and their survivors, who say evidence provided by federal agencies from the Waco standoff is flawed, suspect or missing:

1. Infrared recordings made from an FBI aircraft on April 19, 1993 …….. The FBI has changed its account of how much videotaping was done, telling a federal court in 1998 that tapes were recorded only after 10:41 a.m. that day. Last fall, FBI officials acknowledged that tapes had been found from as early as 5:51 a.m..…. The sect's recording expert found that infrared tapes labeled originals by the government contain what appear to be lengthy erasures of key audio tracks and other anomalies.

2. The FBI's still photographs taken from another aircraft on April 19, 1993 ......,Most original negatives are missing from a 36-frame roll of film taken in the hour before the Davidian building burned. Two images from duplicate negatives sent to the court, labeled frames 31 and 36, contain the same image. Prints sent to the sect's lawyers contain a different image for frame 36......., A photographer who took the pictures testified that he shot about 10 rolls of film that day but that only seven were turned over to the federal court…… The rolls that were submitted contain suspicious, lengthy gaps among the photos taken in the crucial last 30 minutes before the compound caught fire.

3. Audio recordings made from FBI surveillance devices inside the Branch Davidians' building ……. One key tape from the period just before the compound fire contains electronic "start" signatures that suggests it was made by as many as three different tape recorders....... All of the tapes presented as originals contain signals usually caused by high-speed dubbing devices.......... Although a government expert said he examined each of those tapes last fall and placed his initials on their original labels and the evidence bags that held them, none of the tapes submitted to the court contain the experts' initials.

4. A pyrotechnic gas grenade missing from the Texas Rangers' evidence lockers ……The Department of Public Safety photographer who took the picture of the device made field notes indicating that it was found in front of the compound, not at its side. The FBI has said that its agents fired the device away from the sect's building.

5. Police "flash-bang" distraction devices misidentified and mislabeled by the FBI laboratory …… The Rangers' report on its evidence inquiry said seven of the devices, which emit a loud noise and flash, were found inside or just outside the burned compound. Six of the devices were identified by the FBI laboratory to be metal tubing, silencers or spent smoke grenades….."

6. Missing DPS crime-scene film ….* The Rangers said they've found that one roll of crime-scene photos turned over to the FBI in 1993 is missing. The discovery was made after negatives from the photos were returned to the DPS last fall. The roll of film includes photos taken of the cinderblock room, or "bunker," where bodies of most of the Branch Davidian women and children were found after the siege. ......"

March 18, 2000

On March 18, he faxed me a copy of his preliminary report, identifying when the FBI agent (described simply as an "unknown subject") exited the tank hatch, and the gunfire of which he was certain, together with a brief outline of the movements of the FBI shooters. (As it turns out, this fax is apparently the only surviving copy of that preliminary report, other than those given to the Committee.). In late March, he briefed the staffs.

March 19, 2000

Freeper Ian Goddard 4/29/00 "……I'd previously spoken to Dr Edward Allard, who almost died of a heart attack the week before the FLIR test, the same week that another witness for the plaintiffs suddenly died of a heart attack. When I called Allard yesterday, I was told that he can no longer talk about Waco. Since Allard's disabling stroke, the attorney's for the plaintiffs have been looking for another FLIR expert and were going to sign on Carlos Ghigliotti, but unfortunately he was just found dead yesterday. Are they knocking them off one by one, or what?…………. "

Neal Knox 5/1/00 "…….By the way, immediately after the "reenactment" of the FLIR videotaping last month at Ft. Hood, Ghigliotti told Dave the test was worthless for the helicopter wasn't at the same altitude, the temperature was 20 degrees lower, and certain calibration tests had not been done. He was dead before the American-owned British aerospace firm that did the tests told Judge Walter Smith that the apparent gunflashes seen on the FBI FLIR were only reflections. ……"

