Revised 7/13/00


Due to the volume of information being collected, the list is now split into NOW and BACK THEN



WROE transcript page 39: "…..Don Petty, Photographer, Tarrant County Coroner: . . . we would
find bodies that were burned a lot more than other bodies in very close proximity. There were bodies that were burned to a crisp, and then very nearby there was paper that wasn't burned, there was clothing that wasn't burned. I was panning the whole side and one of the Rangers came up behind me while I was still taping and hit me on the shoulder and said, you can't be doing that. So I said, okay, that's fine, no problem. And then he asked for the tape and I said well, I'm shooting for Dr. Peerwani and I'm not going to give you the tape until he says it's okay. Finally we found Dr. Peerwani, talked to him and he agreed that it was okay for me to give him the tape and so I did. They promised us that all they wanted to do was review it and they'd give it back to us the next day. And they didn't………"

WROE transcript page 39: "…..Nizam Peerwani, Coroner, Tarrant County: They told us that they had misplaced it. At one time they told us that I have it in my briefcase and I'll give it to you. In fact, we said we're going to delay giving you your reports until you give our tape back. And of course they said sure, we'll give your tape back the next time we visit your office. We, in fact, suggested we'll go to Waco and collect the tape from them. And they said no, it's in the San Antonio office. And at a certain point along this discussion they finally said, the tape is lost. We can't give it to you….." Estimated costs of investigation WACMUR (2/28/93-4/8/93)
TOTAL PERSONNEL COSTS 2/28 to 4/15 $3,987,493
AVERAGE COST/DAY for WACMUR operations is $128,429

Summary of Article Marked for Death 10/14/94 Jerusalem Post Hiam Shapiro "…. Even though David Thibodeau looks like any one of the young people who pass through the streets of Jerusalem every day, he is not like them. His soul bears the scars of the inferno that engulfed the Mt. Carmel Center in Waco, Texas on April 19, 1993. Thibodeau is one of the 9 survivors of that fire. ……. …... He believes the US authorities, the press, and foreign governments conspired to cover up the truth. ……He says this must be so because there was little comment about the relatively large number of black people (about a third of the total number) who died during the incident. Had American blacks realized how many blacks died, they would have risen up as they did after the 1992 acquittal of four white police officers involved in the Rodney King beating, according to Thibodeau. …..He says that Britain did not intervene on behalf of British subjects in the Mt. Carmel Center, even though one third of Mt. Carmel's residents were British subjects. Had the British attempted to protect the interests of its subjects, the FBI would not have been so hasty about attacking the complex. ….."[The British government] didn't say, 'Hey! Thirty of our people are in there.' There was no political pressure on the American government," he says. …..Thibodeau speaks with almost clinical detachment about events of April 19 which resulted in so many of his friends dying. ….."

Summary of Article Marked for Death 10/14/94 Jerusalem Post Hiam Shapiro "…. "I was in the church area, the place where we heard music, the main meeting room," he says. Thibodeau had been listening to a local radio station which had been sympathetic to the Branch Davidians. He was taking notes and when he heard the attack begin, he immediately donned his gas mask--but continued taking notes. Then he heard a news bulletin which chilled his bones. The radio quoted the FBI saying that its agents had been hit by 80 to 100 gunshot blasts. The report went on to say that due to the presence of the women and children, the federal agents had not returned the fire. "My heart literally dropped in my chest," he recalls. "I had heard no gunshots. I knew this was the final lie and they were preparing the American people for a massacre and we were marked for death." …… About an hour later he saw a tank crash through the front doors, pushing back a piano which had been placed up against it. Time seemed to move very slowly, as he saw one after another of his friends die before his eyes. [The Post article does not state the cause of these deaths Thibodeau says he witnessed.] ……..

Summary of Article Marked for Death 10/14/94 Jerusalem Post Hiam Shapiro "…. Pablo Cohen, a Jerusalem resident and the only Israeli at the complex, died in the FBI raid. In fact, one of the few items which the FBI allowed into the complex during the siege was a Pessah haggada, sent by Shulamit Cohen, Pablo's mother. ……..…. About Koresh, Thibodeau [survivor] says "Some people considered him a prophet, some people considered him inspired. I like to say that he was a man who God inspired to reveal the seventh seal (mentioned in the New Testament Book of Revelations) ," he says. Thibodeau adds that that Koresh never claimed he was Jesus Christ. "However, when he spoke, he talked the Book like he had lived it - or been there. That's how truthful and real his studies were." Does he consider Koresh the messiah? Thibodeau says in a sense yes, because Koresh was the fulfillment of a section or portion of the Book, the sixth seal. ….."

Wooly_mammoth - Waco was an Intelligence Related Shutdown, like this one:

From/for wooly_mammoth concerning Chuck Byers

Ahwatukee Foothill News 1997
Phoenix, AZ Ammo Removed From AF Home
New River Munitions Manufacturer Arrested for Selling Ammo to Israel
Patty McCormac, Doug Murphy and Adriane Hopkins Staff Writers

"……New River munitions manufacturer Charles "Chuck" Byers, is back in Federal Court and hot water after a search warrant was served on his Ahwatukee Foothills home Thursday morning……The warrant was served about 11:30 a.m., at Byers' home at 11833 S. Winnebago St. by agents of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms who were aided by the Phoenix Police Department Bomb Squad……Taken from the home were ammunition and ammunition components…..

….Byers was arrested at about 10 a.m. Thursday in downtown Phoenix on suspicion of manufacturing ammunition and selling it to unlicensed persons, a federal violation, Bettendorf said….. The charges stem from allegations that Byers had shipped 4,500 rounds of special 12-gauge shotgun ammunition to Israeli police, Bettendorf confirmed…..In the complaint filed by the federal government, this was only a portion of a $21,000 order placed by Israeli police…….

……Joe Heinzl, Byers' attorney called the charges, "more of the same," and wondered why his client was arrested by U.S. Marshals on the street when he had been so cooperative in the past. Heinzl said Byers could have come in on his own……Heinzl also said it was odd that Byers had just served a $10 million lawsuit against the federal government for blowing up his ranch in New River and then a few days later is arrested…..

….Byers, a former munitions maker, was arrested in 1989 by federal agents and charged and convicted of trying to bribe a Naval commander into buying hand grenades from his business. Byers lost his license and served time in federal prison………In October 1997, the ATF and Maricopa County Sheriffs Deputies served a search warrant on his ranch on 27th Avenue in New River, where they found tons of some identifiable and some unidentifiable chemicals. Some were blown up immediately, but authorities were nervous about moving some of the other volatile explosives and decided instead to burn them. Neighbors of the ranch objected strongly, asking what would happen to their air, water and surrounding environment…..

…..The ATF then began quietly hauling truckloads of the munitions away from the ranch. Residents around the ranch were not notified or evacuated when the removal began….. Bettendorf said Army Corps of Engineer members have been on site 24-hours a day in New River since October to make sure all remains stable…….. Byers claimed that he was being harassed by the federal government because of his past involvement with the CIA……"

Letter allegedly written by Chuck Byers to Portor Goss:

Honorable Portor Goss
February, 14 , 1998
Chairman House Intelligence Oversight Committee
US House of Representatives
Washington, D.C.

Subject: My knowledge of CIA involvement in the crash of the Gander Arrow Air DC-8 and PAN AM 103

Dear Chairman Goss,

My specialized knowledge of ordinance, explosives and pyrotechnics may provide the missing insights needed to solve several major terrorist crimes. For 15 years my company ACCURACY SYSTEMS ORDINANCE CORPORATION, provided specialized explosive devices to law enforcement, the military, Special Forces and the Central Intelligence Agency.

As you read this letter Accuracy Systems' former munitions manufacturing facilities in New River, Arizona are under occupation of the BATF who moved onto the property Sept. 20, 1997 and have been occupying the facilities there at considerable expense to the tax payers ever since. Their intent from the start has been to "blow up" the explosives magazines and burn our former research and development workshop and its contents --- and in the process --- destroy certain evidence that can link U S aircraft bombings to the CIA, a former client of Accuracy Systems…..

Three weeks after this disaster, Arleigh McCree, head of the LAPD bomb squad and a professional friend of mine, was visiting with me in Phoenix and examining items in our museum. This was where we kept samples of all of the different "Special Ordnance Devices" that we had produced over the previous twenty-something years. When Sgt. McCree saw one these items, he excitedly proclaimed that it was the device that blew up a plane. He said he would need to get federal clearance to discuss this in more detail with me. He did not reveal the exact plane at the time. Just four weeks later Arleigh McCree and his partner were killed disarming a pipe bomb that was booby-trapped. You will see from the enclosed article on this tragedy that these two deaths were also very unusual. In fact these are the only two members of the LAPD bomb squad to ever die this way.

Sometime later when I began asking questions in professional circles I started to develop serious difficulties with certain agencies of the federal government. I was framed and convicted for a crime I did not commit. An attempt was made to implicate me in a plot to assassinate Corizon Aquino. On the same day that a sophisticated assassination weapon arrived in Australia for this purpose a bomb arrived in the mail addressed to me. It killed my plant manager instead. Certainly I would like to investigate the wrongs by these federal agencies. However, the real reason I am sending you the reports of federal efforts to silence me is to emphasize the value of the specialized knowledge that I possess. As a second example, I present photos of the detonator that initiated the bomb on PAN AM 103. I know where this circuit board was manufactured in Florida, not Europe, and that it was sold exclusively to the CIA--- not to the Libyans!

…..I am sending this letter to every member of Congress in the hope that each of you will support my efforts to find answers to the haunting questions raised by the facts presented in this letter.

All of my current efforts to have local and federal law enforcement agencies (including their parent agencies in DC) investigate these matters have been unsuccessful. In fact, our US Attorney has actually defended the perpetrators and local US District Court judges have refused to act on my requests, or, in most cases, simply Dismissed them or ruled in favor of the U S Attorney. In spite of overwhelming evidence that not only am I telling the truth, but the Federal Agents are lying, filing False Affidavits or otherwise knowingly misleading the Court.

Since this matter represents a situation of extreme national importance, I am requesting you to immediately initiate hearings before the HOUSE INTELLIGENCE OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE to thoroughly investigate these charges and to bring the guilty perpetrators to justice.

Charles M. Byers
CC: All Members of the House Intelligence Oversight Committee

11/23/98 "……. There are three factions of pro-Koresh Branch Davidians: Most of the survivors have rallied around Clive Doyle as their pastor and unofficial leader. However, while they respect him as a minister, he makes no claim to being a prophet. …...A dissident faction is Hidden Manna, which follows one of the Davidian prisoners, Renos Avraam. He teaches that he is the "Chosen Vessel of the Remaining Bride," who is to offer prophetic guidance before David's Return. He has the support of three other prisoners, in Beaumont, Texas, a group of survivors in Canada, plus some new converts. …….A small faction is that of Ron Cole. He was a student who rushed to Waco right after the fire, befriended many survivors, and wrote a totally pro-Davidian book, Sinister Twilight. He became a Branch Davidian, but declared that David Koresh had failed to complete his mission as the Seventh Angel, and that task now fell to him. His relations with the survivors deteriorated quickly! I am not sure how much support he got. Wally Kennet, who had studied with David but had left the group prior to the siege, has accompanied Cole, though I am not absolutely certain he is a believer. Cole later founded the First Colorado Light Infantry militia, which passed out leaflets at the McVeigh trial. Then, during the trial, he, Kennet, and another was arrested on firearms charges. I have heard that Kennet at least has now gotten out. ….. Jesse Amen was one of the two men who snuck into the compound during the siege, and appears to have absorbed some belief in David Koresh as a prophet into his idiosyncratic beliefs before wandering off. ……. Andrew Hood called himself a prophet and wanted to set up a church on the property. A Washington Post article implied he considered himself a Branch Davidian prophet, but I don't think that was the case. His efforts were unsuccessful, and he vanished. ……. I asked one of the new converts about another proselyte I had seen on a documentary, Phillip Pope, and she said he had been expelled as a "subversive."... "

11/23/98 "…….Now, the anti-K's! The woman you met, Amo Paul Bishop Roden, is the ex-wife of George Roden, David's rival. However, she believes that she is now the legitimate prophet of the Branch, not him. This is a one-woman faction; she has no followers. ….George Roden continues to hold himself out as the rightful leader, but he no longer has any followers. …… Charles Pace is a Branch Davidian from Canada. After Lois Roden announced her teaching that the Holy Spirit is feminine, he went her one better, adding the Holy Daughter to the Trinity. This led to his expulsion …. When George Roden seized Mt. Carmel, he moved his faction to Gadsden, Alabama. Now, he has moved back on to Mt. Carmel. Unlike the Rodens, he has an actual congregation behind him. ……Doug Mitchell is another apparent one-man faction I only learned of a couple of weeks ago myself, from some Waco Tribune-Herald articles at their AccessWaco site. …."

12/23/98 "…….The other thing is the seeming approval of Clive Doyle's efforts to throw the anti-Ks out, when Clive is the leader of the other faction. However, the letter really does not express any opinion about him personally; it simply applauds the effort to get rid of the "squatters"…..Who set the fires is still unknown. You've seen the unlikely accusation that the "squatters" themselves set it. On the other hand, Amo Roden points the finger at Robert Arnold, a man who has joined Clive's group and goes now as just "Andrew," acting on Clive's orders. She describes him as an ex-convict hired by Clive to be his goon. My own contact with him convinces me that he is a true believer, not a mercenary. While I think he would be willing to carry out such orders, I don't see the mild-mannered Clive as the sort to give them. My guess would be that some local yahoo did it. To rebuild from the fires (and to fund some of Tom's projects), Amo and Tom Drake decided to "ask" visitors for $1 admission. …… Tom got his old friend George Roden to agree to let him manage the property as he saw fit; Amo was disputing the survivor's legal claim on the grounds that George was the legitimate owner. Amo retired to her parents' home in Florida in protest, returning to Waco only for court-related business. …. Early this year, Tom Drake left the property, and Clive's group took advantage of that to finally establish a foothold on the property. They tore down Amo's signs and museum, building their own one-room museum on the former site of her pavilion in time for the anniversary. By the time Amo returned, they were entrenched. When I was down there for the memorial service, they were even running around in the camper-trailer! …….. On the 10th, after many postponements, the court case got rolling. But another delay of two months has been declared, to see if George's children want to make a claim.... "

3/24/99 "…….Also, I think I was planning to mention something about that "gunfire" the tourist office told you about. That was an incident where Ron Cole, Wally Kennet, and Andrew Hood came onto the property to take over Amo's museum (a building Hood had built). According to Amo, she fired once into the air, and the three backed off until the sheriff's deputies arrived and arrested Amo and Cole and Kennet, who were armed. My understanding is that the charges against Amo were ultimately dropped or dismissed, while Cole and Kennet were charged with firearms violations. ….."

Tuesday, December 8, 1998 BIG SPRING, Texas (AP) -- Former Branch Davidian leader George Roden...turned up dead Monday outside the mental institution he was trying to escape...discovered Roden's body on the north side of the grounds around 7:30 a.m. He escaped...Saturday night. It was the third time he'd fled a state mental institution since 1993.

Not necessarily to be included but of interest..."In February 1995, the Texas Department of Mental Health and Mental Retardation's Dangerous Review Board declared Roden "not manifestly dangerous." Seven months later, he fled Big Spring for three days before being caught outside the Israeli consulate in New York City, where he reportedly caused a disturbance after being denied a visa to Israel. Roden, who claimed to be Jewish, said PLO-trained hitmen were trying to kill him."

1831 William Miller studied end-time prophecies and in 1833 concluded the world will end in 1843; revised to 1844

1844 Prophecy failed; Millerite movement began to disintegrate; one of the strands, which developed into Seventh-day Adventism, believed 1844 marked the beginning of the time of the end

1863 The Seventh-day Adventist Church becomes a recognized; influenced by Ellen White, a prophet who revealed the church as God's chosen people at the end time

1915 Ellen White died; no further prophets recognized by the Seventh-day Adventist Church

1929-1931 Victor Houteff believed he was a prophet and was disfellowshipped from the Seventh-day Adventist Church; he formed the Davidian Seventh-day Adventists, "The Shepherd's Rod". Its most important teaching is that God will establish a literal kingdom in Israel, ruled by Jesus Christ and his lieutenant, the "Antitypical David."

1955 Victor Houteff died. His widow Florence Houteff assumed leadership; Benjamin Roden contested leadership, saying he was a prophet.

1955-1959 Ben Roden founded the Branch Davidian Seventh-day Adventists (BDSDA). There are various other splinter groups formed from the Davidian Seventh-day Adventists

1962 Ben Roden and his followers took over New Mount Carmel, formerly headquarters of the Davidian Seventh-day Adventists

1978-1984 Lois Roden, Ben Roden's widow, became president; had a vision of the Holy Spirit as the feminine aspect of the trinity; traveled widely; attracted many believers.

1981 Vernon Howell arrived at Mount Carmel Center as the handyman.

1983 Vernon Howell claimed divine inspiration; began cohabiting with Lois Roden

1985 Vernon Howell received a major revelation from God that he is the Antitypical Cyrus "…..There were years of conflict and even a gun battle between Howell and Roden, who owned Mount Carmel Center, ending in the Spring of 1988 when Howell and his Davidian followers paid 16 years of back taxes on Mount Carmel (after Roden went to jail for threatening a judge) and repossessed it under an agreement with the county that they would finally own the property if they occupied and paid taxes on it for five years. Carol Moore points out that "significantly, that five-year period would end during the 1993 siege." She postulates that one of the main reasons that the Davidians were reluctant to surrender to the authorities and leave the property during the siege was a fear that by giving up occupancy they would forfeit their property to the county……"

Rboatman "….What do we know about Fosters' Concord trips to Europe (Zurich?) between Feb and the time of his death? Maybe we can figure why he began to believe that the Waco debacle was 'his fault'. If it was truly a serious and easily understood National Security issue would he have felt so bad about the death of some terrorist cult members and their families to save thousands if not millions of lives? Recall that his wife said he was depressed about Waco and "felt responsible." As a key link between in the Chain of Command between the Co-presidents and DoJ and the field, he would have been privy to info on a WMD or other NatSecurity issue. Surely having saved a million lives would have offset the loss of 80 odd terrorists and their families. I think he was "depressed" because he had come to realize that the real cause of the operation at Waco was some dirty little situation that in no way could he see was worth those 80-odd lives.

…. Report on July-August, 1995 House Hearings on Waco Sponsored by subcomittees of the House Judiciary and Government Reform and Oversight Committees By Carol Moore Member, Committee for Waco Justice Author, The Davidian Massacre

…."...Some new information was learned about the involvement of Vince Foster. (It was recently revealed that in 1993 Foster's wife admitted to FBI agents that he felt responsible for the deaths in Waco.) Texas Rangers disclosed that when they were in dispute with the FBI about the destruction of evidence, someone in the Texas Governor's office had given them a White House number to contact--Vince Foster's number. Representative Charles Schumer revealed that only one document had been found in the "Waco file" in Foster's office--a memorandum that Foster was forwarding the "Waco, the Big Lie" video to Treasury Department officials. When Janet Reno was questioned about whether Foster's statement about the FBI lying to the Attorney General on his "suicide note" referred to Waco, she explained it related to "Travelgate."...."


Dallas Morning News 3/2/93 "…….A caravan of armored fighting vehicles carrying National Guard troops left a staging area at a Waco college and approached the compound along a back road. Meanwhile, authorities forced reluctant reporters to move from within sight of the compound to a holding area about two miles away…….. Authorities would not say how many officers were on the scene, but they included units of the federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, National Guard, Texas Department of Public Safety, Drug Enforcement Administration, Immigration and Naturalization Service, the McLennan County sheriff's office and local police departments. …… Ms. Wheeler refused to release information about the arsenal agents suspect is hidden inside the compound. "We just know from the holes in our vehicles, in some of our helicopters, and unfortunately some of our agents, that there was some very high-powered ammunition that is used in big guns," she said……. Authorities have known since at least 1987 that the Davidians possessed a formidable stock of weapons. That was when a rivalry between Mr. Koresh and the group's then-leader, George Roden, culminated in a gunbattle on the group's property. Mr. Koresh and seven others were charged with attempted murder.
The seven were acquitted, and charges against Mr. Koresh were dropped after a mistrial. Mr. Roden was sent to Vernon State Hospital in 1990 in connection with a separate criminal case.
El-Hadi J. Shabazz, the assistant district attorney of McLennan County who prosecuted Mr. Koresh, said authorities seized a massive array of weapons after the shootout. "One sheriff's deputy who helped make the arrest, said they had enough weapons and ammo to hold off all of the McLennan County Sheriff's Department, all of the Waco Police Department, and all of the local National Guard," he said. "When the jury came back with an acquittal, it sent chills through us." ….."

11/20/93 Gary Hunt Outpost of Freedom "…… Clive Doyle left Mt. Carmel Center on April 19th, 1993, just minutes after more than eighty people perished, from smoke inhalation, fire, injuries or gunshot wounds. Clive was one of only nine who survived this travesty that some might call American justice. Clive is now in McLennan County Jail awaiting trial on charges of conspiracy to murder federal agents, and other charges. He went there directly from Parkland Hospital, in Dallas, where he was taken because of the burn injuries he sustained. Parkland Hospital has filed suit against the FBI. The FBI had contacted Parkland that fateful morning to determine how much space was available for burn victims (this is confirmed on the sworn affidavit in the suit). Parkland, in an effort to collect for the services rendered, filed the action for payment of the $350,000 outstanding on the bill….. Perhaps this is why Clive has not received continued, adequate medical attention for his injuries. He has a problem with the burned area skin cracking and bleeding. He has problems writing because of the stiffness of the tissue. He is given nearly no medical treatment since the day he left Parkland. At one point we tried to get homeopathic salts into Clive, but the jail nurse does not recognize anything not approved by the AMA.