Freeper GluteusMax 5/1/00 "…….The author of Waco: Rules of Engagement and Waco: A New Revelation was on the radio (Robby Noel's show) this morning disclosing that the other 2 FLIR experts had near misses with death the same week that this man was killed. (Well, the police are treating it as a homicide anyway. Any bets on a 'natural cause' being determined for this 42 year old FLIR expert?) One man inexplicably developed a lethal level of blood poisoning and spent 10 days in the hospital, and the other one had a 'stroke' and is still hospitalized, although there is hope he will be well enough to testify in 2 months. ……"

Fred Zegel, blood poisoning

Freeper blackcat 5/3/00 "….Mike McNulty was interviewed today on the Alex Jones show, as was Mr. Hardy. McNulty said that another man, Fred Seqel, who had been working with Allard on the FLIR tape analysis, was at the Ft. Hood FLIR test a few weeks ago. After viewing the test, he left to go to an auction. There he collapsed and was rushed to the hospital. His blood was full of toxins - they diagnosed blood poisoning. He was on an IV of strong antibiotics for ten days and nearly died. He had a mark on his leg where the toxins entered. …."

March 21, 2000

New York Times 3/21/00 Jim Yardley "……The two sides in the Branch Davidian wrongful-death civil lawsuit offered starkly different conclusions today after hurriedly reviewing infrared videos taken of a unique court-ordered simulation conducted this weekend at Fort Hood in Central Texas. Perhaps not surprisingly, both sides claimed victory. …….. ……."

March 22, 2000 3/22/00 Stephan Archer "…… The U.S. Supreme Court is set to hear oral arguments in the Waco case on April 24, has learned. Nine survivors of the Branch Davidian compound fire who were convicted of carrying machine guns in a federal crime of violence will be petitioning their case before the high court. …….. "They were convicted of carrying a firearm in a federal crime of violence, which is supposed to be a five-year sentence," said Stephen P. Halbrook, the constitutional lawyer representing each of the petitioners. "That was all that they were charged with and that's all the jury found." The United States Code says, in part, that a five-year sentence is to be imposed for carrying a "firearm" during and in relation to a federal crime of violence, and 30 years if the firearm is a "machinegun," a "destructive device," or if the accused is "equipped with a firearm silencer or muffler." "At sentencing, district Judge [Walter S. Smith, Jr.] decided he would apply another law - which is part of the same law, actually - which says if you use a machine gun or certain other types of weapons, you get a 30-year sentence," explained Halbrook. "He said this is something [he] can determine in sentencing; it's not something [the defendants] have to be charged with." ……."

March 24, 2000

Capital Hill Blue & AP 3/24/00 Michelle Mittelstadt "……A federal judge on Friday granted the Justice Department's request to limit the duration of questioning that Attorney General Janet Reno will face next week from lawyers for Branch Davidians who are suing the government over the 1993 Waco siege.……. "

March 28, 2000 3/28/00 Michelle Mittelstadt AP ".....Attorney General Janet Reno testified Tuesday that she never gave approval for tanks to demolish the Branch Davidians' compound near Waco, Texas -- and does not believe the FBI intentionally did so -- say lawyers for the sect who deposed her for their wrongful-death lawsuit against the government........"

March 29, 2000

The Dallas Morning News 3/29/00 Lee Hancock David Jackson "……A recent report by the Texas Rangers also has suggested that one spent pyrotechnic gas grenade was fired from an area that FBI agents previously denied such devices were used. That spent device was photographed by a Texas Department of Public Safety photographer just after the siege ended but then disappeared. ………. The testimony of the FBI technician may not fully resolve such questions. He indicated that he was aware that pyrotechnic tear-gas grenades were brought to the siege, but he was not involved in their deployment or use, said a federal official familiar with his account. He has said that he was assigned solely to stock and resupply tanks used to spray nonpyrotechnic tear gas into the compound on April 19, a federal official said.

Late March, 2000

Dave Hardy "….. [Carlos Ghigliotti[ He told me, in late March, that he'd met with both the majority and the minority of the committee (after they sorta broke off relations) and shown them his results. Each briefing was in detail and consumed several hours. I forget the exact numbers, but somewhere around 3-8 people, mostly attorneys for the committee, were present at each briefing. He was still working on a final report when last I spoke with him. Let me set the record straight: I owe it to that honest man. In my phone log I have two calls from him, sometime between 3/18 and 3/23 (I often overlook writing in the new day). These are about 3-4 weeks before his death:

Notes on first call:

Kevin Binger, chief of staff to Burton, wanted report rewritten his way. Carlos needed stuff from locker (presumably Rangers' evidence locker or locker in custody of court) and committee refused to send him (Carlos) down there. [Again, the indication is that he's not fully broken off relations.].

Notes on second call:

Shots from side of tank. He had been showing the FLIR of a tank hatch opening and a guy coming out of the CEV to the Demo staff members; they agreed that the hatch opened but some didn't agree they could see the person. They knew by name the person under that hatch. Guy dismounts and shoots at a Davidian. Something about audio track at another point says tank is in pursuit of an unidentified subject. [Word unclear, begins with C, likely "Congress"] only wanted his anomaly list [i.e., his list of thermal anomalies, rather than a study of each]. Over a hundred of those. Something about four gunshots. He suggested Demos might pay for analysis of the rest. Demos unaware. [As I recall, he said the minority staff had been kept apprised only of the major developments, and were surprised to learn of all the details.]

March 20, 2000

Tribune-Herald reprinted by World Net Daily News 3/20/00 Tommy Witherspoon "….. Representatives from law enforcement agencies around the state will be in Waco Monday for the funeral of longtime McLennan County Sheriff Jack Harwell. ……….. Harwell, sheriff since 1973, died Thursday morning at his residence in Robinson from an apparent heart attack. He was 71. ………. The service for Harwell will be at 1 p.m. Monday at First Baptist Church of Waco, which has seating capacity for 6,000 people, Simons said. Harwell served in the Navy in 1944, so military and law enforcement honor guards will participate in the service.. ......"

March 29, 2000

St Louis Post 3/29/00 Terry Ganey "….The office of Special Counsel John Danforth called an FBI expert to testify before a grand jury in St. Louis last week after the man said he wanted to be subpoenaed before answering any more questions about Waco, federal officials said Wednesday. ……The expert was Monty Jett, who supervised the reloading of canisters that were used to insert tear gas into the Branch Davidian complex during the government's attempt to roust the Davidians on April 19, 1993. Jett, who works at FBI offices in Quantico, Va., was unavailable for comment Wednesday. Danforth's office refused to comment. …..Federal sources said Jett was the first FBI agent involved with Waco to be brought before a grand jury. In the past, agents have appeared voluntarily to answer questions posed by Danforth's investigators and lawyers at the special counsel's offices at 200 North Broadway. …."

March 30, 2000

Dave Hardy "…. Perhaps the guy with Infraspection was right. I've got a call in to Laurel PD to tell them what little I know.... my phone records show calls to him up thru 3/30, after that he must have called me but there's no record, and I was unable to reach him on 4/19 and thereafter.

March 31, 2000

3/31/2000 Dallas Morning News Lee Hancock "….. But both sides have said that they believe the firm [Vector] may be experiencing difficulties similar to those that their infrared experts have faced in analyzing digitally computerized copies of the test data………. "

AccessWaco 3/31/00 Tom Witherspoon "…..Granting a motion from the majority of plaintiffs, U.S. District Judge Walter S. Smith Jr. of Waco threw Lon Horiuchi out of the case. Lead plaintiff attorney Mike Caddell of Houston earlier this month asked the judge to dismiss Horiuchi, saying there was no "credible evidence" that he fired shots from his sniper's post at the Branch Davidians on April 19, 1993. ….."