In another part of the country, Alabama, another friend sits in her cell denied what the doctors know to be a serious, and possibly life threatening illness. Lynda Lyon has a thyroid condition. She had been treating it with prescribed medicines as well as health products. ….. We have found that there is strength in our numbers. Numerous fax campaigns have had positive effects from "encouraging" the court in Texas to allow Rita Riddle to visit her daughter, Misty (where she is right now), a change in the state police policy in Connecticut, medical attention for George Sibley for his wound (which also benefited all of the prisoners in the jail). …." The Dallas Morning News 9/4/93 "…..The FBI has evidence that Branch Davidian Steve Schneider fatally shot cult leader David Koresh after seeing him trying to flee the sect's burning compound and apparently deciding that the self-proclaimed messiah was a fraud, according to FBI Agent Bob Ricks. Mr. Schneider "had given up everything that he owned to this man," said Agent Ricks, who was the FBI's chief spokesman and one of the bureau's three commanders in Waco during the cult's 51-day siege this year. "In the end, we think he probably realized he was dealing with a fraud. After he (Mr. Koresh) had caused so much harm and destruction, he (Mr. Koresh) probably now wanted to come out, and Mr. Schneider could not tolerate that situation."…….. Agent Ricks' account supports the contention of FBI siege commanders and senior FBI officials that Mr. Koresh was a fraudulent sociopath unlikely to commit suicide. The account also reflects most of the other key psychologicial theories that FBI agents emphasized during the siege……" The Dallas Morning News 9/4/93 "….. Tarrant County Medical Examiner Nizam Peerwani, who performed autopsies on the two men's bodies and on more than 80 others recovered from the compound after the April 19 fire, said Mr. Koresh's body was too badly burned to determine whether the single gunshot to his forehead was self-inflicted or was a homicide…… "The FBI has something we don't have: There were listening devices in there," Mr. Peerwani said. "I can't rule it out."…….. Several officials outside the FBI but familiar with the ongoing Branch Davidian investigation expressed suprise at the detail with which Mr. Ricks described Mr. Koresh's death. "I've never heard that," one said Friday. "It doesn't mean it didn't happen, but I've never heard that."……… In a recording of his Tulsa speech, Mr. Ricks stated that "evidence we have today" indicated that Mr. Koresh died trying to come out. The agent added that at least some of Mr. Koresh's followers also had been executed by fellow sect members as they tried to flee the compound....... "As we gassed, apparently, many inside decided they wanted out. Over 20-some-odd people were shot that day," he said. "As a warning to others, they were shot and executed."......" The Dallas Morning News 9/4/93 "…..Citing intelligence sources he refused to identify, Mr. Ricks said Mr. Koresh ordered his followers to saturate the compound with kerosene about 10 minutes after FBI agents began inserting tear gas into the compound on the morning of April 19……… When FBI commanders allowed the tanks to push 20 feet inside the compound to inject gas into a concrete-block room where they thought Mr. Koresh and his chief lieutenants were hiding, "the order went out to light it up," Mr. Ricks said………Mr. Koresh then screamed, "Don't light it up" as he realized that the FBI was not launching a tactical assault, "but at that time it was too late," he said. Mr. Koresh then decided to try to escape, Mr. Ricks said. "His second lieutenant, Steve Schneider, shot him and then put the gun to his own head and killed himself," he said......." The Dallas Morning News 9/4/93 "…..McLennan County Justice of the Peace James Collier, who is still trying to determine the cause of Mr. Koresh's death, said he had no information to suggest how the cult leader might have suffered his fatal gunshot wound.......,Dr. Peerwani, who said he plans to present detailed findings of his Branch Davidian investigation to the National Association of Medical Examiners convention in Fort Worth next weekend, also noted that the bodies of Mr. Schneider and Mr. Koresh were found outside a concrete bunker where many of the bodies of cultists were recovered. Both were in a small area dubbed "the communications room" between the bunker and the compound's kitchen. Someone trying to flee would have had to go about 25 yards to get from the bunker through the communications room to an exit in the kitchen area, Dr. Peerwani said……" The Dallas Morning News 9/4/93 "…..He said at least some of the cultists whose bodies were found inside the burned compound had been shot by others. "There's no doubt," said Dr. Peerwani. "For instance, there was one particular person with a gunshot wound to the back. That's a highly unlikely place for a self-inflicted gunshot wound."...... He said it was difficult to tell whether those shot had been trying to flee but said there were indications that damage to the building caused by FBI tanks may have prevented at least some of those inside the compound from escaping. In one instance, a body was found at the edge of one of several staircases bashed in by the tanks on the morning of the fire....... The report by Mr. Gray, who investigated the cause of the fire for federal officials, stated that the destruction of two of three staircases leading to the compound's second floor may have cut off some main escape routes for the cultists, a law enforcement official said. The report said, however, that at least some of those who died in the fire might have been able to escape…….." The Dallas Morning News 9/4/93 "…..Dr. Peerwani said he also saw evidence suggesting that some people died trying to get to the underground school bus where FBI agents had said the cult's children could have survived the fire. "We found several bodies lined up literally one after another in what used to be a hallway downstairs. There's a strong possibility that they were trying to get to the underground bunker," Dr. Peerwani said. "They were near the trap door leading underground, but the trap door had collapsed because the exterior wall had been knocked down onto the trap door. "They couldn't have gotten through that door," Dr. Peerwani said…….. That calls into question statements by FBI officials that 17 children who died in the fire might have survived by being sent into the underground bus…….."

REMEMBER THE DEAD: 8/27/99 "…On February 28, 1993, Sheila Martin said her 10-year-old son Jamie was lying on a couch and listening to the birds when a bullet shattered his window. The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, acting on information about a massive stockpile of illegal weapons, had begun their raid on the Branch Davidians' Mount Carmel compound near Waco, Texas. Martin checked on her son, then crawled down the hall checking on others. "Everybody grabbed their children and brought them into the hallway, away from the windows," said Catherine Matteson, 83, who was also in the compound. Four ATF agents and six cult members died in the gun battle. Two days later, Matteson was allowed to leave the compound to deliver a 58-minute religious message that leader David Koresh had taped….. "It's not a matter that we want the money," said Martin, who is currently living on social security and is represented by another lawyer for the relatives, Ramsey Clark. "We just want it investigated. It has to be shown that we didn't want this situation. That the government gave it to us." …..Robin Wagner-Pacifici, professor of sociology at Swarthmore College, is currently writing a book about standoffs between state authorities and anti-authority groups. She says the government initially focused on the Branch Davidians because the group "put hot points on cultural issues in high relief." These hot points include a cultist religion, a massing of weapons and an atypical living structure. "These groups don't fit into the traditionally established categories of criminal behavior," she said. "In that lack of fit, you (often) find uses of excessive force." …."


Michael Dean Schroeder.

Katherin Andrade, 24
Jennifer Andrade, 19
Aldrick Bennett, 35
Susan Benta, 31
Mary Jean Borst, 49
Pablo Cohen, 38
Yvette Fagan, 34
Doris Fagan, 60
Lisa Marie Farris, 26
Ray Friesen, 76
Dayland Gent, 3
Diana Henry, 28
Paulina Henry, 24
Phillip Henry, 22
Stephen Henry, 26
Vanessa Henry, 19
Zilla Henry, 55
Novellette Hipsman, 36
Peter Hipsman, 27
Floyd Houtman, 61
Cyrus Howell, 8
Rachel Howell, 23
Star Howell, 6
Sherri Lynn Jewell, 43
David Michael Jones, 38
Michelle Jones, 18
Serenity Sea Jones, 4
Bobbie Lane Koresh, 16 months
David Koresh, 33
Jeffery Little, 31
Nicole Elizabeth Gent Little, 24
Livingston Malcolm, 26
Douglas Wayne Martin, 42
Lisa Martin, 13
Sheila Martin, 15
Abigail Martinez, 11
Audrey Martinez, 13
Juliete Santoyo Martinez, 30
Crystal Martinez, 3
Isiah Martinez, 4
Joseph Martinez, 30
Jillane Matthews
Alison Bernadette Monbelly, 31
Melissa Morrison, 6
Rosemary Morrison, 29
Sonia Murray, 29
Theresa Noberega, 48
James Riddle, 32
Rebecca Saipaia, 24
Judy Schneider, 41
Mayanah Schneider, 2
Steve Schneider, 48
Laraine B. Silva, 40
Floracita Sonobe, 34
Scott Kojiro Sonobe, 35
Aisha Gyarfas Summers, 17
Gregory Allen Summers, 28
Startle Summers, 1
Hollywood Sylvia
Lorraine Sylvia, 40
Rachel Sylvia, 13
Doris Vaega
Joanne Vaega, 4
Margarida Joanna Vaega, 47
Neal Vaega, 37
Martin Wayne, 20
Mark H. Wendell

White House Press Secretary Web Site 8/20/93 Bill Clinton "…Q Can you describe what she told you on Sunday about the nature of the operation and how much detail you knew about it? THE PRESIDENT: Yes. I was told by the Attorney General that the FBI strongly felt that the time had come to take another step in trying to dislodge the people in the compound. And she described generally what the operation would be -- that they wanted to go in and use tear gas which had been tested not to cause permanent damage to adults or to children, but which would make it very difficult for people to stay inside the building. And it was hoped that the tear gas would permit them to come outside. I was further told that under no circumstances would our people fire any shots at them even if fired upon. They were going to shoot the tear gas from armored vehicles which would protect them and there would be no exchange of fire. In fact, as you know, an awful lot of shots were fired by the cult members at the federal officials. There were no shots coming back from the government side….. The third question I asked was, has the military been consulted? As soon as the initial tragedy came to light in Waco, that's the first thing I asked to be done, because it was obvious that this was not a typical law enforcement situation. Military people were then brought in, helped to analyze the situation and some of the problems that were presented by it. And so I asked if the military had been consulted. The Attorney General said that they had, and that they were in basic agreement that there was only one minor tactical difference of opinion between the FBI and the military -- something that both sides thought was not of overwhelming significance. Having asked those questions and gotten those answers, I said that if she thought it was the right thing to do, that she should proceed and that I would support it. And I stand by that today…..THE PRESIDENT: They were not just practicing their religion, they were -- the Treasury Department believed that they had violated federal laws, any number of them….Q Mr. President, why are you still saying it was a Janet Reno decision? Isn't it, in the end, your decision? THE PRESIDENT: Well, what I'm saying is that I didn't have a four- or five-hour, detailed briefing from the FBI. I didn't go over every strategic part of it. It is a decision for which I take responsibility…."


From Freeper Boost-dependent re March for Justice

".Regarding the Waco connection to Clinton: at the 31st March, Gary Aldritch revealed a secret that orders to storm Waco came not from Reno, but directly from the Clinton White House.."

11/17/98 from the Year of the Rat:

".In Jakarta, James Riady likes to brag about where he was on the afternoon of April 19, 1993. On that day 80 members of the branch debate in religious cult or holed up in their compound outside of Waco, Texas, when it was shattered by a tank led assault. By the time the FBI and the Treasury's Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms agents had completed their work, 17 American children had burned to death. As might be expected, the White House was a busy place that afternoon, and the president was preoccupied. Bill Clinton was not too distracted, however, to chat with his leading contributors James Riady, John Huang, and Mark Grobmeyer in his little study off the Oval Office*. James Riady later told Indonesian diplomats that, during their chat, a television in the corner showed the Waco compound burning "over and over" as CNN repeated its coverage. Bill Clinton even took time to show his visitors the White House Situation Room, then on Full Alert **. White House logs confirm that James Riady and his companion were in the presidential offices (West Named) of the White House that day. They apparently also dropped and on Robert Rubin, now Secretary of the treasury, who was then a White House economics official***…"

Gov. Reform Report 1995 8/25/99 "….On April 19, approximately 20 minutes after the last tear gas insertion, (THIS WOULD BE 11:47 AM) the Davidian compound erupted in flames. The first indication of fire was seen and noted at 12:07 p.m. By 12:11 p.m., the entire compound was substantially involved…. There is no doubt that the Branch Davidians started the fire. We disagree with the conclusion of the majority report which states that the evidence concerning the origin of the fire is not dispositive. The majority report ignores evidence contained in the arson report which proved three separate ignition points within the compound and conclusively found that chemical accelerants were placed throughout the compound. Additionally, there was eyewitness testimony as well as film footage which chronicled the rapid spreading of the blaze. Moreover, the clothes of surviving Davidians who escaped the compound were laced with gasoline and other flammable materials. Finally, and most poignantly, several surviving Davidians admitted that those within the compound had started the blaze. These statements are supported by recorded statements in which voices are heard asking about the location and timing of fuel pouring and lighting activities….. There has been some speculation that the tear gas used may have contributed to the fire. The CS tear gas did not act as an accelerant for the fire. CS is a powdery particulate. When used in a tear gas canister or other tear gas delivery system, CS particulate is suspended in methylchloride and carbon dioxide. Neither CS particulate, methylchloride or carbon dioxide are flammable…"

Freeper nsmart and fod 8/25/99 From the transscript of "Waco: The Rules of Engagement" "… Narrator: As the gassing continued, the women and children went to the safest place left inside Mt. Carmel the kitchen storage room . . . a first floor steel reinforced concrete room --- a former vault --at the bottom of the square wooden tower.

Bob Ricks, FBI Spokesman: We knew that that protection was in there we believe we finally were able to make entry into that compound and were able to insert gas inside that protective area.

Clive Doyle, Branch Davidian Survivor: They actually drove right through the middle of the building into the kitchen area basically at point blank range fired gas into the concrete, what they called the bunker, the concrete room where the women and children were….

Narrator: Almost two miles above Mt. Carmel, a surveillance plane was photographing events on the ground with a Forward Looking Infra Red camera, commonly called by its acronym FLIR.

Narrator: Edward Allard helped develop the FLIR. He is a former manager of the Defense Department's Night Vision Laboratory and holds several patents on FLIR and night vision technology. Allard explains what happens as a tank approaches the rear of Mt. Carmel around 11: 16 AM. That's the side the news cameras couldn't see.

Edward Allard, Night Vision Physicist: Thermal imagery is not the same as black and white imagery. Even though we are going to see images that look like it's black and white television cameras, it is not. This type of imagery is the same type of imagery that was used by our armed forces in Desert Storm. The bright spots in this particular, in this particular film are spots that are hot. The grey areas are warm we'd say and the black areas are cool--relatively cool. They're still pretty warm for a Texas n-midday but they are a lot cooler than the rest of the surrounding area.

If you look carefully what you will see is the exhaust plume of the tank you'll see the plume twice, when the operator steps on the gas, there it is again and now what you will see is a short burst, there.. That short burst we, we feel is a, is a gun shot . . .

. . . The next view is a view in slow motion as the vehicle approaches we see the plume from the engine and we have the gun shot - now. Freeze it there, please. You can see now the outline of the tank, you can clearly see the outline of a tank. There is the blade, there is the blade in front of the tank, there is the opposite side of the tank, this hot area back here is the engine the deck area and it appears that the shot that we're looking at is coming off the rear area of the tank . . .

. . . This particular one the burst lasted about one second. And we will see shots similar to this throughout the tape and nothing else appears with the type of thermal signature that we get of that we get of gunshots.

Gene Taylor, US Congress, Mississippi (D): Did the FBI fire one shot, even one shot at the Davidian compound? Larry Potts, FBI Assistant Director: No sir, we did not, not throughout the entire stand off .

Edward Allard, Night Vision Physicist: What we are going to see here is a what could be called an infantry tank maneuver we notice the tank, this is the tank smashing into the building . . .

. . . and we'll also see gun fire multiple gun fire on the outside of the tank to the rear of the tank. Right now we're seeing a close up of exactly the same thing. The important thing to notice is the gun fire multiple rounds being fired from at least two different positions . . .

. . . and it's about ten bursts in approximately two to three seconds and according to our calculations it indicates that both positions are firing automatic weapons. There is nothing in nature that would duplicate these type of thermal signatures primarily because of the short duration of the burst themselves. Nothing in nature could do this.

Dick Rogers, FBI Hostage Rescue Team Commander: I will remind the American people one more time, that during that entire time, those six hours, and indeed those fifty one days, the FBI never fired one shot at the Davidians.

Edward Allard, Night Vision Physicist: What we are going to see now is rapid fire in the courtyard right behind the dining room area and you can see the fire going on but it's difficult to see in real time . . . . . . Now the slow motion shows things much more clearly. . . . there's eight rounds, eight bursts of gun fire that are being fired in about two and a half to three seconds this again indicates that it is an automatic weapon. There are two positions, look at the tape carefully, there are two positions, and apparently by the signature itself of the burst, apparently is going from this area here into the dining room area.

Narrator: What Allard saw was verified in an expert independent FLIR analysis done by Infraspection Institute for CBS 60 Minutes: Quote: "It was obvious to me on several occasions that there was gunfire or automatic weapon discharge, seemingly fired toward the building from the outer perimeter", end quote. A second letter from Infraspection Institute states the fear that kept 60 Minutes from informing the American people. Quote: . . . due to the potentially sensitive nature of this material and the resulting negative repercussions to Infraspection, we are choosing to decline any further comment surrounding this taped incident and our subsequent professional opinions regarding it's viewing", end quote. In addition to noticing the gunfire, Infraspection saw something else, Quote: "There were occasions on the video that seemed to appear as though people were entering, exiting or being run over by an armored vehicle", end quote.

Washington Post 7/95 Stephen Higgins "… It probably was inevitable that the tragic bombing of a federal building in Oklahoma City would get linked to the disastrous fire at the Branch Davidian compound. Those events, as most people know by now, occurred exactly two years apart, and the principal suspect in the Oklahoma bombing not only visited Waco but is known to have been greatly angered by what he saw there….The day has long passed when we can afford to ignore the threat that is posed by individuals who believe they are subject only to the laws of their god and not those of our government…. In my view the Davidians reacted in a criminal and violent manner. Unfortunately, there is a small but perhaps growing number of groups that feel much the same way as the Davidians, though they may not cloak their beliefs in religion. By contending they are not subject to the laws that bind this country, we allow these groups to pose a serious threat far beyond their relative numbers….We can't change what happened at Waco, but we have a responsibility not to ignore simple fairness and compassion in our search for the truth. Since there is to be yet another hearing on Waco, let's hope it's for the purpose of examining the facts and learning from that tragedy, not merely to please one more special-interest group with an anti-government agenda…."

Unlimited Access 1996 Gary Aldrich pp 144-5 "…On 19 April 1993 1 was working at the White House on some investigative reports, when my wife called and told me to turn on the television. I asked what channel. She said any channel….. As soon as the initial shock was over, I listened in disbelief as the White House and Janet Reno claimed we'd just witnessed a "mass suicide." That's not what it looked like to me….On 23 April, four days after the burning of the Branch Davidian compound, I again listened to President Clinton try to explain to the nation why and how such a nightmare had occurred. He steered attention away from the White House, which had approved the plan of attack on cult leader David Koresh, and focused on the FBI for having developed the harebrained scheme in the first place. But knowing the FBI as I did, I was virtually certain that Janet Reno had been presented with a variety of options. I was sitting in Deborah Coyle's office when the president walked around the corner….. "Hello, Mr. President. I'm Gary Aldrich, one of the two FBI agents assigned here at the White House." "Well, FBI, huh? Howdja like the way I defended the FBI just now-did you hear the press conference I just gave?" What was I supposed to say? That I had just about gagged when I heard him lay the entire mess at the FBI's door? "Mr. President, since you asked, I must say I'm just a little confused at the characterization of this as a mass suicide. I can't see how children can make a decision to commit suicide." "Well, hmm, ah, well, these kids were badly abused. Reminds me of a similar circumstance in Roman times, when the forces of. . . " …."

Freeper amaom reports "…I found this interesting little statement HERE which has a lot more and refrences! Former McLennan County District Attorney Vic Feazell, who prosecuted Koresh in that case, criticized federal agents: "If they'd called and talked to them, the Davidians would've given them what they wanted."4 4. Roy Bragg, "Ex-prosecutor laments agents' `storm trooper' tactics," Houston Chronicle, March 2, 1993; Clifford Linedecker, pgs. 72-73…."

Freeper Jolly 4/21/93 San Diego Union-Tribune Tom Blair "…SD Democratic Rep. Bob Filner was told Monday's dinner (April 19th) was to be a gathering of intimate friends in celebration of the 32nd birthday of Coronado's Shelia Lawrence. Among the handful of intimates at Georgetown's 1789 restaurant: Pres. Bill Clinton, who managed to get away from the White House for about 45 minutes, despite the unraveling Waco crisis. Filner says the president poked at his food before finally yielding to the temptation of the crabcakes. (Shelia and husband M. Larry Lawrence, the Hotel del Coronado owner, have taken a second home at Georgetown; a major Clinton supporter last year, Shelia's been mentioned for a White House protocol post.) . . . "

Ross & Green Washington DC 7/93 "…Within a month of the Waco massacre, NAP, Fulani and two members of the NAP National Committee (Dr. Fred Newman and Dr. Rafael Mendez) filed suit in federal court against the FBI, then-FBI director William Sessions, James Fox, the acting director of the Bureau's New York Division, and Attorney General Janet Reno. The lawsuit charges that the FBI's description of a political organization as a "cult"-- or the use of such a description to justify investigative activities, the use of force, criminal prosecution or governmental regulation--violates the First, Fourth and Fifth Amendments of the U.S. Constitution, which respectively guarantee the right to freedom of speech and association, freedom of assembly and due process (New Alliance Party vs. Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1993). Pointing out that the term "cult" does "not appear in any federal statute or regulation, or in the Federal Rules of Evidence, as a predicate for declaring a person legally incompetent, depriving a person of parental rights, or subjecting a person to psychological warfare and the use of deadly force by federal law enforcement authorities," the suit challenges the appropriateness of the FBI's use of the label as a rational for investigation (New Alliance Party vs. Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1993, p. 12). ….The suit ... scheduled to be heard before Judge Constance Baker Motley in September 1993 in U.S. District Court, Southern District of New York, point[ed] to the chilling effect that the increasing use of the "cult" label can have on the development of new and minority political parties and organizations:…. By giving United States Government imprimatur to an alleged status--"cult"--the defendants are facilitating actions both by private persons and by government officials that impair the exercise of constitutional rights (New Alliance Party vs. Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1993, pp. 14-15)…."