April 2, 2000

Express-News 4/2/00 Dick Reavis "…… The 30-page report by Chicago fire expert Patrick Kennedy attempts to find an answer to the question, "Who or what started the fatal fire at Mount Carmel?" Kennedy, head of the world's oldest fire-investigation firm, studied the evidence for plaintiffs in a federal lawsuit who claim government actions led to the wrongful deaths of some 76 people in the blaze…….. In reviewing the prevailing theories, Kennedy argues for negligence as a promoter of the fire - but he says nobody today can be sure how the blaze started. ………… If Kennedy's reasoning is accepted by U.S. District Judge Walter Smith Jr. of Waco, who will try the pending wrongful death suit, the result could be a finding that liability for the blaze cannot be determined - and that the fire's cause officially is a mystery......."

Express-News 4/2/00 Dick Reavis "…… On the afternoon of April 19, 1993, when Mount Carmel burst into flames, FBI spokesman Bob Ricks exclaimed, "Oh, my God! They're killing themselves!" - and the theory of Davidian suicide was born. It blossomed overnight. The next day, President Clinton told a news conference that "some religious fanatics murdered themselves." ……….. During the trial, two fire experts, William Cass of the Los Angeles Fire Department and James Quintiere, a mechanical engineering professor at the University of Maryland, testified for the prosecution. Cass and Quintiere were members of separate investigative teams, both of which came to the conclusion that three fires started nearly simultaneously inside Mount Carmel. Fires with multiple origins ordinarily are associated with arson; therefore, the two experts said, the fire at Mount Carmel was suspect. ……After the trial, the theory of Davidian suicide became official doctrine. ....... ….."

April 17, 2000

MOUNTAIN MEDIA 5/7/00 Vin Suprynowicz "……. Attorney Caddell had written to the office of former Sen. John Danforth, now conducting an independent investigation into the Waco holocaust, on April 17, asking investigators to interview Mr. Ghigliotti, saying the analyst had shown him one particularly compelling image on the video in which the hatch of an FBI armored vehicle "clearly opens, and it appears someone emerges from that tank." Mr. Caddell's letter states that image appeared as the compound began burning and only seconds before a series of flashes appeared near the same armored vehicle…….. "I have been trying to reach him for the last few days, but he is apparently out of town," the April 17 letter to Danforth stated. "In any event, his work is by far the most impressive I have seen in terms of analyzing the April 19 (1993 videotape), and I do not think you can fully appreciate his work unless you visit his lab and spend several hours with him reviewing key points."……."

St Louis Post-Dispatch 4/17/00 William Freivogel Terry Ganey "…..The government acknowledged in a court filing Monday that it is missing 30 original negatives from the first of at least seven rolls of film shot by an FBI photographer who circled 1,000 feet above the complex in a Cessna surveillance aircraft. The government, however, does have prints of the missing negatives and the original contact sheet of the negatives.. ….."

April 19, 2000

Dave Hardy "……On April 19 of this year, from the hotel room in Waco, I called Carlos to report a minor discovery (the roof of the storm shelter, which glows bright white on the FLIR, wasn't just plywood--it was covered in black asphalt, which explained why it got so hot in the sun.). I got his answering machine, but when it came time to leave a message, the tape just said "tape finished. Thank you for calling." I thought he'd run out of tape--never happened before, but who knows? I tried again from time to time -- same result. I sent email asking him to call. Well, maybe he was out of town. Early today I tried again, and this time nothing picked up, the phone just rang off the hook.

April 23, 2000

Associated Press 4/23/00 "……Vector Data Systems, the British firm that conducted the March 19 simulation at an Army base in Texas, submitted its report earlier this month to U.S. District Judge Walter Smith Jr., who is presiding over the Branch Davidian lawsuit, the St. Louis Post-Dispatch reported Saturday, citing unidentified informed sources. Vector found that flashes produced by sunlight reflecting off debris lasted considerably longer than flashes produced by gunfire, the newspaper said........ ….."

Dallas Morning News 4/24/00 Lee Hancock "……...But Judge Smith said he was told last Monday by Vector's chief analyst, Nick Evans, that none of the 57 "thermal events" that the firm identified on the April 19 video came from government or Branch Davidian gunfire. ……..... Judge Smith said the firm's final report, due May 8, will detail how each of those findings is "backed by corroborating evidence." In at least one instance, Judge Smith said, the firm tracked one "glint" previously alleged to be from Branch Davidian gunfire to broken window glass knocked onto a roof of the compound in a botched federal raid that began the 51-day standoff. "That's the extent to which they're trying or have tried to identify what appears on that 1993 tape," the judge said.. ......"

4/23/2000 Lee Hancock / The Dallas Morning News "……..Six weapons fired at Fort Hood did produce muzzle blasts, disproving the FBI's long-held theory that its camera was incapable of detecting and recording gunfire. Weapons that produced flashes included CAR-15 assault rifles - a type of gun commonly carried by the FBI's hostage rescue team; M-60 machine guns - which were also present in Waco; M-79 grenade launchers - like those used to fire tear gas at the compound; shotguns, "flash-bang" distraction grenades; and a Mark-19 automatic grenade launcher, the preliminary report indicated. ……"

April 24 2000

Judge announces that court expert's preliminary study of infrared videotapes made during the final hours of the siege found no firearm muzzle flashes from either federal agents or cult members. - The Associated Press 7/21/00

April 29, 2000

Washington Post 4/29/00 Cindy Loose "…….Carlos Ghigliotti, who had been retained by a U.S. House committee to help investigate the 1993 siege of the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Tex., was found dead in Laurel under unexplained circumstances yesterday. "We're investigating it as a homicide," said Laurel police spokesman Jim Collins. Ghigliotti, 42, was found about 1:30 p.m. in the 600 block of Washington Boulevard. His body was badly decomposed, said police. There were no signs of a break-in or a struggle at the home, where Ghigliotti ran his business, Infrared Technologies Corp., police said……… "

May, 2000

Terry Ganey St. Louis Post-Dispatch "……The agent who flew the surveillance plane that took infrared videotapes of the siege of the Waco complex later wondered if the tape's audio had been erased at FBI headquarters. That disclosure was made Monday during a daylong hearing that examined how the federal government handled the evidence from the 1993 siege. The pilot, who for his own security was not identified, said he thought the tape included an audio track at the time it was made, April 19, 1993. He said he was surprised to find out later that there is no sound on the tape from 10:42 a.m. until 12:16 p.m. - the critical time when the government accelerated its plan to insert tear gas into the Branch Davidian complex and when the fire began that destroyed it....... Mike Caddell, the lead attorney for the Branch Davidian survivors, introduced a note written by another FBI agent saying the pilot later called the bureau headquarters to ask if the sound had been erased……. Under questioning from government lawyers, an expert in video and audio tapes said there was never any sound on the recording to begin with.The lawyers also raised the possibility through their questions that an inexperienced operator had failed to turn on the audio portion of the tape recording…….."

May 2, 2000

Dallas Morning News 5/2/00 Lee Hancock "…..The lead lawyer in the Branch Davidians' wrongful death lawsuit asked a federal judge Monday to impound all information relating to the 1993 siege of the sect's compound from a Washington-area office where an infrared expert was found dead last week. Mike Caddell of Houston said he sought emergency intervention from the court in Waco to ensure that all significant information was preserved from the Laurel, Md., office and home of Carlos Ghigliotti. Police were still investigating the cause of Mr. Ghigliotti's death Monday……. Judge Smith told both sides in the case that the British firm, Vector Data Research, would submit its final report on May 8 and would provide "conclusive evidence" linking each flash to a specific cause, such as sunlight reflecting off broken glass. ……. But Mr. Caddell and other lawyers representing surviving Branch Davidians and families of those who died have questioned Vector's conclusions, particularly the finding that no people were visible on the infrared video until well after the sect's compound began burning. ……"