Ross & Green Washington DC 7/93 "…A key link in the chain of events which led to the FBI massacre of nearly 90 people--including 24 children, 17 of them under the age of 10--outside Waco, Texas on April 19, 1993 began over a year earlier when Rick Ross, a CAN- affiliated "deprogrammer," allegedly began targeting the Branch Davidian sect for potential kidnappings, to be paid for by relatives of members of the group (Robertson, 1993, p. 1)….. David Block, a Branch Davidian for five years, was, according to a sworn affidavit by Samuel Russell (an earlier CAN target), "deprogrammed" by Ross, Adeline Bova and CAN national spokesperson Priscilla Coates in Coates' home in Glendale, California in the summer of 1992. During the "deprogramming" Block "furnished Ross with information about the Branch Davidian sect, including details of their stored weapons" (Russell, 1993). Ross himself bragged on "Up to the Minute" on public television that long before the raid he had "consulted with ATF agents on the Waco sect and told them about the guns in the compound" (Robertson, 1993, p. 2)…. In the affidavits submitted to obtain a search warrant, ATF agents used language associated with CAN, calling the residents of the Mt. Carmel Center "a religious cult commune" (Aguilera, 1993)…."

Ross & Green Washington DC 7/93 "…On February 27, 1993, the day before the initial ATF assault on Mt. Carmel, the Waco Tribune-Herald began a seven-part series on the Branch Davidians entitled "The Sinful Messiah." According to its authors, Mark England and Darlene McCormick, the piece was the result of an eight- month investigation and interviews with "more than ten" former members of the group. At least some of these sources were supplied by CAN. English and McCormick quote a man "deprogrammed" by Ross "who had been with Howell [Koresh] for at least five years"--most likely David Block. The fourth installment in the series, published the day after the shootout, included a sidebar entitled "Experts: Branch Davidians dangerous, destructive cult." It quotes Ross as declaring, "The group is without doubt, without any doubt whatsoever, a highly destructive, manipulative cult...I would liken the group to Jim Jones." Coates calls the Branch Davidians "unsafe or destructive." And both say that they believe David Koresh practices "mind control." It is clear from the article, which was written before the ATF staged its raid, that Ross had been agitating for the government to move against the group. England and McCormick report in the sidebar to part four:….."

Ross & Green Washington DC 7/93 "…During the House Judiciary Committee hearing on "Events Surrounding the Branch Davidian Cult Standoff in Waco, Texas" held on April 28 of this year [1993], both Attorney General Janet Reno and FBI Director William Sessions said in their prepared statements that the FBI had consulted "cult experts" in the course of the siege (Reno, 1993; Sessions, 1993). When questioned by Representative William Hughes about whether the Bureau had consulted with the Cult Awareness Network, neither official responded directly. When asked the same question by a reporter from the National Alliance, however, an FBI spokesperson answered in the affirmative. Whatever advisory role CAN played with the ATF (and perhaps the FBI), there is no question that CAN spokespersons (usually referred to as "national cult experts") were given ready access to the media throughout the siege…… In April 8, 11 days before the fatal attack, CAN president Patricia Ryan told the Houston Chronicle that "Officials should use whatever means necessary to arrest Koresh, including lethal force." In that same article Kisser warned that talking with Koresh was similar to talking to an insane person. "People who are in a closed system, the cult leaders, think differently than you and I" (Keeton and Pinkerton, 1993).

Ross & Green Washington DC 7/93 "…As is well known, things did not work out as well for the children of the Branch Davidians. The gas which the FBI pumped into the buildings at Mt. Carmel for six hours before the compound erupted into flame was O- chlorobenzalmalononitrile (CS), the manufacture, production, possession, and use of which were banned during the Chemical Weapons Convention in Paris in January of this year [1993]. More than 100 nations, including the United States, endorsed the ban, which is awaiting ratification. Benjamin C. Garrett, executive director of the Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute in Alexandria, Virginia, describes what effect it had on the Branch Davidians trapped inside the building. "It would have panicked the children. Their eyes would have involuntarily shut. Their skin would have been burning. They would have been gasping for air and coughing wildly...Eventually, they would have been overcome with vomiting in a final hell. It would not have been pretty" (Seper, 1993)…."

Ross & Green Washington DC 7/93 "…Ironically, the justification given by Attorney General Janet Reno for approving the pumping of CS gas into the compound was the charge of child abuse first supplied by Rick Ross' victims. On the afternoon of the fire Reno said, "We had information...that babies were being beaten." That evening she told talk show host Larry King, "We were concerned for the children because there had been reports of sexual abuse of the children." The next day President Bill Clinton echoed this rationale, saying the group's children "were being abused significantly, as well as being forced to live in unsanitary and unsafe conditions." (The president failed to mention the fact that the unsanitary and unsafe conditions were a result of the ATF/FBI siege, nor did he explain how killing the children was the best way to end their alleged abuse.)

Ross & Green Washington DC 7/93 "…At the same time that Reno and Clinton were echoing CAN allegations of child abuse, FBI director William Sessions said his agency had "no contemporaneous evidence of child abuse in the compound." After a nine-week study of the 21 children released from the compound in the early stages of the 51-day siege, the Texas Department of Protective and Regulatory Services concluded, "None of the allegations [of child abuse] could be verified. The children denied being abused in any way by any adults in the compound...Examinations of the children produced no indication of current or previous injuries." In response to this announcement by Texas officials, CAN spokesperson Priscilla Coates told the Washington Post, "I know how these types of groups work and children are always abused" (Niebuhr and Thomas, 1993). Within a week or so after the massacre references to child abuse by the Branch Davidians had all but disappeared from the press. …."

The American Spectator 8/93 Daniel Wattenberg "…Twice while under ATF fire, the compound placed emergency calls to theMcLennan County Sheriff's 911 switchboard. In the first call, Wayne Martin, a top Koresh lieutenant and also a Waco attorney well known and liked in the local legal community, pleads with Sheriff's Lieutenant Larry Lynch: Martin: Yeah. Tell them there are children and women in here and to call it off. Lynch: All right. All right. Hello? I hear gunfire. Oh, (expletive deleted). Martin: Call it off. Koresh himself places a second 911 call. After making grimly ironic note of the lieutenant's name ("Hey, Lynch? . . . That's a kind of funny name there."), Koresh, in real time now, in the fog of battle, laments the government's failure to talk before shooting: Koresh: You see, you brought your bunch of guys out here and you killed some of my children. We told you we wanted to talk. No. How come you guys try to be ATF agents? How come you try to be so big all the time? Lynch: Okay, David. Koresh: Now, there's a bunch of us dead, and a bunch of you guys dead. Now now, that's your fault. Okay, let's let's try to resolve this now. Tell me this. Now, you have casualties. How many casualties? Do you want to try to work something out? ATF is pulling back, we're trying to Koresh: Why didn't you do that first? In a third and final call, placed by Lynch, Martin repeatedly pleads for a cease-fire, offers to arrange one, and claims at one point that the people inside had ceased their fire, but that incoming fire had continued unabated. "I have a right to defend myself," he says at one point. "They started firing first." …."

The American Spectator 8/93 Daniel Wattenberg "…It was only when their funding was up for review and a pattern of sexual harassment emerged at their agency that the federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms decided to make an example of David Koresh and his Branch Davidian followers….. Although Higgins mischaracterized the warrant, he did faithfully encapsulate the government's theory of the Texas barbecue of the Branch Davidians: Koresh or Vernon Howell, as he was originally called set himself and his followers ablaze on April 19, and this mass self-immolation represented the inevitable self-fulfillment of his apocalyptic teaching. By now this is the generally accepted theory. It is nonetheless a theory predicated almost wholly on forgetting. Forgetting, for example, that while it was Koresh who purportedly willed an apocalyptic showdown, it was the ATF that dictated twice the timing and setting of confrontation. Koresh seems to have taken no steps toward fulfilling any deadly vision except on two extraordinary occasions February 28, when a hundred heavily armed ATF agents arrived unannounced at his door, and April 19, when combat engineering vehicles began tearing holes in his domicile and suffusing it with a severe chemical irritant known as CS. Had the members of the House Judiciary panel carefully read their copies of the affidavit, they might have questioned whether it warranted Higgins's confident conviction that Koresh willed the two-part holocaust that claimed the lives of four ATF agents and more than eighty Branch Davidians. Indeed, they might have questioned whether the ATF affidavit even established grounds for believing that Koresh was apt to commit a violent crime or endanger anyone beyond the boundaries of his property…."

ON THE EDGE, 1994 Simon & Schuster Elizabeth Drew Page 131 "…. The White House tried to give the appearance that the President hadn't known anything about the proposed raid until Reno briefed him on the plan on Sunday. Actually, the plan for the raid on the compound __driving the cult members out by ramming their building and creating a hole through which to inject nonlethal gas__reached the White House the previous Wednesday, leaving plenty of time for it to be considered. Bernie Nussbaum had known for some time that the Justice Department was working on a plan to raid the compound. During the week before the raid, Lindsey, Nussbaum, Vince Foster, and Webster Hubbell met in Nussbaum's office to discuss the matter. They had been informed that the FBI had recommended such a plan to Reno and that she was considering it but hadn't made a decision. Lindsey and Nussbaum told the President about the plan. Nussbaum claimed later that he advised the President not to get involved in the details. The President had been aware since the botched raid on the compound by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms in February that another attempt would be made. Stephanopoulos was also made aware of the plan midweek. But no one in the White House tried to stop it…."

Freeper brityank "…House report from the Committee on Government Reform, Executive Summary, released on August 2, 1996 Report 104-749 …"

Freeper amom: "…A link to the trial transcripts. Just scroll down the page a bit. here This is the survivors site and has other interesting info also. …" 3/6/97 "…Little known connections between the Little Rock Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms staff and the assault on the Branch Davidians in Waco, Texas may eventually also become a matter of interest in the investigations. Bill Buford, AFT chief in Little Rock since 1976, began assisting a dormant investigation into the Branch Davidians in Waco on January 1, 1993, twenty days before Bill Clinton was inaugurated. On February 23, Democrat Congressman Charles Schumer introduced the Brady Bill. Five days later, on February 28, 1993, Bill Buford led "Assault Team One," which consisted of his own men from Little Rock, into the Branch Davidian Home…." 3/6/97 "…Arkansas resident Bill Buford, whose district did not include Waco, Texas, had been a friend of Bill Clinton for ten years. Buford was mentioned as a witness against the Branch Davidians in the affidavit ATF used to obtain the search warrant used as the legal justification for the Waco assault which resulted in the death of nearly 100 people, including a number of children. Buford, who was injured when he and his team were dropped on the roof via helicopter, was visited in the hospital by none other than Roger Altman, another Little Rock friend, then Deputy Secretary of the Treasury in the Clinton Administration….At the time of his flight out to Waco to visit his injured friend, Bill Buford, Altman was the second highest ranking official at the Department of the Treasury….." 3/6/97 "…Some of the unanswered questions listed in Michael Reagan's September 1995 MONTHLY MONITOR are still unanswered:

* Why, at a time when there is such lax enforcement of law especially in inner-city, drug-infested high crime areas, were a group of religious people invaded in their country home without prior warning by a quasi-military assault force?

* Why did the American media seem to justify the government invasion by calling the group a "cult" by whipping up anger over charges, later proved to be false, of "child abuse" to justify the assault.

* How did the Little Rock ATF office become the chief investigator of an isolated religious group outside his district?

* Why has no one in the government been held accountable for the decisions they made which led to the death of nearly 100 people?

* Why are the Branch Davidians still serving 50-60 year prison terms, after having been declared "not guilty" by a jury? …."

"The Ashes of Waco " Dick J Reavis "....ATF Responds to Dick J. Reavis Distortion: Reavis states that federal law enforcement agents threw "grenades" inside the compound (p.11) Fact: ATF Agents were not armed with grenades. Only the Branch Davidians had and used hand grenades, which explode, expelling fragments to kill and maim. Grenades thrown by the Branch Davidians badly injured ATF personnel. Some ATF agents were authorized to use flashbangs, diversionary devices which employ a bright flash and a loud noise to distract--not injure. There is no evidence that any Branch Davidian was injured by a flashbang. Reavis responds: The appropriate term used in my book is "flashbang grenades." The ATF defines both fragmentation and flashbang grenades as "destructive devices" …"

"The Ashes of Waco " Dick J Reavis "....Fact: The helicopters did not strafe the compound. All the helicopter pilots and crew say the helicopters were not armed and did not fire on the compound. Mullony, a reporter, says the helicopters were turning away when ATF cattle trailers started up the road. Firing erupted 10-20 seconds after this. Only a fixed wing craft was over the compound later, when 911 tapes claimed strafing. Reavis Responds: The strafing, if it occured, took place before the 911 call. Mulloney filmed the third pass of the copters, at close range over Mt. Carmel--then went onto the property to film the now-famous footage. Yes "the helicopters were not armed" -- but the agents inside them were….."

"The Ashes of Waco " Dick J Reavis "....Distortion: The Texas Rangers didn't take custody of the compound until 3 hours after the fire, and ATF could have taken the "missing" right side door (p. 142). Fact: After the fire on April 19, an ATF explosives expert was the only ATF employee to have access to the compound and he was accompanied by a Texas Ranger. Furthermore, the Rangers have said that they simply did not recover the right side of the door because there was nothing particularly recognizable left. Reavis responds: No right side door was found, i.e."nothing particularly recognizable left". …"

"The Ashes of Waco " Dick J Reavis "....Janet Reno's 48-hour plan for gassing Mt.Carmel lasted about five minutes. At 6:02 a.m., April 19, FBI logs show, combat engineering vehicles, or CEV's--M6OA1 tanks modified for demolition duty-- began punching holes in Mt. Carmel and through them, injecting CS gas into the building. This much was according to plan. But at 6:04 a.m., the Bureau's logs say, people inside Mt. Carmel fired upon the bulletproof CEV tanks. A clause in the written plan that the Bureau had presented to Reno called for an escalation if the tanks drew fire…..The significance of the Bradley escalation turned on the kind of esoteric detail that only chemists and Bureau veterans--not newly-minted Attorney Generals--could have known. The Bradleys were not equipped with hydraulic booms, as the CEVs were. They could not deliver gas as the CEVs did, from cylinders containing a mixture carbon dioxide and CS powder, mounted near the tips of their 30-foot booms. Bradley drivers were able to deliver tear gas only by shooting football-sized metal or plastic canisters, called ferret rounds out of a small port in their front sides. CS powder was suspended in the ferret rounds, not in carbon dioxide, but in a different chemical, methylene chloride, a petroleum derivative. Standard chemical reference books say that methylene chloride in its liquid state is practically inflammable. But their texts do not picture the chemical as harmless….. In a word, methylene chloride, used in a confined space, threatened to create conditions conducive to fire, explosion, and death by poison gas. Manufacturers of CS powder warn against its use indoors because their chemists and attorneys know the dangers of both CS and methylene chloride. So do most street-smart SWAT team operatives... ...The FBI assault force, in preparation for the Bradley/ferret option of its plan, had stockpiled some 400 CS canisters in Waco. About ninety minutes after the first canister was fired, the agency's logs show, the supply was nearing its end. The Bureau put out an emergency call for more rounds, though the 48 additional rounds that it received on a flight from Houston were apparently not used: about 20 minutes after the last of the ferrets was fired at Mt. Carmel, at 11:40 a.m.--long enough for vapor to form--the building went ablaze. In half an hour, Mt. Carmel was a smoldering ruin from end to end. …"

"The Ashes of Waco " Dick J Reavis "......In connection with the Feb. 28 raid, and the 51-day siege that followed, both the ATF and FBI called upon military units for various kinds of assistance and equipment, including training sessions conducted by Green Berets, tanks, CS gas and fixed-wing aircraft. The most striking item, however, involved the loan, with pilots, of the three National Guard helicopters that flew over Mt. Carmel seconds before the onset of hostilities below. In making the initial request for use of the helicopters, on Dec. 14, 1992, the ATF's Houston office did not mention any "drug nexus." "For the past six months, this investigation targeted persons believed to be involved in the unlawful manufacturing of machineguns and explosive devices. These targets are of a cult/survivalist group," its letter requesting the flying machines said. Four days later, however--just to be safe--the agency's Austin office followed with a similar request which added that "the individual is suspected of unlawfully being in possession of firearms and possibly narcotics." After the Feb. 28 raid on Mt. Carmel, when the use of the helicopters became a matter of controversy, deputy director Hartnett hastened to assure Gov. Richards that the "drug nexus" was firmly established. In a March 11 letter, he told her that, "There are eleven members of the compound that have prior drug involvement, some with arrests for possession and trafficking. Additionally, open court testimony in Michigan in February 1992 documented Koresh's possession of a methamphetamine lab within the compound." …..No one familiar with Howell, before or after his rise as Messiah, associates him with drug use, though he admitted that he'd once smoked marijuana, even confessed that he'd inhaled! He distrusted medicines that came in injectable and even pill form: after he was wounded in the Feb. 28 raid, he wouldn't take so much as an aspirin….. Among the factors that the ATF did not take into account in compiling its misleading report to Congress, is that higher arrest-and-usage levels characterize most National Guard and Army barracks, and that Governor Richards, who on the campaign trail, styled herself as a recovering addict--was by the ATF's reckoning, just as guilty of "drug involvement" as the former users named by Breault. But perhaps there was no need to be overly worried. As the Treasury department pointed out in its investigation of the affair, "there is no formal standard by which the military defines a drug nexus…."

"The Ashes of Waco " Dick J Reavis "...."The helicopters approached the rear of the Compound at approximately the same time the trucks pulled along the front, which failed to create the intended diversion. When they were approximately 350 meters from the rear of the Compound, the helicopters were fired upon, forcing them to pull back....Two of the helicopters were forced to land in a field to inspect for damage...The third helicopter, although also struck by gunfire, was able to remain airborne. It circled overhead to watch for additional attackers."... …...Almost none of the government's report squared with what two disinterested witnesses, John McLemore and Dan Mulloney, said during the same trial--nor with their videotape, introduced into evidence to document their claims. McLemore, a newsman, and Mulloney, a cameraman, both for a local television station, had been driving along Farm-to-Market Road 2491 that morning, not far from its juncture with EE Road, about a half mile from Mt. Carmel. The two telenewsmen say that they saw the helicopters make first one, then another pass, not at the faraway intersection of highways 84 and 31, but directly behind Mt. Carmel, at low altitude. The pair halted their Bronco a few yards from the juncture of 2491 and EE, removed their equipment, and captured the third pass of the aircraft on film: the footage shows a copter passing along Mt. Carmel's "north" side, within inches the building's roof. As the pair finished recording the swoop on film, two cattle trailers loaded with agents passed by, speeding down 2491, then turning onto EE Ranch Road. McLemore and Mulloney tailed the raiders into Mt. Carmel. McLemore and Mulloney's reports are consistent with the recollections of surviving inhabitants of Mt. Carmel, including those of government witnesses and apostates. Eyewitnesses who had been on the building's "north" and "west" sides tell most, because they had the best view. They claim that the helicopters strafed the complex…."

"The Ashes of Waco " Dick J Reavis ".......inside Mt. Carmel, an unforseen phenomenon was noted: nursing mothers quit lactating, apparently in reaction to stress. Just after midnight on March 4, Koresh reported this to a negotiator, demanding that milk, even cow's milk, be sent inside. He and the agent were arranging the exit of Heather Jones, 9, when Koresh made his demand. "...Let's get her out and then let me send you the milk," the March 4 negotiator said. Heather Jones, 9, one of the children of David Jones, emerged at 8:39 a.m. the following morning. Later that day, and the next day, and on March 7 and 8, Schneider, Koresh and several of the mothers renewed the demand, citing the Bureau's promise. But no milk came. Instead, on March 7, FBI spokesman Ricks told a press conference that, "They got a number of individuals on the phone and talked to us about how they needed milk. We said we're ready and willing to bring the milk in, and they rejected the offer to deliver milk." Transcripts of March 6-7 telephone conversations show a different development. The FBI's negotiators, overlooking the March 4 promise, offered to send six gallons of milk in exchange for the exit of four more children. Koresh responded to the 6x4 offer by invoking the March 4 pledge, and in a humored--or sarcastic way--had formulated a counter demand. He told the negotiators to better their offer by sending in not six gallons of milk, but six gallons of ice cream--accompanied by the return of two children. Sticking to seriousness, the FBI talkers reiterated their 6x4 position. Koresh then sent word through an aide, telling them "to go have a milk shake." After some 90 minutes of this kind of banter, Koresh refused to bargain further, leaving instructions with Rachel, his wife, to tell any callers that he wasn't at Mt. Carmel: he had gone, she told the negotiators, to "Waco to buy milk." Spokesman Ricks construed these exchanges, not as a refusal to accept the 6x4 deal, but as refusal to accept a delivery of milk….."