WorldNetDaily 5/3/00 Sarah Foster "….. If the death was not of natural causes, what would be the motive? WorldNetDaily asked. ……. Hardy's answer: "I think he may have known too much. Carlos told me he had discovered things that were much, much worse than anything that had yet come out." ……"

May 8, 2000

Dallas News 5/8/00 AP "……A McLennan County jury has decided that neither the surviving followers of David Koresh nor the widow of another former Branch Davidian leader are legitimate trustees of the Branch Davidian church…… The plaintiffs, including Clive Doyle, who survived the Branch Davidians' standoff with the federal government, brought the lawsuit in hopes of winning control of the land on which Mr. Koresh and about 80 of his followers died in 1993. Amo Bishop Roden, the widow of former Branch Davidian leader George Roden, also sought to manage the property. ……..."

May 10 2000

Court experts release final report on the simulation of aspects of the siege, which finds that flashes seen on a videotape were sunlight reflecting off debris, not government gunfire. - The Associated Press 7/21/00


May 11, 2000

St. Louis Post-Dispatch 5/11/00 Terry Ganey and William H. Freivogel "……In the final report, Vector identified 57 flashes on the 1993 tape. It concluded, "We were unable to identify any gunfire, either from Government forces or from Davidians." …….. Vector was able to identify the likely cause of each of the flashes by comparing the tape of the 1993 incident to infrared tapes of a simulation that Vector conducted on March 19 at Fort Hood, Texas………Vector's final report also concluded that no people are visible on the 1993 tape in the period before the fire broke out at 12:07 p.m. ………In addition, the report concluded that the fire broke out in two different places almost simulataneously. ......"

The Associated Press 5/10/00 "…… The report also states that no one was seen prior to the breakout of two fires that consumed the compound on April 19, 1993. ….. But an attorney for Branch Davidian survivors and relatives, Jim Brannon, said he believes Vector's analysis is "fatally flawed." "Vector was either incompetent or they willfully sabotaged the test," he said. ……… A spokeswoman for Danforth said he would have no comment on Vector's report. ……"

CNN 5/10/00 "……An independent of study of aerial infrared tapes taken by the FBI on the final day of the Branch Davidian standoff in Waco, Texas, seven years ago found no evidence that FBI agents shot at the compound…….. A British company, Vector Data Systems, analyzed the video shot on April 19, 1993 and compared it to footage from a reenactment conducted in March. The analysis was paid for by Special Counsel John Danforth, appointed by the Justice Department to provide an independent investigation of the government actions in the Waco case…… Vector's 65-page report said the 57 instances of flashes on the original tape were caused by reflections of light and atmospheric conditions. ….The findings support the FBI's position that its agents did not fire shots at the burning compound……."

Ian Goddard 5/11/00 "……CNN refers to the study of the Waco FLIR video conducted by Vector Data Systems -- which claims that there's no gunfire on the 1993 FLIR -- as "an independent study." [1] The term "independent" implies that Vector Data does not work for the plaintiffs or the defendant, which is government. But in fact Vector Data is owned by Anteon Inc, which DOES work for the government, including the FBI. [2] The study is therefore NOT an independent study. I found that Vector Data works for U.S. military intelligence [3] and is even a member of the National Military Intelligence Association. [4]……. …..To further the impression in the public's mind that Vector Data is independent, CNN et al call Vector Data Systems "a British company." [1] They may have an office in Britain, but as an article citing Anteon's purchase of Vector Data states: "Since then, Anteon has acquired Vector Data Systems of Alexandria, Va., in August 1997 and Techmatics Inc. of Fairfax in May 1998." [5] Yes, that is the same Vector Data Systems, a subsidiary of Anteon Inc., being falsely portrayed as an "independent" and "British" company. Every address I can find for Vector Data is in Alexandria, VA, not Britain. …….……"