"The Ashes of Waco " Dick J Reavis "....A full deck of sources wasn't available. Federal officials, except for designated spokesmen, were gagged. Residents of the besieged building surrendered in trickles and spurts, but reporters couldn't reach them: as the Society for Professional Journalists would point out, "Court appearances were held secretly. Hearings were closed to the press. Key documents ranging from motions to government responses to arrest and search warrants were sealed." Just like in the American invasions of Grenada and Panama, journalists found that the news environment was so tightly managed that they could not fulfill their investigative role…… The managed nature of the news was apparent in the terminology of press reports. The religious community at Mt. Carmel was called a "cult", and its chieftain became, quite naturally, "a charismatic leader" who ruled his followers by something called "mind control". The community's rambling wooden house became a "heavily-fortified compound", its concrete structures became "bunkers", its children, "hostages". A nation stood by, watching to see if these children would be "rescued" from the care of their parents... ....As soon as the flames were visible on camera, the government's spokesmen began explaining what was afoot, by adding two new words to the conceptual tools that they had already issued for grappling with the few, bloody and now charred facts at hand: Texas Child Molester Gun Cult Crazies Commit Suicide, they--and even the President--said. The verb and its modifier had the ring of finality, and from the camera's perspective, so did the blaze. Within 48 hours the press had abandoned Waco and moved on, as if the story had been only a visual event: no more besieged building, no more story. The reams of documents and the score of witnesses that were freed for inspection and interview after the finale--the countervailing arguments, the breathing ashes, the impenetrable Bible--were not of immediate consequence. The press did not probe what happened at Waco, as it does many instances of possible malfeasance, because it could not investigate the story while it was breaking--and because its members did not have the intellectual tools to make sense of pamphlets like the one that befuddled me. In an age dominated by electronic media, instant facts are paramount…."

"The Ashes of Waco " Dick J Reavis "....On Wednesday, Feb. 23, after the prosecution presented the closing argument of the trial, Judge Smith called the jury into the courtroom and read them 67 pages of instructions on how to proceed in rendering a verdict. He also gave them copies of his exposition. In deliberations that afternoon, the jurors quickly divided, says jury forewoman Sarah Bain, who, along with another juror, Jeanette Felger--they'd been Panelists Numbers 182 and 16, respectively--identified themselves after the verdict was delivered….. The jury's verdicts had not been in line with the instructions that the judge had given them, nor were they internally consistent. In Smith's instructions, the conspiracy charge was referred to as "Count One", the murder charge as "Count Two". The third count in the instructions was "using and carrying a firearm during and in relation to the commission of an offense". The judge instructed the jurors that "for you to find the defendants guilty of this crime, you must be convinced that ...the defendant under consideration committed the crime alleged in Count One...I instruct you that 'Conspiracy to Murder Officers and Employees of the United States' is a crime of violence." In effect, the judge had told the jurors that Count Three was a left shoe, of value only if worn with the matching right shoe, a Count One or conspiracy conviction. The jurors had come out of their deliberations wearing only one shoe. "The guilty finding as to Count Three will have to be set aside," Smith told the lawyers. "That portion of the verdict simply cannot stand." There was no point, he explained to the disappointed prosecutors, in sending the verdict back to the jurors for rectification, since "the only decision they could have made was to change that finding to not guilty..." His last words on Count Three were "the court"--meaning himself--"will set that finding aside." After saying that, he recessed the trial until sentencing…."

1996 "Shooting At Davidians From Helicopters Is Unprecedented in American Law Enforcement" "…Probably the most blatant cover-up regarding the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms' (BATF) February 28, 1993 raid on the Branch Davidian religious group near Waco, Texas is the cover-up of the fact that agents shot from helicopters, killing as many as four Davidians. This act is unprecedented in American law enforcement. Had it not been so successfully covered up by federal agencies, Congress and the press, there would have been a public outcry leading to prosecution and imprisonment of BATF Agents. During a May, 1995 televised debate, Carol Moore, author of the book The Davidian Massacre, asked former BATF Director Stephen E. Higgins, who approved the raid, if BATF agents should be charged with murder should evidence of lethal firing be indicated. He replied, "Absolutely. If they fire at someone who was not firing at them or pointing a weapon at them it would absolutely be murder." Mr. Higgins, like the rest of the federal establishment, refuses to admit these murders were in fact committed. …."

1996 "Shooting At Davidians From Helicopters Is Unprecedented in American Law Enforcement" "…One document indicating agents considered using such gunfire was found among thousands turned over to Congress. A handwritten note by some unknown Treasury Department review official who had interviewed BATF agents read: "HCs [helicopters] as a diversion. Simultaneous gunfire. Worked in Seattle. Three to four hundred meters from boundary. Hover. Practiced at Hood." (Assumedly BATF agents practiced this maneuver at Fort Hood, where they trained for the raid.) …"

1996 "Shooting At Davidians From Helicopters Is Unprecedented in American Law Enforcement" "…At trial three National Guard helicopter pilots denied the helicopters had circled Mount Carmel before the beginning of the raid, as if scoping it out for targets. However, KWTX-TV cameraman Dan Mulloney and reporter John McLemore testified they saw the helicopters do just that. This cast doubt on the guardsmens' testimony that there had been no shooting from the helicopters. …"

1996 "Shooting At Davidians From Helicopters Is Unprecedented in American Law Enforcement" "…BATF audio tapes reveal that immediately after the gunfight, BATF agent James Cavanaugh, a temporary negotiator, argued by telephone with David Koresh about whether there was firing from the helicopters. Cavanaugh then admitted, "I'm not debating the fact that there might have been fire from the helicopters but what I'm telling you is there were no mounted guns, no outside mounted guns, on those helicopters." …"

1996 "Shooting At Davidians From Helicopters Is Unprecedented in American Law Enforcement" "…A BATF agent took video footage from the Blackhawk helicopter which clearly shows the Blackhawk diving down towards the back of the building--and that it is clearly closer than 350 meters. The video clip ends abruptly at that point. A simple projection of the speed and trajectory of the helicopter's approach suggests it did fly over the swimming pool and building, as Davidians allege below. The National Guard pilot of the Blackhawk did admit at trial that the helicopter flew as low as 50 feet off the ground…."

1996 "Shooting At Davidians From Helicopters Is Unprecedented in American Law Enforcement" "…One of two KWTX-TV cameramen shot video from the road southwest of Mount Carmel. As seen in the movie "Waco: The Rules of Engagement," a helicopter southwest of the building and water tower veers back towards them just as movement from what is evidently a person is seen on top of the tower. Seconds later, the individual disappears, very possibly shot by agents in the helicopter. …."

1996 "Shooting At Davidians From Helicopters Is Unprecedented in American Law Enforcement" "…Another KWTX-TV cameraman followed BATF agents onto the grounds of Mount Carmel. His camera also caught footage of the helicopter above veering back. Soon after, he took the often shown video of an agent being shot at through the wall of the second story room. This shot also displays evidence that at least four bullets were fired from above just two to three minutes into the raid. The sounds of aircraft overhead can be heard. Bullet holes can be seen appearing in the roof and eaves of the building and the projected trajectory of the bullets appears much too steep to have come from the four story tower, from which some Davidians were firing…."

1996 "Shooting At Davidians From Helicopters Is Unprecedented in American Law Enforcement" "…Early in the raid, in a phone call to 9-1-1, now-deceased Davidian Wayne Martin cries out: "Another chopper with more people; more guns going off. They're firing. That's them, not us." Now-deceased Steve Schneider adds, "There's a chopper with more of them. Another chopper with more people and more guns going off. Here they come!" In the next hours Martin warns repeatedly that BATF should keep helicopters at a distance. …."

1996 "Shooting At Davidians From Helicopters Is Unprecedented in American Law Enforcement" "…On Negotiation Tapes During the 51 day siege, David Koresh and Steve Schneider insisted to FBI negotiators that BATF agents had shot from the helicopters and killed Davidians. They repeatedly claimed that FBI agents wanted to burn Mount Carmel to destroy the evidence of this and other lethal firing….."

1996 "Shooting At Davidians From Helicopters Is Unprecedented in American Law Enforcement" "…Marjorie Thomas testified under oath at trial that she and two other women near their third floor window saw a helicopter approaching the building with a person hanging out. As the helicopter drew nearer, several bullets came through the window, flying over the womens' heads. Kathryn Schroeder testified under oath at trial that she saw bullet holes in the ceiling of the four story tower, holes that could only have been made from shooting from the sky. Kevin Whitecliff stated at allocution before sentencing: "There were three or four helicopters buzzing around shooting at people. I thought I was going to die."…[more eyewitness accounts..]"

1996 "Shooting At Davidians From Helicopters Is Unprecedented in American Law Enforcement" "…Davidian attorneys Dick DeGuerin and Jack Zimmermann, who visited Mount Carmel during the siege, have testified under oath before Congress, at trial and in affidavits that there were numerous bullet holes that obviously came from the sky in the four story tower and in upper story walls. Zimmerman is a former Army officer….Winston Blake, a black from England, was killed instantly by one bullet in the head as he sat on his bed. Survivors say the bullet entered the room's wall at a downward trajectory and only could have come from a helicopter. The American coroner claimed Blake had been shot at close range; the Manchester, England coroner could find no such evidence. The discrepancy sparked an English police investigation. (The government claimed other Davidians killed Blake.) …."

8/7/97 Michael Reagan's Hot Topics "….In early June Lewis C. Merletti, who led the Treasury Department's investigation of the 1993 raid on the Branch Davidians, was sworn in as the 19th director of the Secret Service. The Treasury Report, while allowing some criticism of the planning and execution of the raid, promoted the government lies that the Davidians shot first, ambushing federal agents. It also totally failed to address serious allegations that agents shot from helicopters, killing four Davidians. Nor did it admit that BATF agents actually lied to the army about Davidian's involvement in drugs in order to receive free aid and special forces training that would not have been permitted without the drug connection…."

Freeper amom 8/29/99 "…Here's what I was trying to remember on Buford. Agent Bill Buford, who was in the team that went in the second story window, disclosed that agents were authorized to shoot anyone inside who was carrying a weapon--even though agents had not announced that they were police or serving a search warrant. Buford revealed he did in fact shoot a Davidian who approached him carrying a gun…."

Freeper amom announcement on Training program by Buford: "…Wednesday, March 26, 1997 9:00 a.m. - 11:00 a.m. Domestic Terrorism: Identification and Characteristics Bill Buford, Resident Agent in Charge of ATF's Little Rock Field Office 11:00 a.m. - Noon. Waco: A Review to Include Right Wing Religious Organizations During the segment Bill Buford will talk on right-wing religious organizations, he will share the insights he has gained during his many years of experience including his experience in Waco…."

Freeper Leper Messiah notes 8/29/99 "…In the documentary Waco: The Big Lie, video footage of the raid on Mt. Carmel appears to show three ATF agents being killed by "friendly" fire. We see the agents enter the window, leaving a fourth agent on the roof. He then sprays the wall with machine gun fire. Many believe this was when the three men died, and many think it deliberate. If so, what makes it all the more perplexing is that these three dead agents had all been personal bodyguards of Bill Clinton's during the presidential campaign…..Five days later, on February 28, 1993, Bill Buford led "Assault Team One," which consisted of his own men from Little Rock, into the Branch Davidian Home. Arkansas resident Bill Buford, whose district did not include Waco, Texas, had been a friend of Bill Clinton for ten years. Buford was mentioned as a witness against the Branch Davidians in the affidavit ATF used to obtain the search warrant used as the legal justification for the Waco assault which resulted in the death of nearly 100 people, including a number of children. Buford, who was injured when he and his team were dropped on the roof via helicopter, was visited in the hospital by none other than Roger Altman, another Little Rock friend, then Deputy Secretary of the Treasury in the Clinton Administration. Roger Altman resigned in August 1994 due to his involvement in the Whitewater investigation. At the time of his flight out to Waco to visit his injured friend, Bill Buford, Altman was the second highest ranking official at the Department of the Treasury. Webster Hubbell at the time was over in the Justice Department…."

GAO 8/26/99 "…Department of Defense: Military Assistance Provided at Branch Davidian Incident (Letter Report, 08/26/1999, GAO/NSIAD/OSI-99-133). Pursuant to a legislative requirement, GAO reviewed certain aspects of the military assistance provided to law enforcement agencies during the Branch Davidians incident, focusing on: (1) whether the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF) requests for support from military counterdrug programs met requirements for authorizing that support; (2) the measures ATF took to deal with any drug activity it might find during its warrant service, and whether those measures were appropriate for such operations where a methamphetamine laboratory might be encountered; and (3) the types, costs, and reimbursements of all military support, including that from counterdrug programs, provided to ATF and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). GAO noted that: (1) ATF's two requests for military counterdrug support of its Davidian operations met requirements to authorize provision of that support under the relevant statutes; (2) ATF cited possible drug-related activity at the compound in both its written requests—the first to the Texas National Guard and the second to Operation Alliance, a coordinating center for counterdrug assistance; (3) the military's decision in both cases to provide the counterdrug support was a reasonable exercise of agency discretion and was authorized under the relevant statutes; (4) ATF's planning or the warrant service addressed the possibility of encountering hazardous drug materials; (5) ATF agents were made aware of the suspected drug laboratory and the appropriate precautions; (6) moreover, a team from the Drug Enforcement Administration was at the command post the day of the operation to handle and drug-related materials that might be found; (7) this planning was consistent with ATF's own policies--and those of other federal law enforcement agencies--governing operations to secure armed suspects and facilities, including those where a drug laboratory is present; (8) military assistance to ATF and FBI included: (a) surveillance, reconnaissance, and transport; (b) equipment and supplies; (c) training and instruction; and (d) maintenance and repairs; (9) the military provided several items of major equipment, including helicopters and unarmed tactical ground vehicles; (10) GAO estimated the total cost of military assistance to be about $1 million, of which nearly 90 percent was incurred by the Texas National Guard and active Army units and the rest by the Alabama National Guard and active Air Force; (11) under the Economy Act, ATF and FBI reimbursed the Texas National Guard, the Army, and the Air Force for about three-quarters of the support; (12) repayment of another 14 percent, which came from counterdrug programs, was waived by the military, which has the authority to do so if the supported agency suspects a drug connection; (13) these nonreimbursable expenses represented less than $140,000; (14) the military also mistakenly undercharged these two agencies by a comparatively small amount, which should have been reimbursed; (15) the Army does not plan to collect these undercharges, as it would realize no benefit--it would have to apply any collection to prior-year obligations; and (16) finally, under applicable statutes, the military gave ATF and FBI without charge some excess military items, mostly office and camp equipment, clothes, and tools…."

3/22/93 Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents From the 1993 Presidential Documents Online via GPO Access [] [DOCID:pd22mr93_txt-22] [Page 448-451] Monday, March 22, 1993 Volume 29--Number 11 Pages 407-456 Week Ending Friday, March 19, 1993 Remarks to Treasury Department Employees March 18, 1993 "…Thank you very much. Secretary Bentsen and ladies and gentlemen, thank you for that wonderful reception…..In all the employees of the Treasury Department I have seen, I've noticed a rare commitment to serve this Nation conscientiously. And I must say, with the recent tragedies freshly in our minds, I think that we should all once again honor the plaque on the 4th floor of this building that notes more than 160 Treasury agents who have been killed in the line of duty in our Nation's history. From the Secret Service agents who protect our Presidents and who have a particular chore in me because I like to get out and see the people who put me in this job, to Customs agents who wage war on drugs, to the agents of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, many of the employees of this Department risk their lives to protect the lives of the rest of us. My prayers and I'm sure yours are still with the families of all four of the Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms agents who were killed in Waco: Todd McKeehan and Conway Le Bleu of New Orleans, Steve Willis of Houston, and Robert Williams from my hometown of Little Rock. Three of those four were assigned to my security during the course of the primary or the general election….Thank you very much. Note: The President spoke at 11:48 a.m. in the Cash Room at the Treasury Department…."

8/2/96 House of Representatives Committee on Government Reform Dan Burton and Committee 104th Congress 2nd Session Report 104-749 HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES INVESTIGATION INTO THE ACTIVITIES OF FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES TOWARD THE BRANCH DAVIDIANS…Executive Summary

In June 1992, the Austin, TX Office of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) opened a formal investigation into allegations that members of a Waco, TX religious group, known as the Branch Davidians, and in particular their leader, Vernon Howell, also known as David Koresh, were in possession of illegal firearms and explosive devices. In January 1993, ATF agents commenced an undercover operation in a small house directly across from the property on which the Branch Davidians lived. The ATF agents posed as students attending classes at a local technical college to monitor the activities of the Davidians. Part of the undercover operation involved one of the agents meeting with Koresh and other Davidians several times by expressing an interest in their religious beliefs. As a result of the evidence gathered by the ATF, and in particular during the undercover operation, the ATF sought and received from a Federal judge an arrest warrant for Koresh and a warrant to search the Branch Davidian residence.

Shortly before the ATF planned to serve the search and arrest warrants, it contacted Operation Alliance, a government office which coordinated military counter drug operations along the southwest border. Through that office, the ATF requested that military personnel provide training to the ATF agents who would be involved in the raid to serve the warrants. The ATF's request for military assistance also would have involved the military personnel as participants in the raid itself. After military legal advisors cautioned that such activity might violate Federal law, the ATF's request was modified so that military personnel only provided training to the ATF agents and did not participate in the raid. ….

At approximately 6 a.m. on April 19, the FBI's chief negotiator, Byron Sage, telephoned the Davidians and informed them that the FBI was inserting the riot control agent into the residence. Sage also began broadcasting a prepared statement over loudspeakers that the FBI was ``placing tear gas in the building'' and that all residents should leave. As the announcement was being made, FBI agents using unarmed military vehicles with booms mounted on them began to insert the riot control agent into the compound by ramming holes into the sides of the structure and then using devices mounted on the booms to spray the riot control agent into the holes in the walls. Almost immediately the Davidians began to fire on the vehicles being used by the FBI. At 6:07 a.m., the commander of the Hostage Rescue Team ordered that the contingency provision of the operations plan be implemented and that the riot control agent be inserted in all portions of the residence at once. During 6 hours of insertion of the riot control agent no residents exited the compound….

1. The ATF's investigation of the Branch Davidians was grossly incompetent. It lacked the minimum professionalism expected of a major Federal law enforcement agency.

2. While the ATF had probable cause to obtain the arrest warrant for David Koresh and the search warrant for the Branch Davidian residence, the affidavit filed in support of the warrants contained an incredible number of false statements. The ATF agents responsible for preparing the affidavits knew or should have known that many of the statements were false.

3. David Koresh could have been arrested outside the Davidian compound. The ATF chose not to arrest Koresh outside the Davidian residence and instead were determined to use a dynamic entry approach. In making this decision ATF agents exercised extremely poor judgment, made erroneous assumptions, and ignored the foreseeable perils of their course of action.

4. ATF agents misrepresented to Defense Department officials that the Branch Davidians were involved in illegal drug manufacturing…..

5. The decision to pursue a military style raid was made more than 2 months before surveillance, undercover, and infiltration efforts were begun. The ATF undercover and surveillance operation lacked the minimum professionalism expected of a Federal law enforcement agency. Supervisors failed to properly monitor this operation.

9. There was no justification for the rehiring of the two senior ATF raid commanders after they were fired. The fact that senior Clinton administration officials approved their rehiring indicates a lack of sound judgment on their part.

The Department of Justice

1. The decision by Attorney General Janet Reno to approve the FBI's plan to end the standoff on April 19 was premature, wrong, and highly irresponsible. In authorizing the assault to proceed Attorney General Reno was seriously negligent. The Attorney General knew or should have known that the plan to end the stand-off would endanger the lives of the Davidians inside the residence, including the children. The Attorney General knew or should have known that there was little risk to the FBI agents, society as a whole, or to the Davidians from continuing this standoff and that the possibility of a peaceful resolution continued to exist. …

3. The CS riot control agent insertion and assault plan was fatally flawed. The Attorney General believed that it was highly likely that the Davidians would open fire, and she knew or should have known that the rapid insertion contingency would be activated, that the Davidians would not react in the manner suggested by the FBI, and that there was a possibility that a violent and perhaps suicidal reaction would occur within the residence. The planning to end the stand-off was further flawed in that no provision had been made for alternative action to be taken in the event the plan was not successful.

4. Following the FBI's April 19 assault on the Branch Davidian compound, Attorney General Reno offered her resignation. In light of her ultimate responsibility for the disastrous assault and its resulting deaths the President should have accepted it.

The Federal Bureau of Investigation

1. The CS riot control agent assault of April 19 should not have taken place. The possibility of a negotiated end to the standoff presented by Koresh should have been pursued even if it had taken several more weeks….

5. ….While it cannot be concluded with certainty, it is unlikely that the CS riot control agent, in the quantities used by the FBI, reached lethal toxic levels. However, the presented evidence does indicate that CS insertion into the enclosed bunker, at a time when women and children were assembled inside that enclosed space, could have been a proximate cause of or directly resulted in some or all of the deaths attributed to asphyxiation in the autopsy reports.

6. There is no evidence that the FBI discharged firearms on April 19.

7. There is no evidence that the FBI intentionally or inadvertently set the fires on April 19.


prepared in conjunction with the COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY together with additional and dissenting views
August 2, 1996.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union and ordered to be printed "…During the ATF investigation of the Branch Davidians, National Guard assistance to ATF came not only from the Texas National Guard, but from the Alabama National Guard.\172\ At the behest of the ATF, the Adjutant General of the Texas National Guard requested and received support from the Alabama National Guard to take aerial photographs. Those aerial photographs were taken on January 14, 1993. This assistance was authorized by a ``memorandum of agreement'' between the Adjutant Generals of the Texas and Alabama National Guards which simply provided for the use of the Alabama National Guard at the request of the Texas Adjutant General. However, a review of the State laws of both Texas and Alabama raises legal concerns with the legal authority for conducting this interstate National Guard operation.

Texas law requires that, ``[a] military force from another state, territory, or district, except a force that is part of the United States armed forces, may not enter the state without the permission of the governor.'' \173\ Yet, National Guard personnel who were involved in post-raid National Guard investigations of the Waco incident have stated that Governors Richards did not approve the use of the Alabama National Guard. Military documents indicate that Governor Richards was unaware of the extent of even the Texas National Guard's involvement until after the failed raid occurred….

b. Chronology of ATF's request

The chronology of ATF's request for military assistance provides insight into how early ATF wanted military assistance, how the military and ATF became concerned with the drug nexus issue, and how the military's concerns changed the scope of military assistance provided. As early as November 1992, ATF agents were discussing the need for military support with Lt. Col. Lon Walker, the Defense Department representative to ATF.\186\ In his ``summary of events'' \187\ November entry, Lt. Col. Walker specifically states that, at that time, he was not told of any drug connection.\188\….

By December 1992 (almost 3 months before the raid), ATF agents were requesting Close Quarters Combat/Close Quarters Battle \189\ (CQB) training by U.S. Army Special Forces soldiers for ATF agents.\190\ A basic CQB course takes a minimum of 2 months and advanced CQB training takes a minimum of 6 months. Moreover, CQB is the type of specialized training a terrorist or hostage rescue team such as the FBI Hostage Rescue Team would use. CQB is also a perishable skill requiring frequent/continuous training that ATF, as an agency, is not designed to maintain or utilize. Somewhat surprisingly, neither the documents from the Treasury investigation, nor the Treasury Report, itself, never refer to this request....

However, one military document furnished to the subcommittees as part of their document request specifically states that no written documentation is available on this extraordinary request by ATF for CQB training.\191\ This is the case despite ongoing discussions in 1992 and early 1993 within the senior ranks of the U.S. Army Special Operations Command regarding the prudence of making SOT \192\ /CQB training available to civilian law enforcement and foreign military personnel.\193\ These discussions are significant because they again foreshadow the potential use in civilian law enforcement of highly specialized military training, designed and intended for military operations.....

On December 4, 1992, several ATF Special Agents, including the SAC's of the Dallas and Houston ATF offices, met at Houston's ATF field office for the first time to discuss the Waco investigation.\194\ In attendance were SAC Phillip J. Chojnacki; SAC Ted Royster; Assistant Special Agent in Charge James Cavanaugh; Resident Agent in Charge Earl K. Dunagan; Special Agents Aguilera, Lewis, Petrilli, Buford, K. Lattimer, Williams, Carter, and John Henry.\195\ Also present at that meeting was Lt. Col. Lon Walker, the Defense Department representative to ATF. Lt. Col. Walker's notes of the meeting reveal that he explained to those present ``that the military probably could provide a great deal of support and [that he] suggested things like aerial overflight thermal photography.'' \196\ Lt. Col. Walker's notes also state that he explained ``that without a drug connection the military support would be on a reimbursable basis.'' \197\ This reference to reimbursement is significant because it reveals that military aid was, as of that date, understood to require reimbursement by ATF unless a drug nexus could be identified and articulated with sufficient specification to warrant military aid on a non-reimbursable basis. Lt. Col. Walker's December 4th entry is followed by a handwritten note that states ``Aguilera said there was no known drug nexus.'' \198\....

On December 11, 1992, Special Agent Jose G. Viegra, the Resident in Charge (RAC) of the Austin, TX ATF Office, met with representatives for the Texas Governor's Office about the role of the military in any potential ATF action involving the Davidians.\199\ Representatives of the Texas Governor's Office present at the meeting were William R. Enney, Texas State Interagency Coordinator and his assistant Lieutenant Susan M. Justice, Assistant Interagency Coordinator of the National Guard Counterdrug Support Program.\200\...

This meeting was requested by ATF to discuss specifically what types of military assistance were available to the ATF for its raid on the Branch Davidian residence \201\ in Waco, TX. During the meeting, Special Agent Viegra was told that military assistance through Operation Alliance would not be available unless there was a ``drug nexus.'' That meeting constituted the second time in 8 days that ATF agents inquiring about military assistance were told of a drug nexus prerequisite. At the December 11, 1992, meeting, Enney asked the ATF agents to determine whether a drug nexus did in fact exist....

Three days after their meeting with ATF, the Texas counterdrug representatives received a facsimile of a letter dated December 14, 1992, on ``Houston SAC letterhead'' from the RAC of the Austin ATF office, Earl K. Dunagan, requesting military assistance from the Texas Counterdrug Program.\202\ The military assistance requested from the Texas National Guard was for aerial reconnaissance photography, interpretation and evaluation of the photos, and transportation of ATF agents aboard the aircraft during the reconnaissance.\203\ Although the request did not mention suspected drug violations (drug nexus), as would be required to secure non-reimbursable assistance or military assistance from a counterdrug unit, Lt. Col. Pettit, the Texas Counterdrug Task Force Commander, initialed his approval on the request.\204\....

Lt. Col. Pettit told National Guard investigators that he provided his approval because the request required another person's approval as well.\205\ However this decision, in itself, raises several unanswered questions. Did Lt. Col. Pettit assume a drug nexus existed or that one was not needed? Did he believe that the request should be approved despite the absence of legally required drug nexus? Or did he believe that ATF would reimburse the National Guard? These questions repeat themselves throughout the approval process, and are raised here to illustrate the difficulties encountered in disentangling a past approval of military aid involving a drug nexus.....

Two days after Lt. Col. Pettit's approval, Special Agent Aguilera informed Lt. Col. Walker on December 16, 1992, that he received a facsimile from Mark Breault in Australia suggesting the existence of a methamphetamine lab at the Branch Davidian residence.\206\ Mr. Breault was a former Branch Davidian who left the group on bad terms, and exhibited strong personal animosity toward Koresh and several of the Davidians....

The following day, December 17, 1992, SAC Phillip Chojnacki held a meeting in his office with Special Agent Ivan Kallister, Special Agent Davey Aguilera, and Lt. Col. Walker regarding the Waco investigation.\207\ According to ATF, Lt. Col. Walker told SAC Chojnacki during the meeting that the Defense Department could provide non-reimbursable military support if there is a ``suspicion of drug activity.'' \208\ Aguilera was subsequently instructed to ``actively pursue information from his informants about a drug nexus.'' \209\ Additionally, ATF Intelligence Research Specialist Sandy Betterton searched criminal records to determine if Branch Davidians had ``some'' prior drug offenses.\210\ It later was determined that only one Branch Davidian had a prior narcotics conviction.\211\....

January 6, 1993 was the first National Guard overflight of the Branch Davidian residence and their auto body shop, called the ``Mag Bag.'' This overflight was conducted by the Texas National Guard Counterdrug unit in a UC-26 counterdrug aircraft. Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) \212\ videotape taken during the overflight indicated a ``hot spot'' inside the residence and three persons outside behind the residence whom ATF designated as ``sentries.'' \213\ The Texas National Guard conducted five more reconnaissance/surveillance overflights over the Branch Davidian property from February 3, 1993, to February 25, 1993. These overflights were conducted to ``search for armed guards and drug manufacturing facilities.'' \214\....

On the same day as the first National Guard overflight, January 6, 1993, Richard Garner, Chief of Special Operations Division of ATF, drafted another request on ATF Headquarters letterhead directly to Colonel Judith Browning, Director of Plans and Support, of the Office of the Department of Defense Coordinator for Drug Enforcement Policy and Support.\215\ ATF requested the loan of various office equipment, a refrigerator, cots and sleeping bags to be made available on January 11, 1993. The letter states that the ATF was investigating violations of ``firearms and drug laws'' and requested the equipment as ``part of Defense Department support for counterdrug effort.'' Col. Browning responded by letter on January 15 approving the support to be provided by the Regional Logistics Support Office \216\ in El Paso, TX.\217\ The same questions asked of Lt. Col. Pettit above must be asked here of Col. Browning. Here, as with Lt. Col. Pettit, key documentation justifying the deployment of non-reimbursable military aid on the basis of a proven or suspected drug nexus is missing. Yet, Col. Browning approved the request and directed further ATF requests to be made directly to the Regional Logistics Support Office in Texas....

Within a week after Col. Browning's response, Garner sent a further request to Major Victor Bucowsky, the Officer-in-Charge of the Regional Logistics Support Office requesting an MOUT \218\ site for Special Response Team training, driver training and maintenance support for Bradley fighting vehicles, seven Bradley fighting vehicles, and on-call support in the event a siege occurred.\219\ This was the largest request for assistance in Regional Logistics Support Office's history and eventually had to be supplied by Texas National Guard because the Regional Logistics Support Office was unable to handle a law enforcement request of such magnitude.\220\...

On February 2, 1993, Operation Alliance made a request to the Commanding General of JTF-6 for the use of Special Forces personnel assigned to his organization.\221\ Lt. Col. Philip W. Lindley,\222\ the U.S. Army Special Forces Command Staff Judge Advocate, was notified of this request and advised JTF-6....Within days, the training mission by Special Forces soldiers was revised to include only coordination on Army ranges and teaching ATF how to develop an operations order.\226\...

c. Pre-raid military assistance requested by ATF and assistance actually received

The military assistance provided to ATF can be separated into four areas: (1) surveillance overflights by counterdrug National Guard units in January and February 1993; (2) training by Special Forces soldiers assigned to JTF-6 for counterdrug missions in late February 1993; (3) direct support by Texas National Guard counterdrug personnel who conducted an aerial diversion the day of the raid on February 28, 1993; and (4) post-raid support to FBI and ATF.

Six surveillance overflights were conducted by counterdrug National Guard units. Aerial photography missions by the Texas National Guard began on January 6, 1993.\227\ The January 6 missions and subsequent missions on February 3, 18, and 25, 1993, were taken by a Texas National Guard Counterdrug UC-26 aircraft.\228\ On January 14, 1993, aerial photographs were taken by the Alabama National Guard.\229\ And, on February 6, 1993, the Texas National Guard provided infrared video (FLIR) and aerial photography in a Counterdrug UC-26 aircraft.\230\

ATF's request for training of ATF agents by Special Forces soldiers went through several alterations before the actual training took place. Although ATF initially requested Bradley fighting vehicles, SOT/CQB training, on-site medical evacuation assistance and planning assistance, legal restrictions caused the ATF request to be scaled down.\231\ A Special Forces Rapid Support Unit, assigned to Operation Alliance, trained ATF on 25-27 February 1993, in company-level tactical C2, Medical Evacuation training, IV ABC's,\232\ and assistance with Range and MOUT sites.\233\ According to military documents and military witnesses who appeared before the subcommittees, no non-Mission Essential Task List (wartime tasks) training, ...involvement in actual planning occurred.\234\

For the February 28 raid, the Texas National Guard supplied three helicopters and 10 counterdrug personnel. When ATF requested National Guard assistance, their stated mission to the National Guard was to use the helicopters as a command and control platform during the raid, and to transport personnel and evidence after the area was secured.\235\ Only when the National Guard team arrived at Fort Hood for the pre-raid training, less than 24 hours before the raid, did ATF agents inform the National Guard personnel that the helicopters would be used as an aerial diversion during the raid itself. ATF had even assigned one of the National Guard counterdrug soldiers to hang from a monkey sling outside the helicopter to film the raid.\236\ The soldier was in that position when the helicopters took incoming fire.\237\ Although all of the three helicopters sustained damage from weapons fire, none of the National Guard crews or ATF personnel aboard were injured.\238\ Since such direct involvement is prohibited by National Guard Bureau regulations \239\ and placed National Guard personnel in imminent danger, it is unclear why the National Guard consented to ATF's ``last-minute'' changes.

The National Guard's focal group review of the incident did not shed much light on the issue. The summary of its report, dated April 28, 1993, and the report itself ``reveal only one major issue. The issue deals with the pre-raid threat assessment of the Davidians provided by ATF to the Texas National Guard as a `docile' environment. A second issue, which is not included in the written report of the focal group but has been vocalized by Colonel Spence, deals with the suspected methamphetamine laboratory at the Branch Davidian residence. Colonel Spence contends that the drug issue is not included in the focal group report due to the potential media interest and any resulting Freedom of Information Act inquiries.'' \240\

d. Without the alleged drug nexus, the ATF most likely would not have received the same military assistance as was provided

…What is clear is that the ATF would not have received military assistance from the highly trained Special Forces units in such a short time frame and through the streamlined approval process which it enjoyed. As stated above, the ATF originally requested Close Quarters Combat training, a type of training available only from specialized military units like Special Forces. ATF's request was also the largest law enforcement request for military assistance in many of the counterdrug organizations' histories, such as the Regional Logistics Support Office. ATF further requested that its military training be conducted less than 30 days after its request, while even the streamlined Operation Alliance process normally required 90 days. Requesting through Operation Alliance also allowed ATF to avoid an approval process with a greater potential of independent oversight…."



8/30/99 Freeper Ditto By December 1992 (almost 3 months before the raid), ATF agents were requesting Close Quarters Combat/Close Quarters Battle \189\ (CQB) training by U.S. Army Special Forces soldiers for ATF agents.\190\ A basic CQB course takes a minimum of 2 months and advanced CQB training takes a minimum of 6 months. …If they did receive the CQB training, they had to have been on a tight schedule to get even the minimum 2 month program complete by February. This brings up another question. The 4 ATF agents killed in the February raid have been described as "former" Clinton bodyguards in Arkansas. If this is so, were they Arkansas state police or USSS from the campaign. When did they move to the ATF? If it were not until after Clinton took office, these four would not have had time to complete even the short CQB training, yet they were sent on the most dangerous assignment--- scaling a ladder and entering the building through a window. That's not where I would send my least experienced people.......

8/30/99 Freeper eroteme notes "The ATF agents killed in the initial raid that served on protective detail during Clintons campaign were--according to the explanation I received in '93--on "loaner" to the campaign from the ATF." To which Freeper Ditto responds "…That makes some sense since both ATF and USSS are in the Treasury Dept., but it is difficult for me to understand why the USSS needs ATF back-up during campaigns. The USSS is a large organization with offices in every major city and foreign countries. From my understanding, all their officers are trained in protective services even if they are working currency and security counterfeiting assignments. Local SS personel already do much of the advance work. It seems odd that they can't come up with a few dozen additional SS agents from field offices every four years for campaigns and instead call in the ATF who are more of an investigation, tax collection, and want-to-be military assult organization. If they do need help, it seems that the State Dept or the DoD protective services agencies would be a better place to look for qualified bodyguards if they are really needed for those few months. I wonder if the story you were told is accurate."

8/30/99 Freeper aristeides notes "…I wonder if these ATF agents were provided on loaner to Clinton protection at the request of Clinton or the Clinton campaign. Under those circumstances, I think that would be much more likely to go through…." Freeper eroteme "…Apparently during campaigns, there's not enough SS to go around, so they appropriate from other LE agencies to cover them all…."


8/3/99 Freeper WarEagle During the standoff, a limited number of active duty military personnel were present at the Branch Davidian residence providing services to the FBI in support of the FBI's activities during the standoff. Most of these troops were dressed in uniforms which indicated their, rank, service, and function. A small number of troops present at the site were assigned to Army Special Forces units. Because the military occupational specialties of these troops are classified, they dressed in civilian clothes while at or near the Branch Davidian residence and did not identify themselves as military personnel..Looks like Congress knew all along that the Deltas were there. Further down in the document, there is a conclusion that Posse Comitatus was not violated. But that depends upon whether Congress was told the truth about the involvement of the various military personnel on site.

8/30/99 Freeper Giligan January 6, 1993 was the first National Guard overflight of the Branch Davidian residence and their auto body shop, called the ``Mag Bag.'' This overflight was conducted by the Texas National Guard Counterdrug unit in a UC-26 counterdrug aircraft. Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) \212\ videotape taken during the overflight indicated a ``hot spot'' inside the residence and three persons outside behind the residence whom ATF designated as ``sentries.'' …Gee, in January do you suppose just maybe this "hot spot" could be a heater?

8/30/99 Freeper aristeides "…Some thoughts that occurred to this retired intelligence officer of the U.S. Naval Reserve skimming through this document earlier today: …

(2) It looks as if ATF went into action in early December 1992. I suspect they were currying favor with the incoming Clinton administration by choosing a Christian, largely white target that elitists in the new administration would predictably regard with distaste.

(3) The early involvement (Dec. 11) of people associated with the office of Texas Governor Ma Richards and the conspicuous involvement in all of this of the Texas National Guard makes me suspect that the Texas Democratic Party was deeply involved in the whole mess. Note how the wheels seem to have been greased for approval to go through: Lt. Col. Pettit of the Texas National Guard approved of the operation in a way that the authors of this report clearly disapprove of.

(4) This document doesn't identify the two senior officers that attended the meeting with Reno at FBI Headquarters on Apr. 14, 1993. As we now know, they were then-Col. Boykin and then-Brig. Gen. Schoomaker. It's interesting that one of these two had already visited Koresh's compound by that time and had formed a friendship with Rogers of the Hostage Rescue Team. It would be interesting to know which of the two this was.

(5) Speaking of Schoomaker, I am puzzled how he could be nominated for this task not by Wes Clark, at least nominally his commander as CO of the First Cavalry Division, but instead by Clark's superior, the commander of III Corps. Which raises the question, what is the relationship between special operations forces within a division, and the regular part of the division. Are they only nominally in the chain of command?

(6) The dispute between Army lawyers at Fort Bragg and at JTF-6 is very interesting. It shows how controversial the whole operation was.

(7) The report concludes that the Posse Comitatus Act was not violated, largely because most of the military actions taken, including driving the military vehicles, were done by members of the Texas National Guard. It seems to be an implication of this report that if, for example, vehicles were driven by members of Delta Force or other members of the Regular Army, Posse Commitatus was violated. We shall see. But even if Posse Comitatus was not violated because of a legal technicality, surely its spirit was. And the writers of this report seem also to have that view…."

8/30/99 Furuncle of Bill "…The trouble with jargon is that is is perfectly clear to those who use it, thus they have a hard time determining what terms are not self-explanatory to the uninitiated. I understood most of it. Having looked at this for a while, here are some definitions that may be useful:

Adjutant General - in this context, the Big Cheese of the State National Guard. The Governor is his boss.

SAC - Special Agent in Charge, what all the Federal Law Enforcement outfits that call their people agents call the head man in a region.

MOUT Site - Place suitable to conduct training in Military Operations in Urban Terrain. These are wood and cinder-block villages used to practice fighting in built-up areas. Fort Hood has a pretty big MOUT Site.

Special Response Team - synonymous term with SWAT, HRT, etc., these are your jack-booted thug ninjas

Bradley Fighting Vehicle - armored combat vehicle designed to accompany Main Battle Tanks, carries 6 - man rifle squad and 4 - man vehicle crew, armed with 25mm Bushmaster automatic cannon and wire-guided anti-tank missiles. If you saw Desert Storm on TV you saw these. Not a piece of equipment found in any police force I ever heard of.

JTF-6 - Joint Task Force 6 - Shady outfit at Fort Bliss funneling military resources to Border Patrol and DEA, working real close to violating Posse Comitatus. A couple of years ago a team of Marines working a JTF-6 operation killed an 18 year old sheepherder in Arizona.

company level tactical C2 - a company is a unit larger than a platoon and smaller than a battalion. Company Level Tactical Command & Control is the art of getting 100 - 200 heavily-armed individuals to kill people and break things according to your plan. The ATF had none on their raid.

IV ABCs - how to start intravenous drips on casualties

"monkey sling" - maybe a Rotorhead can explain this one. From the context it sounds like a harness arrangement which secures the cameraman to the aircraft while he stands outside on a skid.

8/30/99 Freeper jsun "…As an ex reservist sometimes anti-drug flyer these (the use of guardsmen across state lines without federal activation or agreement of the governors) are indeed deep waters. From twenty plus years experience I can offer a few generalities:

1) There is no shortage of reservists who would readily participate in such operations without question, either through ignorance of the legal or moral implications, or for the money (perhaps including myself).

2) There is no way the Governor of either State should not have explicitly known and approved the operations.

3) It would be difficult to locate the flight plans, which did have to be filed, after so many years; but the pilots or crew would remember the conditions under which they were deployed. If they were fulltime employees they would give the party (government) line for fear of job; if they were parttime reservists they would not be so intimidated.

God I hope someone pursues this; there are Yesmen in the reserves just like anywhere else, and these are deep waters. Thanks…"

8/30/99 Freeper Covenantor "…I've been following this thread because I've been trying to establish an overall timeline of events myself, but focused on including the external events that influenced political decisions.(eg World Trade Center bombing the friday before the ATF attack) What is becoming increasingly clear, disturbingly so, is that the full force of the government was employed against the Branch Davidians. We have National Guard, Air units, SOG Delta Group, SAS observers(?) ATF, FBI/HRT, DOJ, and possibly DEA re: early allegations/cover of meth lab. It becomes difficult to believe that this was merely a botched ATF warrant search. Perhaps one of you can recall a similar operation that has had so many enforcement/military units involved against a civilian offense? I am not prone to seeing conspiracy when other explanations are plausible. However, the overwhelming and excessive amount of resources and force mobilized against the Davidians seems to me to be unprecedented. Someone, please tell me I'm wrong…."

8/30/99 Freeper SneakyPete "…I want to state right off the bat that I am NOT and never have been with MI(Military Intelligence). I was just a simple grunt NCO in SF. I also want to make it plain to everyone that I am no longer in the army. I do happen to know a little about how the army and SF works,though. As far as the time line goes,I can't verify or discredit it. I asked some questions shortly after the Waco raid happened,and am relying on my memory of what I was told or heard. On the face of it,it doesn't sound out of line,though. One question I have is about the legality of using the Alabama NG in Texas. I was under the impression the NG is supposed to be under the command of the Governor of that state unless it is "federalized",and it requires a "national emergency" in order to federalize them. I'm not sure even then that the feds can take command without the approval of the Governor. As far as I know,no Governor has ever refused this request,but I doubt any Governor has even been asked to allow his NG troops to be "federalized" before without good reason. I suppose some may consider this bogus "war on drugs" as ample legal reason. I'm not one of them. At any rate,I would like to hear what reason the Governor of Ala uses to justify his releasing them from his control.

What was written about DF and other SF involvement pretty much jives with what I heard. The BATF and FBI asked SF for training (I don't know when,but well before the raid),and a team was detailed to do this under the JTF-6 guidelines. The justification for the training was this evil war on drugs,and this was a legal request as far as the type of training and the routine mission the training was supposed to be for. This training was never completed,as the SF team leader "smelled a rat",and contacted his CO after refusing to continue. The CO came down and basically told the feds to go piss up a rope. I was told he quoted "Posse Comitatus" to them,and was mad as hell. Anyway,when he left he took his troops with him.