May 13, 2000

Carlos Ghigliotti’s Death - WorldNetDaily 5/13/00 Sarah Foster "…..… In a brief statement released Thursday, the Laurel Police Department said that according to the autopsy report, the unattended death was of natural causes: specifically, a heart attack brought on by arteriosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. The press release also stated that the department's investigative services division had terminated further investigation in the matter. …..The decision was not unexpected. ……."I'm not going to quarrel with the ME's [medical examiner's] report," attorney Michael Caddell, of Houston, Texas, told WorldNetDaily….. He had planned to bring Ghigliotti into the case as an expert witness. …… The official findings by the Baltimore Medical Examiner's Office have not assuaged these concerns -- not when three other experts in the same field of work as Ghigliotti and who share his conviction that the flashes on the FLIR tapes show gunshots have recently had close calls with death. ….….. There is Edward Allard, who appears in the documentary, "Waco: The Rules of Engagement," produced by Michael McNulty. On March 15 he suffered a stroke, from which he has still not fully recovered. ……"….. Then there is FLIR expert Fred Zegel, a long-time associate of Allard at the Pentagon, who at first disputed his colleague's contention that the flashes were gunfire. But, as he studied the footage, he changed his mind and has agreed to be a witness for the plaintiffs. In April, he reportedly went to a public auction where he collapsed and was rushed to a hospital where he was diagnosed as having blood poisoning. He was in a serious condition for 10 days. …..….. Lastly, there's Maurice "Mac" Cox, who according to his website on Waco, is a "recently retired mathematician/imagery analyst with 33 years experience in the technical intelligence field." Cox served as a consultant for McNulty's documentary. McNulty told WorldNetDaily Cox had recently had a serious renal [kidney] infection. However, he noted, Cox has had a "renal condition" for a number of years. ………..In [McNulty] his words, "I'm thinking about his death and the sequence of circumstances surrounding the illnesses of Fred Zegel, Allard and Mac Cox -- that's a lot of coincidences in a very short period of time -- involving four men who basically were all involved in one narrow issue in one very sensitive lawsuit. That's four of our FLIR experts -- but I've not heard of any of the government experts having problems like this. That's why it's weird. It's just too many coincidences. ……"



May 17, 2000

The Associated Press 5/17/00 "……. The FBI may have mishandled some key evidence related to the deadly 1993 Waco siege, but lawyers for the sect failed to prove the government intentionally altered or destroyed any items, a federal judge ruled Wednesday. Smith ... said there is "no basis" for him to order the government "to turn over any additional evidence or to impose sanctions …….. Among other things, plaintiffs contended that some of the Forward Looking Infrared, or FLIR, footage bore signs of the audio having been erased. Caddell said on one tape, someone can be heard asking for the audio to be turned off. But Smith, in his order, said: "The evidence does not support erasure, but rather indicates that the audio was never turned on." ……"

May 27, 2000

Judge Smith ordered a jury trial for the Davidian civil case and dropped counterclaims against the estates of Branch Davidian leaders as well as some surviving adult sect members who recently dropped their lawsuits against the government

June 12 2000

Smith decides the question of whether government agents fired on Branch Davidians during the final hours of the siege will not be considered by the advisory jury. Instead, Smith rules he'll take up the issue later when a court-appointed expert - who was ill and could not attend the trial - is available to provide testimony. - The Associated Press 7/21/00

June 19 2000

The $675 million wrongful death lawsuit against the government begins. - The Associated Press 7/21/00

July 14 2000

An advisory jury decides the government bears no responsibility for the deaths of the Davidians. Smith takes the jury's decision under advisement, saying he will issue his final ruling when he takes up the gunfire issue. - The Associated Press 7/21/00

July 21 2000

An outside investigator assigned to probe the 1993 siege and fire at the Branch Davidian compound near Waco, Texas, Friday completely absolved the government of wrongdoing in the disaster. Former Sen. John Danforth said in a report that David Koresh, leader of the group, and several others were entirely responsible. Reuters 7/21/00