Like I have posted on other FR threads about Waco in the last couple of days,as far as I know,there were only 3 DF guys at Waco when the raid went down,and they were only there as observers. NONE took a active part in the raid,and despite what some on FR had hinted at,I do NOT have a govt "handler/controller" telling me to lie to cover up illegal activities by DF. In fact,I would love to be doing other things than spending so much of my time refuting lies told by WND and others who are out to personally profit from this tragedy. I ain't selling no books,speaking on radio stations,selling "Y2K Family Survival Kits",or giving lectures and collecting fees. I'm only doing this because it personally pisses me off when people tell lies about honorable men. If anyone chooses to believe WND and their "reliable sources with inside information",please feel free to check them out for yourself. One is named Thomas Sanchez,and the other is named Keith Imeda. Both are liars and wannabes. Imeda only served in support companies in SF,and was thrown out of SF and the army on a "general discharge". He's also served time in prison since his discharge. Instead of being a "Colonel in the Texas NG who works for FEMA",Sanchez is a Colonel in the Texas Militia,and FEMA has never heard of him. Instead of "having a extensive background in black ops during the VN war",he was a enlisted man in the Navy. Chapita and I checked him out and discovered all this. I'm still collecting information on Imeda,and should soon have proof he was never in El-Salvador on a training mission in 1984,as he stated in his bio. I should be able to prove this by the end of the week if anyone is interested.….." >>Was the "Rat" the drug alligations?<< I don't know for sure. I think the guys on the training team were made suspiscious by a lot of things. One was PROBABLY (my speculation) that they were only going to be training BATF guys. If it were purely a drug-related thing,there should have been DEA guys there too. I also suspect the BATF guys there probably ran their mouths too much and gave their own game away. I do NOT mean anyone might have said "We are going to burn a bunch of religious nuts"! If they had said something like "we might have to make a "dynamic entry" in a compound full of religious nuts",that would have been enough to alert the team they had no business there. These guys (SF) ain't stupid. PLEASE NOTE THIS IS JUST MY BEST GUESS! THESE ARE NOT FACTS!

Freeper RaceBannon USMC, 1977-1981 At the behest of the ATF, the Adjutant General of the Texas National Guard requested and received support from the Alabama National Guard to take aerial photographs. Those aerial photographs were taken on January 14, 1993. This assistance was authorized by a ``memorandum of agreement'' between the Adjutant Generals of the Texas and Alabama National Guards which simply provided for the use of the Alabama National Guard at the request of the Texas Adjutant General. However, a review of the State laws of both Texas and Alabama raises legal concerns with the legal authority for conducting this interstate National Guard operation. Texas law requires that, ``[a] military force from another state, territory, or district, except a force that is part of the United States armed forces, may not enter the state without the permission of the governor.'' \173\ Yet, National Guard personnel who were involved in post-raid National Guard investigations of the Waco incident have stated that Governors Richards did not approve the use of the Alabama National Guard. Military documents indicate that Governor Richards was unaware of the extent of even the Texas National Guard's involvement until after the failed raid occurred. …….How did they get here? All vehicles have a trip log, and aircraft file flight plans. There would be records of all deployments and the miles passed from site to site, along with the drivers names and condition of the vehicles and their battalion's numbrers on the record….. I used to drive a MRC-87, a M151 Jeep with a TRC-75 HF Radio and also a UHF An/ARC 62 (I think it was a 62), and other stuff, an M880. We had to file everything, and sign it! It is the law, it has to be inspected, and signed off first, and re-inspected upon return. Also present at that meeting was Lt. Col. Lon Walker, the Defense Department representative to ATF. Lt. Col. Walker's notes of the meeting reveal that he explained to those present ``that the military probably could provide a great deal of support and [that he] suggested things like aerial overflight thermal photography.'' \196 …… What aircraft did the flying? Helic opters could take aboard devices to view in the infared for targeting, and some have cameras linked, but cameras could be mounted on a larger aircraft most likely. Did anyone see a C-130? A fighter type F-4 maybe on an overflight? Again, records keeping, what aircraft? When? From where? Where are the Air Force Recon squadrons nearby?

8/30/99 Freeper SSgt Mike "…One thing to consider. If these military troops were there (of which there is no doubt). They were there on TDY Orders,(Temporary duty). Someone had to sign those orders. Somewhere there had to be funds to pay for that TDY. They had to file a travel voucher to be paid for that TDY. There has to be a fund site somewhere. You should try to find copies of those TDY orders or travel vouchers…."

8/30/99 Freeper what’s up observes "…The report seems to make much of the fact at one point that law enforcement people who raid meth labs always are clothed and equipped with a lot of flame retardant gear because the labs are a considerable fire hazard. Yet, the writer of the report is suspicious that those who stormed the compound on the first day were not equipped in such a way, imlying that they had no intention of encountering a meth lab. In other words, the writer of this report is extremely suspicious about the drug angle which got the military into the mess in the first place…."

The Free Market (reprinted in 3/94 Ron Paul "…The moral promise of a free society involves the boundaries of private property. The promise is this: property boundaries cannot be legally invaded or trampled upon…... Property holders can form communities with their own internal cultures. Just as business can conduct its own affairs, people can separate themselves out entirely from the rest of society if they so desire. They need only respect the rights of others to do the same…..Today the promise of private property is routinely violated by both private criminals and government dictate. The attack on property began subtly at first, but today it has become explicit, sometimes brutal, and sometimes even deadly. The community of faith that once lived at Mount Carmel in Waco, Texas, believed the promise of free society. They chose to separate themselves from society, as so many others have done in our nation's history. This was not allowed in Soviet Russia, Nazi Germany, or Maoist China. That's one reason we regard these regimes as tyrannical. Yet in its dealings with the Waco religious dissenters, the central government revealed that it has become intractably opposed to any individual or group that represents a challenge to its singular authority. To counter this challenge, the central government resorted to tactics that resulted in the death of 86 men, women, and children. As for the survivors, the government has put them on trial. This sort of brutality is inevitable in a system of absolute and centralized power…..

The Free Market (reprinted in 3/94 Ron Paul "…For example, most people probably believe that the government attacked the Waco Christians because they were "stockpiling" weapons. Were they? Texans own 60 million firearms, about 3.5 per person. At Mt. Carmel there were two firearms per person, most of them locked away. The rest of their protection consisted of hay bales and plywood. The stockpiling accusation was an act of projection, for the real stockpiler was the government. In the attack on Waco, agents used M113 personnel carriers, M2AO Bradley fighting vehicles, Sikorsky Blackhawks, Apache and UH-1 Bell helicopters, Abrams MI tanks, 7.62nim machine guns, FBI SWAT snipers, two varieties of hand grenades, and the FBI's psychological warfare experts. The government even fired canisters of CS gas, banned in warfare by international treaty, through windows and walls. The BATF got their helicopters from the Texas National Guard. Under the law, the military cannot be involved in domestic law enforcement. But a special provision of the U.S. Code allows the government to use military equipment in drug cases. So the BATF told Texas Governor Ann Richards that they suspected Mount Carmel had a drug lab. This canard was not in the BATF's search warrants and it hasn't been mentioned since….."

The Free Market (reprinted in 3/94 Ron Paul "…Did Koresh want a confrontation with law enforcement agents? Most evidence indicates he desired good relations with the law. In 1992, Koresh had actually invited the BATF into the compound so agents could see for themselves. But the government refused….. Did the community have a death wish? Twenty minutes before the fire began, the community hung out a sign reading: 'We want our phones fixed." (The government had cut them off, along with the electricity.) That's not a message sent by people hungering for the Apocalypse. None of the survivors report discussion of suicide plans…..There is still no evidence that the religious people set the fire that destroyed their building. The place was a firetrap, entirely made of wood and sealed shut. Since the government had cut off their electricity, lanterns were their only light. The government shot out the windows, so sheets were their only protection from the weather. The tanks that battered the building probably set the fire, either accidentally or deliberately….."

The Free Market (reprinted in 3/94 Ron Paul "…. Several people say the government shot through the roof from a helicopter, but we cannot know for sure. The physical evidence is reduced to ashes, and the government plowed the land over a week after the home went up in flames. As the standoff continued, the women and children were upstairs because they were afraid of the government. The tanks destroyed the stairways that would have allowed them to escape the fire. The underground shelter was destroyed as well. After the fire, the FBI made three claims it later retracted. First, the Bureau said that two agents saw community members lighting a fire. Second, the Bureau said one agent saw someone dressed in black "cupping his hands," as if to light a fire. Third, the Bureau said some members trying to flee the fire were shot by others. All assertions were false and were subsequently dropped…."

The Free Market (reprinted in 3/94 Ron Paul "…The Justice Department contributed its share of lies. Spokesmen said an "independent arson investigator" concluded that members of the community started the fire. But the "independent investigator" turned out to be Paul Gray, an agent for the BATF from 1982 to 1990 whose wife stills works for the agency as secretary to the man who planned the raid. They apparently could not be sure a genuinely independent investigator would come to the preordained conclusion…."

The Free Market (reprinted in 3/94 Ron Paul "…The stated purpose of the raid was to save children from abuse. Yet Janet Reno lied about that too. The information she used was already discredited, and she later admitted it. The real child abuse was committed by the government to harass community members: the FBI turned on massive floodlights at night and played recordings of Buddhist chants, dental drills, and screaming, slaughtered rabbits. Reno herself ordered the house to be saturated with CS gas, knowing that the community's gas masks couldn't fit the children. In ways that have become typical, the media and government worked together in this disaster. One day before the raid, the Waco Tribune-Herald started a series on "The Sinful Messiah." On the morning of February 28, 1993, before BATF arrived at Mt. Carmel, at least 11 reporters were on the scene already. After the religious community was torched, the entire media participated in the beatification of Janet Reno for her actions in Waco…."

The Free Market (reprinted in 3/94 Ron Paul "…The consequences for the victims were public humiliation and death. There were zero consequences for the perpetrators, unless we consider the three agents who were suspended with pay and perks, which is no punishment at all…..In its dealings with the community of believers at Mount Carmel, the central government abandoned the moral promise of a free society, and, as all tyrannies eventually do, ignored its own standards of law and ethics. But it paid the price of losing some measure of public confidence, which is already at historic lows. A government that governs by fear alone eventually finds itself unable to govern at all….."

National Review 3/20/95 David Kopel "…The Treasury Department's fall 1993 investigation of the Waco raid acknowledged that the attempt to serve search and arrest warrants on David Koresh led to an incompetent armed assault. But the Federal Government has not answered the larger question of why the BATF and other federal agencies are in the business of launching attacks with machine guns, grenades, and helicopters to serve search warrants for violations of federal statutes, especially statutes involving victimless crimes……The violent service of search warrants on homes has become routine for much of federal law enforcement. Former BATF Director Stephen Higgins testified that the bureau's Special Response Team, which perpetrated the Waco attack, had had hundreds of similar "activations" in recent years……Even searches that don't involve actual break-ins are often accompanied by excessive violence. Simple inspections of gun dealers' paperwork and seizures of allegedly mislabeled vitamins from health-food stores have been performed by people waving automatic weapons…."

National Review 3/20/95 David Kopel "…The application to search the Mount Carmel Center quoted a woman who said her brother claimed he saw a machine-gun conversion kit at a Branch Davidian home in Southern California. Rather than relying on hearsay, BATF should have interviewed the brother to determine what he actually saw. It is highly unlikely that what he saw was a kit to convert a semiautomatic weapon to fully automatic; such kits can be purchased only by a person who undergoes the same rigorous federal licensing process necessary to buy an actual machine gun. …. There was virtually no evidence, that the Branch Davidians had actually converted semiautomatic rifles into machine guns, a complex process that requires several hours of highly skilled- gun-smithing. Perhaps the strongest "evidence" in the warrant application that conversions had occurred was a statement from a neighboring farmer that he had heard machine-gun fire coming from Mount Carmel. But the BATF never told the magistrate that the local sheriff had investigated the neighbor's machine-gun complaint and found it to be erroneous. The sheriff discovered that the machine-gun noise was caused by a legal trigger accessory called a "hellfire device," which makes a firearm sound but does not shoot. The BATF also forgot to tell the magistrate that the complaining farmer was involved in a property dispute with the Davidians…..

National Review 3/20/95 David Kopel "…Although the BATF has no legal authority over child-abuse cases, its search-warrant application dwelled on lurid allegations of abuse, based on an investigation by the state of Texas. The BATF failed to reveal that the investigation had been closed for lack of evidence on April 30, 1992, nearly ten months before the assault on the Mount Carmel Center…….Other irrelevant allegations were also presented in a one-sided manner. The claim by Marc Breault (who had left Mount Carmel in 1989) that Koresh had imprisoned a woman in June 1991 was included in the warrant application, but not the fact that the FBI had investigated the charge in April 1992 and closed the case in June 1992….. The most important source of information in the Waco warrant application came from Mare Breault, who had been Koresh's right-hand man before angrily leaving the group. Breault had defected after Koresh - with an eye on Breault's new wife, Elizabeth - began claiming that all the Davidian women were meant to bear Koresh' s children as Brides of the House of David. A self-described "cult- buster," Breault readily admitted he had a "vendetta" against Koresh, a fact that was not disclosed in the warrant application. The fact that Breault is legally blind was never mentioned to the magistrate. To the contrary, the warrant application gave the impression that Breault had been one of Koresh's soldiers. It said Breault "participated in physical training and firearm shooting exercises conducted by Howell. He stood guard armed with a loaded weapon." Able to see only three inches in front of his face with one eye, and not at all with the other, Breault would probably have been more of a threat to fellow Davidians than to intruders.

National Review 3/20/95 David Kopel "…The subsequent Treasury Department study of the BATF's activities accidentally made it clear that the bureau suspected that some of its witnesses were unreliable, which would have undermined the validity of their evidence as a basis for a search or arrest warrant. Two of the six key witnesses who had at some point lived in the compound mentioned 24-hour armed guards. Yet the BATF raid planners "concluded that neither armed guards nor sentries were posted at the Compound at any time." The planners' conclusion means the BATF doubted the reliability of the witnesses and the ongoing validity of their evidence - but never shared those doubts with the magistrate…."

National Review 3/20/95 David Kopel "…During the siege, FBI negotiators sent Koresh a copy of the search warrant and related documents. At this point, there was no law-enforcement need to keep warrant documents hidden from the public. Yet they remained sealed until after Mount Carmel was burned to the ground on April 19. If the warrant documents had become public in March, after having been shown to Koresh, it would have been quickly discovered that there was no probable cause for the search and no justification for serving the warrant violently without attempting a peaceful entry. Exposure of the warrant's deficiencies in March, while the siege was in progress, might have eroded public support for the operation sufficiently to keep the government from mounting the final tank and chemical-weapon attack on April 19…."

David T. Hardy's Waco Page 5/30/99 "…On February 19, nine days before the bloody raid, the ATF agents went over and asked David Koresh to go shooting. He agreed. In fact, he provided the ammunition. And the agents handed him their guns. Don't take my word for it. Here's the agents' report…." Freeper Bommer observes "…Your kidding right? 9 days before the ATF storms the Branch Dividian Compound, 2 ATF agents went shooting with a Child Molesting, Amphenemine drug dealing, illegal gun owning Cult leader, who believed that the 2nd Admendment exists. The perfect opportunity to arrest him as a Child Molesting, Amphenemine drug dealing, illegal gun owning Cult leader, and they didn't and you ask the signifigance? 80 some people up in flames is the signifigance. This whole thing could have been avoided….." Freeper dls442 adds "…The significance of it is that Koresh KNEW that these were FBI agents, and never intended them harm and that at anytime they could have taken him into custody. But the fact remains that the FBI had no evidence that anything illegal was being done, and no illegal weapons were seen. All charges were manufactured…."

3/1/93 Transcript of interview with Koresh "…[Morning Edition theme song] BURNETT: Sounding tired and in pain, Koresh said he and others in his group had been wounded, but he would not allow a doctor in or allow his wounded to be taken out. Mr. KORESH: There was two wounded, one dead, and the two wounded are up and around again. One received a flesh wound to the leg, and one to the hand- I mean, to the wrist. RADIO HOST: Are you the most seriously wounded of the people? Mr. KORESH: So far. RADIO HOST: Who was- who died? Mr. KORESH: Two girls. Babies. My girls. I have a lot of children, I have a lot of wives. BURNETT: Koresh contended the federal agents fired first when they leaped from their hiding places in two livestock trailers at 9:30 yesterday morning. His statement contradicts ATF spokesman Ted Royster [sp], who said the agents fell under heavy sustained gunfire the minute they showed themselves. At a press conference last night, Royster became emotional when he read a statement from Steven Higgins, director of the federal agency…… BURNETT:….. The ATF reported later last night that three of the cultists made an escape attempt at about 6:00 p.m. with guns blazing. The agency said one member was killed, one was captured, and one was wounded, before retreating back into the cult's headquarters. Koresh denied that report. Standoff negotiators are trying to maintain calm inside the compound. They're concerned that the religious group might attempt a mass suicide, similar to the deaths of 900 followers of cult leader Jim Jones in Georgetown, Guyana, in 1978. The Branch Davidian sect spun off from the Seventh Day Adventist Church in 1934. Denomination officials yesterday took pains to deny any ties to the Davidian sect. Reverend Larry Gwynn [sp], a Waco-based Adventist minister, said they take his church's belief in the Rapture to an extreme…."

Email to Alamo-Girl "…One of the authors, perhaps even the primary author, of the BATF version of what happened at Waco is named Faith Hochburg (sp? may be "berg") She was working for Treasury at the time and, by 94, was named US Attorney for New Jersey. Some time back, Lautenberg put her name forward to be a federal court judge. I believe she's still somewhere in the system. I have no idea what the BATF report said. However, it is abundantly clear that whatever we have been fed for the past six years is utter garbage.

If the FBI is not to be believed, then what are we to conclude about the BATF side of the story? For all the "taking responsibility" we hear from this administration, nobody ever does. Nobody ever gets fired. Nobody ever resigns. Therefore, I suggest that all Clinton judicial nominees be frozen in place until the American public gets a straight story and the end to the game-playing. I also suggest that this particular nominee be held up to even more intense scrutiny…."

9/11/97 PRINCETON UNIVERSITY Communications and Publications, Stanhope Hall "…Faith Hochberg, U.S. Attorney for New Jersey, will give a lecture entitled "The Evolution of Community Justice within the American Judicial System" at Princeton University's Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs on Thursday, September 25, at 4:30 p.m in Robertson Hall, Bowl 5. Hochberg, a well-known New Jersey prosecutor, was named U.S. Attorney in 1994, replacing Michael Chertoff. Hochberg established her reputation by prosecuting a number of headline-making cases, including a 1995 shooting at a Montclair post office that left two postal employees dead. She has been a central figure in the negotiations surrounding the prosecution of Theodore Kaczynski, the alleged "Unabomber." Kaczynski will be prosecuted first in California, but due to Hochberg's efforts the U.S. Justice Department may bring another indictment against him in New Jersey for the 1994 bombing death of Thomas Mosser of West Caldwell…."


5/25/93 "….Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs: Held a hearing on the Federal Government's response to money laundering. Testimony was heard from the following officials of the Department of the Treasury: Ronald K. Noble, Assistant Secretary (Enforcement); Faith S. Hochberg , Deputy Assistant Secretary (Law Enforcement)

4/12/94 "…NOMINATIONS (Senate - April 12, 1994) Executive nominations received by the Senate April 12, 1994: Faith S. Hochberg, of New Jersey, to be U.S. Attorney for the District of New Jersey for the term of 4 years, vice Michael Chertoff.

9/12/95 New York Times Clifford Levy "… . .After buying hundreds of the stolen phone codes, the Secret Service conducted raids in several states late last week, arresting the six people and seizing more than 20 computer systems, as well as equipment for making cellular phones operate with stolen codes, said the United States Attorney in Newark, Faith S. Hochberg."

11/28/95 NOMINATIONS (Senate - November 28, 1995) Faith S. Hochberg, of New Jersey, to be U.S. District Judge for the District of New Jersey vice H. Lee Sarokin, elevated.

4/22/99 Nominations Received: Senate received the following nominations: Faith S. Hochberg, of New Jersey, to be United States District Judge for the District of New Jersey.

U.S. Attorney for New Jersey Faith Hochberg, who was a central figure in the prosecution of Theodore Kaczynski The Media Studies Center, an operating program of The Freedom Forum since 1985, is devoted to improving understanding between the media and the public. Center programs bring journalists, scholars, media executives and the public together to examine the media's effects on society. … 111 "Inside the Internet" What is it and What Does the Government Want to Do With It? Can the First Amendment adapt to the new electronic frontier?

American law is struggling with legal issues brought on by the emergence of the developing information superhighway. Who will be responsible for words in a place with no laws? Will the First Amendment become just a local ordinance in a global society?

Adam Clayton Powell, III, The Freedom Forum Media Studies Center
Mike Godwin, Electronic Frontier Foundation
Dr. George Trubow, professor, John Marshall Law School
Faith Hochberg, U.S. Attorney Remarks of Director John W. Magaw before the
Opening of The New Jersey/New York 4/13/99 "…Thank you, Pete (Gargliardi, ATF Division Director), for the kind introduction and for all of the visionary ideas that you have conceived and implemented while carrying out ATF's mission to reduce violent crime. My appreciation also to all ATF personnel here in the New York/New Jersey area for their dedication, teamwork, and professionalism. …. My personal respects to Director (Chauncey) Parker of the NY/NJ HIDTA for your outstanding leadership and guidance; and to both New York City Police Commissioner (Howard) Safir; and Director (Kenneth) Curley of the Support Division of Military and Naval Affairs -- for your unwavering partnership…..We are here today to officially open the first Regional Crime Gun Center in the Nation. The number of distinguished law enforcement professionals gathered in support of this initiative speaks volumes about our shared expectations for -- and commitment to -- its success. My personal thanks to each of you……. Law enforcement agencies in New York and New Jersey are working at the leading edge. This Regional Crime Gun Center will channel strategic information into cutting edge technology for expert analysis by Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies.
These agencies will collaboratively combat a more ominous phenomenon of recent decades -- that of illegal firearms trafficking and all of its sordid tentacles….. "What kind of firearm was it?" "Where did the firearm come from?" "How was it obtained?" "How did it make its way to this crime? "Has it been involved in a shooting crime before?" This Center will help answer those kinds of questions and more. Seven days a week, the Center will record and transfer daily crime gun trace data to the ATF National Tracing Center located in West Virginia and then highlight patterns from the results of those traces. The New York State National Guard will be invaluable to this process….. I want to particularly acknowledge U.S. Attorney Faith Hochberg, (Judicial District of New Jersey), the New Jersey National Guard, and all of the police agencies -- too numerous to mention -- throughout New Jersey. Their determined effort to implement a comprehensive crime gun tracing program in that State has resulted in a model that is now being adopted across the country….."

11/24/98 David Voreacos "… Video cameras, code-activated door locks, and bulletproof glass aren't enough to make one North Jersey abortion provider feel entirely safe. "I get constant comments from family, friends, and patients who are worrying for my safety," said the doctor, who requested anonymity. "I'm fully aware of what the potential is. I fear for my safety and the safety of my staff."…. The law enforcement officials said nothing about enhancing personal security for doctors, however. Besides Cunningham, participants at Monday's closed-door session included Sen. Frank R. Lautenberg, D-N.J., who arranged the meeting; Faith Hochberg, the U.S. attorney for New Jersey; Robert J. Jordan, assistant special agent in charge of the FBI's Newark office; Peter Gagliardi, head of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms office for New York and New Jersey; and Allendale Police Chief Robert Herndon, who also is first vice president of New Jersey State Association of Police Chiefs. "I'm always angered when people are willing to use violence to take peoples' rights away and then stand on the moral high ground," Lautenberg said. The meeting mirrored law enforcement efforts throughout the country. Since the Slepian shooting, the U.S. Justice Department has appointed a panel to investigate antiabortion violence and has begun using a grand jury to probe the violence. The panel has begun talks with doctors, abortion rights groups, the FBI, the Marshals Service, and the ATF….."

Department of the Treasury, Report of the Department of the Treasury on the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Investigation of Vernon Wayne Howell also known as David Koresh, U.S. Government Printing Office, September 1993

Ronald K. Nobel

Associate Professor of Law

Faculty Director, Root-Tilden-Kern Scholarship Program

New York University School of Law

Report of the Department of the Treasury on the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Investigation of Vernon Wayne Howell a/k/a known as David Koresh
(Office of Assistant Secretary for Enforcement, September 1993)

Public Report of the White House Security Review
(Office of Under Secretary for Enforcement, May 1995)

Report of the Good O’ Boy Roundup Investigation
(Office of Under Secretary for Enforcement, April 1996)
"….According to press reports, the White House has chosen Ronald K. Noble and Edward S.G. Dennis, Jr. to participate in the Wednesday, December 9th morning panel on "Prosecutorial Standards for Obstruction of Justice and Perjury." It can hardly be a coincidence that these two men oversaw the Treasury and Justice Department reports on the BATF and FBI actions against the Branch Davidians outside of Waco Texas in 1993 that led to the deaths of 82 civilians and four federal agents. Is Clinton telling Congress that it let these agents get away with mass murder-so it can surely let him get away with a little lying under oath? Of course, Clinton himself was deeply involved in promoting prosecutorial conduct against the Davidian defendants and the cover-up of federal agents' crimes against the Davidians.

Ronald Noble was described as "associate professor of law at New York University Law School and former undersecretary of the Treasury for enforcement." On February 26, 1998 the not-yet- confirmed Noble participated in the decision to allow BATF agents to attack Davidians two days later. In late April, 1993 Treasury Secretary Lloyd Bentsen selected Noble to head the Treasury Department investigation, an investigation which ignored evidence of serious BATF crimes, including lying to the military and shooting from helicopters that killed four Davidians. The results of his "investigation" are contained in the September, 1993 "Report of the Department of the Treasury on the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Investigation of Vernon Wayne Howell also known as David Koresh."

Edward S.G. Dennis, Jr., was described as "Partner with Morgan, Lewis & Bockius in Philadelphia and co-chairman of the Corporate Investigations and Criminal Defense Practice Group." The Justice Department appointed Dennis, himself a former head of the Justice Department's Criminal Division to be the chief reviewer of the government's procedures, decisions and actions in Waco. Dennis, whose investigations of the Philadelphia police department's bombing of the MOVE group and of Banca Lavoro have bee criticized by the press, did not complain when the Justice Department review team withheld damaging information from the Justice Department's panel of ten outside experts and even from its chief overseer, including missing physical evidence, withheld audio and video tapes, letters, memorandum, etc. The results of his "investigation" are contained in his October, 1993 "Evaluation of the Handling of the Branch Davidian Stand-off in Waco, Texas," an evaluation of the larger Justice Department to the Attorney General.

Freeper Eva 9/2/99 notes "…Carol Moore reports this reference to "MOVE" from the Treasury Dept report's historical background: Appendix G notes that "In recent times, the federal government has shown itself even less patient with armed groups than it had historically. Radical extremists of both the Right and the Left have been pursued aggressively once they began breaking the law." (TDR:Appendix G:11.) The appendix lists the following triumphs: destruction of the Symbionese Liberation Army in a gun battle and house fire that killed all members; pursuit and capture Gordon Kahl, a tax protester who killed a police officer, in a gun battle and house fire which killed him; pursuit and capture of bank-robber and assassin Robert Matthews, leader of "The Order," in a gun battle and house fire which killed him; three-day siege of the heavily armed, 80-member Covenant of the Sword and Arm of the Lord religious group. The appendix closes with the line, "The raid on the Branch Davidian compound occurred in the context of that historical background." (TDR:Appendix G:4) Evidently, the Branch Davidians' fiery deaths fit well within that "historical background" as well. (Local Philadelphia police, not federal agents, were responsible for the 1985 fire that killed 11 members of the MOVE group and destroyed two city blocks.) …"


Freeper Eva 9/2/99 "…Here is what the report had to say about those appointed to to do the investigation. I knew it was there somewhere but just could not find it.

First, it is questionable whether Deputy Attorney General Heymann or Assistant to the Attorney General Richard Scruggs, working as they do under Attorney Janet Reno, could do any "independent" investigation of errors in the Justice Department decision-making or in the actions of the FBI. Heymann was also the head of the Criminal Division under President Jimmy Carter, so he has a long history of loyalty to the institution, as well as to his superiors.

The most noted conflict of interest is Heymann's appointing another former Chief of the Justice Department's Criminal Division, Edward S.G. Dennis, Jr., to review the procedures, decisions and actions of the Justice Department in the Waco matter. This choice came under scathing attack by William Safire who noted that Dennis was in charge of the botched investigation of Banca Lavoro and its relation to Iraq-gate: "Ms. Reno's Criminal Division directed Atlanta prosecutors to shoot down the explosive case with a plea bargain, avoiding a public trial that would have exposed the machinations of the Bush- Thornburgh-Dennis crowd. How could Ed Dennis not be grateful? His judgment about the Waco fiasco: `there is no place in the evaluation for blame, and I find no fault.' One hand whitewashes the other." [374] Mary McGrory also criticized the decision to end the Iraq- gate inquiry: "During the campaign, Bill Clinton indignantly promised to get to the bottom of it. But a deep incuriosity has set in, and so far his Justice Department has accepted the finding of an in-house whitewash headed by retired Judge Frederick Lacey." [375]

According to James L. Pate, as U.S. Attorney in Philadelphia, Dennis also oversaw the investigation of the Philadelphia police department's bombing of MOVE in 1985. Another MOVE veteran assigned to review the Waco disaster was Los Angeles Police Department Chief, who was formerly Philadelphia's police commissioner. Pate writes: "If one was looking for two guys who might empathize with heavy- handed cops who screwed up, the phone numbers of Willie Williams and Eddie Dennis would be a must." [376]

Another questionable Heymann appointment was Israeli professor Ariel Merari of Tel Aviv University as an outside expert. Professor Merari currently has a contract with Mr. Heymann to write a book, something which technically does not violate federal guidelines. Professor Merari's report does not offer any criticisms, only suggestions for improving future law enforcement efforts. Another former Heymann associate was more critical. Harvard's Alan A. Stone, M.D. first requested a "complete record of the events at Waco." [377] When he finally issued his report it was extremely critical.

Former FBI director William Webster also was asked to be an outside expert and review the Justice Department's action. Since Webster authorized the creation of the FBI's Hostage Rescue Team, it is not surprising he writes, "the unfortunate tragedy at Waco does not in any way diminish my admiration for the men and women who serve in HRT." However, he does urge that such "special response teams," including BATF's, should not be used without the approval of the Attorney General. (JDR:Webster:4)

e. Possible Clinton-Hubbell-Lindsay-Foster Coverup

Associate Attorney General Webster L. Hubbell, the third ranking official in the Justice Department, was the liaison for Waco between the Attorney General's office and the White House and attended meetings there. He passed on FBI chief negotiator Byron Sage's negative assessment of negotiations to Attorney General Reno and was involved in decision-making regarding gassing Mount Carmel. He was with Janet Reno in the FBI Operations Center on April 19th and was the highest ranking official there after she left. On April 19th Janet Reno told television viewers that Hubbell had called President Clinton the afternoon of the fire. During the April 28, 1993, House Judiciary Committee hearing, Representatives Hughes and Sensenbrenner expressed great interest in Hubbell's role in decision-making and about Reno's assertion Hubbell had spoken with Clinton April 19th. One even asked "whether Sessions and Reno were `out of the loop' with Hubbell." Reno told the Committee she had been in error and the Justice report claims Hubbell called White House Chief of Staff Thomas McLarty. (JDR:245)

Freeper thunder 9/2/99 "…1997 Akron Law Review; The Hostage Rescue Team's arrogance is a well-known problem in law enforcement. As Treasury Undersecretary for Law Enforcement Ron Noble observed, "when they come into an operation, they take over, and I've been with other law enforcement officers when it happens, and it is not something that makes law enforcement officers, who believe they're able, happy. That's just the way it is."[88] At Waco, the HRT rapidly established bad relations with the Texas Rangers.(p.638) Link to Source …."


Lloyd Bentsen - Secretary of the Treasury
John P. Simpson - Acting Assistant Secretary

Ronald K. Noble - unconfirmed Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for Enforcement (a consultant at this point)

Stephen Higgins-Director
Daniel Hartnett - Associate Director of Enforcement
Edward Conroy - Deputy Associate Director of Enforcement
David Troy - Chief of Intelligence Division

National Response Plan" Assignments for "Waco Operation"
SAC Philip Chojnacki - Incident Commander
ASAC Chuck Sarabyn - Tactical Coordinator
SAC Pete Mastin - Deputy Incident Commander
ASAC Jim Cavanaugh - Deputy Tactical Coordinator
SA Sharon Wheeler - Public Information Officer
RAC Bill Buford - Special Response Team 1 leader
SAC Curtis Williams - Special Response Team 2 leader
SAC Gerald Petrilli - Special Response Team 3 leader
SAC Ted Royster - planner, untitled raid coordinator
SA Earl Dunagan - investigator
SA Davy Aguilera - investigator
SA Robert Rodriquez - undercover agent

SAC-Special Agent-in-Charge
ASAC-Assistant Special Agent-in-Charge
RAC-Resident Agent-in-Charge
SA-Special Agent Egon Richard Tausch "….E.R. Tausch was a court observer during the Waco trial. This article is a description of what events he witnessed during the trial….. In a virtually unprecedented move, U.S. District Judge Walter Smith decided to choose an initial jury panel of 84, which he personally selected out of an original "jury wheel" of 300, basing his selections entirely on answers supplied by the potential jurors to a lengthy questionnaire concerning their attitudes toward gun control, religion, government, and federal agencies. Judge Smith overruled separate trials for several defendants, increasing the chance of conflicting, and therefore ineffectual, defenses. Almost half of the subpoenas for witnesses requested by the defense were refused by the court, some on the flimsiest grounds or no grounds at all. Finally, throughout the evidentiary portion of the trial, the court refused to permit any direct or indirect hint of the issue of self-defense on the Davidians' part -- neither in cross- examination of prosecution witnesses, nor in testimony or other evidence put on by the defense. The judge regularly sustained prosecution objections whenever defense questions could be interpreted as leading toward governmental misconduct. This broad prohibition ruled out issues about the sufficiency of the notorious affidavit "supporting" the ATF warrants; the legality of the warrants themselves; the requirements for service and execution of a warrant; the use of the words "assault" or "attack" in reference to ATF actions; discussion of the Davidians killed by the ATF agents; or any use of the Treasury or FBI reports………" Egon Richard Tausch "….Emotional or inattentive jurors certainly observed an impressive government case: weapons parts found in the ashes of the burned Davidian center; clean-cut, articulate agents describing their "attempt to execute a warrant" and grieving over fallen comrades; one ATF medic's courage; a horrific account of a grievously wounded agent who lay conscious but unattended for two hours. Kathy Schroeder's chilling description of David Koresh's on-again-off-again ideas for a mass suicide after the battle. The early testimony by Texas Rangers about the weapons and weapons-parts found in the ashes of Mt. Carmel apparently had a strong effect on the out-of-state media….. The U. S. Attorneys, however, had to take a Texas jury into account, and soon gave up trying for shock value in the courtroom, especially since the Ranger witnesses were visibly uncomfortable testifying as involuntary federal "deputies." Of course, due to the pre-trial rules, the Rangers were no more free to be questioned about ATF actions than they had been free to investigate them independently at the time. They were deputized by the feds, probably illegally, at the very beginning of their investigation during the siege of Mt. Carmel. Unfortunately for the prosecution, their case could not be presented without multitudes of still and videotaped scenes of the February 28, 1993, ATF approach and massive assault on Mt. Carmel. ……." Egon Richard Tausch "….Despite many attempts, the prosecution failed to establish conclusively which side started the fire -- Davidians or FBI tanks smashing through kerosene lamps, candles, and large quantities of fuel during a windstorm. The jury listened to edited parts of a tape-recording from hidden microphones inside Mt. Carmel during the final attack and fire of April 19. These consisted of sounds of static during which one could faintly hear a voice or saying "fire." A government expert testified that through electronic enhancement, he reconstructed some clearly incriminating comments, even if the jury couldn't hear them. There was no mention of when, how, by whom, or under what authority the Davidians' home had been so extensively bugged before the raid. The prosecution failed also to establish which side fired its weapons first during the ATF raid on February 28. Indeed, it seemed to be afraid of the issue. All of Mt. Carmel's windows were shut at the moment of the ATF's arrival, and none of the people glimpsed inside or outside was visibly armed. The position that the ATF was "attempting to serve a warrant" fell apart when, during cross-examination, agent after agent denied that he had a warrant, or knew of anyone who had one, or ever announced one, or heard anyone else announce one, or ever had any orders to do anything but shoot at windows, walls, and people, scale ladders and smash into rooms, throw concussion grenades, or other warlike activities. The prosecution did not choose to call the ATF leaders, on the stand, and the defense was prohibited from doing so….." Egon Richard Tausch "….Most telling was the ATF agents' descriptions, under cross-examination, of their intensive training for the raid, coached by Green Berets at Fort Hood. They admitted that they staged "about 15 or 20" practice raids on a mock Mt. Carmel, and that in each raid the orders and outcome were the same: a military assault from several directions at once, constant firing, scaling of ladders, smashing of windows with crowbars, throwing concussion grenades in them, then "securing" the rooms by killing or capturing the inhabitants. None of the practice-sessions involved the required policy of "Knock and Announce." Neither then nor in the raid itself did any agent witness ever learn who was to have or announce warrants, or approach the front doors, or who or how many Davidians were to be arrested, or what items were to be searched for. These details did not seem of much interest to them, and they were unprepared for such questions….." Egon Richard Tausch "….After the prosecution rested and the jury was sent out, the defense again requested that it be permitted to try to establish self-defense. The defendant's motion was again denied. …..Retired Colonel and Vietnam veteran Jack Zimmerman, now a lawyer, had been at Mt. Carmel for a time during the siege, to represent some of the Davidians, and had entered and examined the building on two occasions. He testified as to bullet-holes in the highest part of the roof, coming into the building. He added that they could not have been fired from the water tower or from anywhere but the sky, contrary to the testimony of helicopter pilots who had, during the government's case, denied any firing at all (but could not satisfactorily explain why the helicopters were each carrying "eight or ten" ATF agents each throughout their mission over Mt. Carmel). Col. Zimmerman also explained to the jury that it was not "teargas" which was used in the FBI attack, but CS gas, a mucous, tissue, and lung agent with far more serious an lasting effects, and outlawed for use in combat. The prosecution attempted to portray Col. Zimmerman as an ardent admirer of the Davidians' religious beliefs, which he denied. After repeated forays, the prosecutor demanded to know what his religion was. Zimmerman answered that he was Jewish, and that his spoken defense of the Davidians' faith was at the invitation of his synagogue…." Egon Richard Tausch "…. The major surprise was that in his 60-page charge to the jury Judge Smith finally permitted the defendants to argue self- defense, now that it was too late to present witnesses or evidence, or to cross-examine or re-call prosecution witnesses. The consensus of the rumor mill was that the judge was, at the tail-end of the trial, persuaded of the defendants' innocence…..….Dan Cogdell gave the most memorable closing arguments, with his Amarillo English and down-home phrases. Were the Davidians "cowards"? Looking down the barrel of a hostile tank "would scare the gorilla snot" out of anyone. He reminded the jury that the Davidians were attacked in their home and their church, not a "compound." He also contrasted the methods of the federal ATF and the Texas Rangers with the famed remark by one of the latter when he arrived alone to quell a massive disturbance: "One riot, one Ranger". As his finale, Cogdell listed each of the euphemisms used by the prosecution. They were not ATF concussion grenades, but "diversionary devices", not tank-tracks but "ground disturbances;" not ATF snipers, but "forward observers;" not tanks but "armored mobile units;" not an attack, but a "dynamic entry;" not the bloodiest assault on American civilians in history, but the "execution of a warrant." …." Egon Richard Tausch "….The prosecution's final two-hour close would have been an anticlimax but for a disastrous mistake by U.S. Attorney Ray Jahn, when, trying again to lessen the importance to the jury of the concussion grenades, he implied that the defense witness who had her arm blown off by one was faking the seriousness of the injury, adding that she could still hold the microphone in the courtroom. From that point the jury refused to look in his direction. ……After only 18 hours of deliberations (including the several hours necessary to study the judge's charge to the jury), following a six-week trial, the jury came back with "not guilty" verdicts for all 11 defendants on the murder and conspiracy to murder charges, convictions of five defendants for voluntary manslaughter, a few convictions for using firearms in the commission of a violent crime (which convictions were dismissed by the judge because those defendants had not been found guilty of any violent crimes) and seven weapons possession convictions….." Egon Richard Tausch "….One juror stated to the San Antonio Express-News, "When we heard all that testimony, there was no way we could find them guilty of murder." He added that "We felt provocation was pretty evident. When the firestorm started, everybody was trying to cover their behinds...I thought two agents in plain clothes should have gone in there and knocked on the door (to issue warrants)". Long after the verdict, the national media were still referring to the government's "bungled attempt to serve a warrant." If anything at all was proven during this trial, and proven beyond a reasonable or unreasonable doubt, it is that there was no attempt to serve a warrant. There was a thoroughly planned and rehearsed military assault and campaign against a group of civilians, some of whom were suspected of secretly possessing illegal weapons parts, which campaign was efficient enough to rack up a kill-ratio which would be envied by any army in history….." Egon Richard Tausch "….One would think so from the spontaneous San Antonio victory celebrations and parties, attended not just by Constitutionalists and Davidian supporters but by throngs of locals. The minority who had not seemed convinced of the wrongfulness of the Waco Massacre before, now claimed to have been champions of freedom all along. Bumper-stickers of the Texas flag with SECEDE! written on them were circulated in at least one party. For those who suffered through a terrifying attack, an oppressive siege, a raging fire, and the sight of their children, spouses, and friends dying, followed by a year in jail, then to find themselves tried in court facing life-imprisonment, and now facing imprisonment for lesser offenses, perhaps the victory is not so satisfying…."

Freeper Cynic#456,789 "..The compound USED to house a drug (methamphetamine?) lab before Koresh/Howell purchased it. Drug pretext was used at one point in the investigations into Branch Davidian activities acc to a report done by Carol Moore et al in l994. It is posted in its entirety (prints out to 187 pages) on Jeff Head's Waco information --, part 6, the history of the Branch Davidians. The name of the report is "The Massacre at Waco" by Carol Moore

Freeper Cynic #456,789 9/2/99 "…The following information prints out at page 86 of 137 (not 187, and the last 20 pages are footnotes/references) and is at

The Associated Press account in a section above describes the entry through the front door. "Then the FBI sent in its biggest weapon--a massive armored vehicle larger than the others and headed for a chamber lined with cinder blocks." i.e., the concrete room. " (Survivors) said the tank took out a barrel of propane, flattening the container and spilling its contents. And as the tank thundered through the house it tipped over lit camping lanterns, spitting flames that ignited the propane and other flammables. . .The building erupted. It happened too fast to pull fire extinguishers from the walls." [320] Although Branch Davidian survivors claim it was this tank entry which started the fire, the Justice report does not mention its entry in its section on the final tank attacks. (JDR:294) The report does include the 11:59:16 infrared photo of the tank at the front door. [320]. Associated Press story, "Tanks, chemicals couldn't break resolve of cultists," Washington Times, April 23, 1993…."



Lengthy timeline of events leading to the Waco tragedy, see
Here is a locator service for a local copy.
Waco - Carol Moore Homepage
Waco Weblinks
Waco: The Rules Of Engagement
Waco Holocaust Electronic Museum
Script of Waco: The Rules Of Engagement
The Ashes Of Waco
Waco: The Inside Story - Frontline
In Memoriam - Waco TX.
The First Death Count
Union Calendar No. 395, 104th Congress, 2nd Session, Report 104-749
Department of the Treasury, Report of the Department of the Treasury on the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Investigation of Vernon Wayne Howell also known as David Koresh, U.S. Government Printing Office, September 1993 The Stock no is 048-000-00447-4. It is "Not Physically Distributed to Depository Libraries". Report on the events at Waco, Texas February 28 to April 19 1993/. Redacted version. 1993. Gpo stock number. : 027-000-01352-0.


Freeper rollin 9/2/99 "...The search warrant contains three items of interest. 1. A search for automatic weapons. But Koresh who had gone shooting with 3 ATF agents 9 days before the raid and shot the agents guns had invited them to inspect his compound. They did not, preferring a public relations stunt to enhance their budget hearings.

2. Allegations of child abuse (a state, not a federal matter).

3.To justify getting military and national guard help, a claim of drug manufacture was also made. However, they knew that this had happened in 1987 and there was none at the time of the warrant. Conveniently, they forgot to mention the time. For more information and a chronology of the raid. ..."

Freeper rowdee "…in the Dallas Morning News, Thursday, April 22, 1993, I presume page 27 A. The airplane was marked US Air Force. BTW...B1 Bomber Bob Dornan was guesting for the O'Reilly Factor tonight and they were showing film clips. He commented something like "that was a Chinook, the first I knew of them being there, he knew of the Hueys". I haven't had time to find the list of equipment supposedly used, but he mentioned there is only l branch of the services that has Chinooks (some have modified types)...he commented on the size of them. …." "....The official version is undercut by BATF's concession that, when informed of the investigation, Koresh invited agents to come over, look at the firearms, and take any that they might feel were questionable. It is also undercut by a rather embarassing event. Thanks to the Freedom of Information Act, we now know how ATF undercover agents investigating the case spent February 19, 1993--nine days before the raid. They went shooting with David Koresh. He provided the ammunition, and they handed him their guns. No, I am not jesting. And yes, he knew they were agents. Click here for their report...." "....Even a well-heeled agency does not divert a hundred agents with air support to investigate a single and rather small case--particularly not if a simple audit could resolve the matter.... The codename for the Waco raid was "Operation Trojan Horse." The code for its initiation was "Showtime." The target date was less than two weeks before BATF's House Appropriations hearings were scheduled. The team assigned included a Public Information Officer, who made sure to alert newspapers to stand by for a story that weekend. There would indeed be a story--four agents and six civilians would die to make it.... "....In late 1995, I submitted Freedom of Information Act requests to BATF and FBI relating to critical information on the events at Waco. Neither agency responded, and in December, 1995, I commenced a Freedom of Information Act suit (Hardy v. FBI & ATF, No. 95-883-TUC-ACM, D. Ariz.). After weathering two motions to dismiss, fourteen motions for stay or extension of time, and four motions for summary judgment, we obtained quantities of useful data, some of which the agencies admit was never revealed to Congressional investigators...." "....Some of the most interesting data may, however, never see the light of day. ATF's affidavits contend that all of its photographic and video evidence met a sticky end. In particular: The "official" videocam, set up to film the operation, mysteriously ejected its tapes rather than recording them. The agency attributes this to radio interference from nearby transmitters. (Strange, since video remote controls work on infrared, not radio, signals. Just as strange, the agency admits that when it attempted to duplicate the occurence, it was unable to make it happen.)...." "....That wasn't the only "official" videocam filming the front of the building during the raid. There was another, mounted on a tripod beside the communications van. And another at a sniper position. And still another (although this may overlap with one of the first two) filming from an "elevated position." Mysteriously, none of these videotapes can be found. And the agency officials who saw them in the past say that every single camera malfunctioned in the seconds before the raid. (Quality control isn't what it used to be apparently.). The only clue was that these videos may have been given to the Texas Rangers. But when I asked for copies from the Rangers, they replied that the videos were in Rangers' possession, but not in their control. Control was vested in the U.S. Marshall's Office, for whom they had gathered them. I then made a FOIA request to the Marshall's Office.... which said they could not produce them, since they were not in their control. [I've since sent this letter to the Rangers, but have not gotten a reaction.]. "....The "official" still camera's film....and indeed the official still camera...vanished from a table in raid headquarters, surrounded by Federal agents, during the raid. At least that's what the ATF's Public Information Office swore happened. (Crime may be rising, but you would think a room full of Federal agents would be safe from thieves). "....While "unofficial" cameras were there in abundance (three of the four agents killed had them, and the videos of agents show them wandering around snapping pictures), their film seems to have wandered off. Despite a court order, only two rolls of film could be found, neither of them depicting the raid itself...." "....It seems as if all this evidence fell prey to an evidentiary variant of King Tut's Curse. It took two years of litigation to pry the remaining evidence out, one piece at a time. First, ATF had no videos. Then it had one, but only one, and that made from the helicopters approaching the rear. A video analyst found that that tape had been edited. The agency found another, and swore that was all. Strange, since that video showed two other agents making still more videos. The agency finally admitted there were more, but those had been turned over to the Texas Rangers, no copies made. But the Texas Rangers stated that, when they received the videos, they were acting as deputized U.S. Marshalls, and had given the videos back to federal authorities. And so on.... 9/2/99 "…While the actual raid of the Branch Davidian Compound occurred on 2-28-1993, the events leading up to the raid deserve mentioning. Particularly those concerning the Warrant. The investigation began in 1992 when a package being delivered to the Davidians accidentally ripped revealing a number of hand-grenade shells. Such a discover does serve as the basis for beginning an investigation. The investigation, however, could have ended when the BATF realized that the Davidians produced their own line of hunting clothing, "David Koresh Survival Wear," for oversized men. One of the items sold in their line of clothing was a hunting vest which had dummy grenades sewn into the fabric! …" 9/2/99 "…Records show that in July 1992 that Special Agent Aguilera learned that Koresh worked out a bussiness deal with a liscenced gun dealer by the Henry McMahon. The Branch Davidians would buy the pieces needed to construct AR-15's. (AR-15's are the civilian semi-automatic version of the military M-16.) They would then assemble the legal weapons and sell them through Henry McMahon. Because the Davidians could purchase and assemble the weapons well below wholesale price for a premade weapon, both the Davidians and McMahon expected to make a lot of money. McMahon, however, backed out of the deal after being threatened by Aguilera---thus leaving the Davidians with mass amounts of AR-15 pieces! …." 9/2/99 "…The warrant was based upon information obtained between June 4, 1992 and June 23, 1992 and interviews conducted in December 1992 and January 1993. As of December 1992, the director of the BATF Stephen Higgins said that probable cause did not exist to obtain a warrant. (Congressional Hearings in April 1993.) ….In an article, "Records Show Gap in Probe" dated May 8, 1993 Houston Chronicle reporter Bob Sablatura stated: However, the affidavits show that Aguilera conducted only one interview between July 21 and Dec. 4. The affidavits also do not reflect any new information about weapons deliveries to the compound after June, making that information more than eight months old when AFT obtained a search warrant.(Waco Tribune-Herald, p 1a and 4a.)…." 9/2/99 "…It should be noted that it was only after talking to apostate members of the group many of which had not belonged to the group for years that the BATF decided to seek a warrant. In obtaining a warrant Special Agent Davy Aquilera misled the judge. Aquilera stated: I am familiar with the federal firearm and explosive laws and know that it is unlawful for a person [to own machine guns and specified explosives.] and/or destructive devices, including any combination of parts, EITHER designed or intended for use in converting any firearm into a machine gun." (Probable Cause Affidavit in Support of Search Warrant, p 1.) In reality the law declares that one must prove the intent to use the parts designed to convert firearms into machine guns. The fifteen pages presented to Federal Magistrate Dennis S. Green failed to prove the intent of the Branch Davidian Seventh Day Adventist…." 9/2/99 "…Furthermore, the warrant did not mention the items which were to be siezed---which is standard practice in obtaining warrants. Warrants are not issued so that police authorities can go on a 'fishing' trip, but rather with specific allegations…." 9/2/99 "…* The Warrant only listed legal weapons and explosives which anybody could own and "Four (4) M-16 parts set kits 'A'." It is assumed that the four kits are designed to upgrade the civilian version of the M-16 the AR-15 to a fully automatic weapon, but since independent gun dealers are unfamiliar with "part set kits 'A'" nobody really know what the statement declares. * The Warrant also accuses the Davidians of publishing "magazines such as, the Shotgun News and other related clandestine magazines." The other related clandestine magazines are never named. The "Shotgun News" has always been published for over fifty years in Hastings Nebraska, not Waco Texas. Furthermore, the "Shotgun News" is not a clandestine magazine, but rather an accepted one within the firearms community! (Dick Reavis, Ashes of Waco, p 25.)…" 9/2/99 "…* The Warrant includes allegations of Child Abuse and references a cult with a leader claiming to be the Messiah. Neither of those issues fall under BATF jurisdiction. In order to obtain a warrant, the BATF has to focus on the issues of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, or illegal drugs. Child Abuse falls under different jurisdictions; while being a cult is a religious freedom granted by the constitution…."

The Dividian Massacre Carol Moore "…Attorney General Janet Reno claims she directed that the operation was to proceed incrementally, negotiations were to remain an option, and the FBI should pull back if the children were endangered. While Reno permitted the FBI to make tactical decisions, the attorney general, or anyone to whom she delegated that power, could still call off the assault at any time. However, whoever was in charge did not call it off, despite the Davidians' pleadings for negotiations, despite their stubborn refusal to surrender to what they regarded as unjust authority, and despite mounting evidence the attack would lead to massive loss of life…."

The Dividian Massacre Carol Moore "…APRIL 19TH CHRONOLOGY…Cause Foundation's Kirk Lyons alleges that driving one of those tanks was Lon Horiuchi, the sniper who killed Vicki Weaver. R. J. Craig, another tank driver in the Weaver siege, drove the tank that probably started one or more of the fires at Mount Carmel. Commander of the Hostage Rescue Team, of course, was Richard Rogers, who also commanded the murderous siege against the Weavers. The chronology that follows was assembled from the relevant Justice report text and FBI forward looking infrared ("infrared" or "FLIR") photographs which show heat spots as light, FBI overhead photographs, trial testimony, news video, newspaper accounts, and survivors' reports, which are referenced in this and the following chapters. I also referred to Michael J. McNulty's analysis of the full infrared video tape.4/ I have viewed only the short sections played on ABC's "Nightline," May 5, 1995. Because eyewitnesses' watches were not synchronized, some times listed are approximate. The infrared camera was set to what one government witness called "National Standard Time."

(Note: All times are Central Time.)

5:55 a.m.--Tanks go to front east and west of building and back of the gymnasium.

5:59--FBI tells a Davidian the gas attack is about to begin. The FBI alleges Davidian throws the phone out the window. Davidians deny this.

6:00--FBI loudspeakers begin demanding surrender, continue through the morning. Bradley vehicle begins delivering "liquid ferret tear gas rounds," i.e., gas grenades, into the underground tornado shelter.

6:04--Agents allege Davidians are firing on the tanks FBI opts to speed up delivery of gas, begins launching first of 400 gas grenades into the building.

6:07-6:31--Tanks poke holes in building and insert gas at front east and west sides of building. Four Bradleys deploy gas grenades through the windows.

6:24--FBI tells Davidians to hang out a white flag if the phone is not working. Davidians place dark blanket in the front door.

6:45-7:04--Tanks deliver more gas grenade rounds to every part of the building.

7:30--Tank rips hole in front east first floor of building and inserts gas.

7:58--Tank breaches a hole in the second floor back east corner of building. Tank rips into second floor womens' quarters.

9:10--Davidians hang out banner that reads, "We want our phones fixed.

9:17--Tank breaks through the front door, wedging doors against barrier.

9:28--Tank enlarges the opening in middle front of building; may have collapsed stairway near kitchen at this time. "CEV2" breaks down and a new CEV2, which is not equipped with tear gas, replaces it.

9:49-9:54--The FBI says phone will be connected only if there is a clear signal it is for surrender purposes. Graeme Craddock exits, discovers the phone line has been severed, and signals that. The FBI does not reconnect phone.

10:00--(11:00 Eastern Time) Attorney General Janet Reno leaves the Justice Department for a speech in Baltimore. Calls President Clinton at this time.

10:30--Bob Ricks holds FBI press briefing and announces, "We're not negotiating," and mentions plans for dismantling building if necessary.

10:41:58--Infrared video camera begins taping.

10:47:16-10:52:57--Period of missing infrared video tape.

10:00-11:00--Bradleys continue delivering gas grenades through various openings.

11:19-26--Tank begins demolition and enters fully into the gymnasium.

11:30-35--Tanks continue demolition of gymnasium. Tanks smash into both the front door and the middle front of the building. Agents try to call into compound. FBI steps up operations. Tank smashes through gymnasium wall and roof collapses.

11:40--FBI claims last gas grenades delivered.

11:42--Tank rams middle front of building and building debris that looks like flame is seen on front of tank.

Unknown time--Tank boom rams through window and wall of the second floor old arms' room.

11:52--Tank smashes into front door again. Both front doors have are pulled away from the building.

11:55-11:59--Gymnasium dog run collapses; tank smashes around inside gymnasium.

11:56--The FBI claims tank through front door destroys surveillance device.

11:56 a.m.-12:02 p.m. Approx.--Largest tank smashes through front door, finishes collapsing stairway. It probably collapses part of concrete room's ceiling, killing women and children. Tank knocks over several gallon containers of lantern fuel in south end of chapel.

12:01--A loudspeaker message mocks Koresh: "David, we are facilitating you leaving the compound by enlarging the door. David, you have had your 15 minutes of fame. . .Vernon is no longer the Messiah. Leave the building now.

12:06--Tank rips away part of the east front corner of exterior wall, ground floor level; boom smashes into second floor. "A few minutes later, from the section of the building, a flicker of orange could be seen. Survivor Renos Avraam claims tank knocked down lantern in second floor room above where tank ripped away wall and started a fire.

12:07:41--Infrared video indicates first fire on second floor, east front

12:08:11--Infrared photo shows large fire already developed on dining room wall and tank sitting north of collapsed gymnasium roof. News video shows tank west of dining room from which smoke is seen billowing.

12:08:17-22--Infrared photograph shows two large flashes in end of dog run.

12:09:25--Infrared photo shows second floor front fire is well developed. Tank sits outside church area throughout fire.

12:09:45--Chapel fire first visible on infrared. Approximate time Graeme Craddock escapes from the west side of chapel and makes way to concrete building next to water tower. He hears gun shots fired from within building and "elsewhere.

12:10--One FBI agent 300 yards south of building claims he sees a man start fire near the piano, in the area where front doors had been. News video shows no fire in this area for at least another 5 minutes. Another FBI agent north of building notes collapse of gymnasium.

12:10:40--Infrared photo shows room between chapel and collapsed gymnasium on fire and dining room wall fully inflamed. Gymnasium fire meets chapel fire. After this point fire burns too brightly for infrared video to be of use.

12:12--An FBI agent notes fire in gymnasium.

12:13--The FBI calls fire department.

12:20-12:25 Approx.--Four story tower collapses. News videos show tank smashing into front of building as it burns, possibly preventing Davidians from escaping. Chief negotiator Byron Sage has a trophy photograph taken of himself with the burning Mount Carmel in the background. Huge fire ball explodes near concrete room.

12:25 and/or 12:30--Agents report sounds of gunfire inside Mount Carmel Center. About same time SWAT team video footage indicates gunfire which might be coming from outside building.

12:34--Fire vehicles arrive, but are held back by the FBI.



"…In the wake of the bombings at the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City and the World Trade Center in New York, it became readily apparent that we as a nation were less than well prepared to respond to terrorist incidents involving WMD. As a result, President Clinton has undertaken significant efforts to galvanize federal agencies and prompt them to work more effectively, both together at the interagency level and in support of first responders, to provide our nation with an enhanced, flexible and integrated response capability…..

Specifically, the President has signed Presidential Decision Directive 62 (PDD 62)-the Combating Terrorism directive-which highlights the growing threat of unconventional attacks against the United States. In essence, PDD-62 helps bring a program management approach to our national counter-terrorism efforts; it details a new and more systematic method of working together to fight terrorism. PDD-62 established the Office of the National Coordinator for Security, Infrastructure Protection and Counter-Terrorism to oversee national counter-terrorism efforts. This National Security Council (NSC) directed framework is bringing a new impetus and a new urgency to our efforts to support state and local authorities. Within this framework, the NSC established three senior management groups: the Counterterrorism Security group (CSG), the Critical Infrastructure Coordination group (CICG), and the Weapons of Mass Destruction Preparedness (WMDP) group. The NSC chairs all three of these groups; and each group has multiple subgroups.

…..PDD-62 and the implementing guidance clearly provided the interagency with a more rigorous management structure for coordinating and promulgating national domestic preparedness programs and policies. As always, however, our efforts are designed to support-not supplant-the efforts of state and local agencies and first responders.

The Role of the National Guard and Reserve in Domestic Emergency Preparedness

….To better harness these inherent capabilities and make our national plans for WMD response more effective, last May President Clinton announced the establishment of ten rapid assessment and initial detection (RAID) teams. These RAID teams are designed to be assets of the Governors as they perform three vital tasks. First, they will deploy rapidly to assess suspected nuclear, biological or chemical events-in support of the local incident commander. Second, they will advise civilian first responders regarding appropriate actions. And third, they will facilitate requests for assistance. Each RAID team will be composed of 22 full-time National Guard soldiers and airmen. The units will be fully mission-capable in January 2000.

…..In addition, and at the direction of Congress, the Department is working to establish 44 military support detachments, which we refer to as RAID (Light) teams. These teams are being established as part of our overall effort to develop a nation-wide response capability that has strong roots in the local and state first-responder community. They will be established using traditional National Guardsmen and will be built on the RAID model but tailored to the specific needs of different States. The RAID (Light) teams will be structured and trained to provide a modest planning and assessment capability in every state and territory…..

The Domestic Preparedness Program

The Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Act of 1996 (Public Law 104-201) authorizes Federal agencies to provide resources, training and technical assistance to state and local emergency management personnel who would respond to a WMD terrorist incident. This interagency effort is called the Domestic Preparedness Program (DPP). DoD was designated the lead federal agency for the development of the program. The Assistant Secretary of Defense for Reserve Affairs provides policy guidance and oversight for city training/exercises, equipment loans, and expert assistance program elements while the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Special Operations/Low Intensity Conflict) provides oversight for the annual Federal-State-Local exercise mandated by law for the program. The Secretary of Defense designated the Secretary of the Army as the Executive Agent for implementing the program. The Director of Military Support (DOMS) is the Staff Action Agent and the Commander of the Soldier and Biological Chemical Command (SBCCOM) is the Program Director for the Domestic Preparedness Program.

An interagency plan was developed which included initial visits to selected cities, a week of "Train the Trainer" training for local first responder trainers including hazardous material (HAZMAT), firefighters, law enforcement, and emergency medical service personnel. Tabletop and functional "hands-on" exercises using chemical and biological scenarios further reinforce this training. A training equipment package is loaned to each city for their subsequent training use. To date, 51 cities have participated in the training with approximately 14,800 first responder trainers having been trained.

Annual federal, state, and local exercises are held to improve the integration of federal, state, and local response assets during a WMD response. In FY97 the annual exercise was held in conjunction with the "Summit of the Eight" Conference in Denver, CO (May 97). The FY98 exercise was held in September 1998 in Philadelphia, PA. The FY99 exercise is scheduled for August 1999 in New York City, NY. Other components of this program include the Improved Response Program and the Expert Assistance Program. MG Doesburg directs both of these programs, and details on how they are being executed are addressed later in this statement. The Improved Response Program is designed to study shortfalls in a WMD response and then propose solutions and to test new and existing equipment. The Expert Assistance Program has established a national Hotline for emergencies, a Helpline for assistance, and web pages that provide technical information needed by first responders.

Because we see this training mission as one more attuned to civilian agencies, facets of this program are being transferred to the Department of Justice. This will also have the benefit of placing the training and equipping roles in one location, as part of the "one stop" shop consistently requested by first responders. In September 1998, the Attorney General and Deputy Secretary of Defense began discussions on transferring portions of the DPP from DOD to DOJ. Personnel from DOD are currently meeting with representatives from DOJ to develop a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for the transfer.

The framework for this MOU is based on the following assumptions:

The President of the United States will designate the Attorney General as the lead official to assume responsibility for the DPP no later than October 1, 2000.

DOD will remain the lead federal agency for the DPP through the end of FY2000.

The transition will be accomplished in stages in order to accommodate existing budgets and program plans.

DOJ will honor the commitment to train the originally designated 120 cities.

A memorandum of agreement guiding this transfer will be finalized this spring.

The world of domestic preparedness and response is highly dynamic. No single agency acting alone can address the problem in its entirety. As a result, we are in the process of deepening our interagency ties and developing a coordinated approach. We at the Department of Defense realize that this approach is necessary if we are to avoid confusion, both within the federal government and in terms of our ability to communicate effectively with the first responder community. We are working hard to understand the concerns of state and local authorities regarding the federal role in the process. In many respects we share the same concerns, especially regarding the need for a lead federal agency for WMD and the need for the federal government to speak with one voice on this vital issue.

The Department, along with its federal agency partners; DOJ, FEMA, PHS, DOE, EPA, and others are working hard to ensure that we address problems through a coordinated approach. Both the Department of Defense and the Department of Justice have recently conducted forums with first responders. Without exception, the number one request of first responders has been for the identification of a single federal agency to lead the training and equipping of first responders. As I mentioned earlier, in their words, they seek the ease, convenience and predictability of "one stop shopping."

In an effort to respond to this need, the Department of Defense and the Department of Justice have agreed in principle to establish the DOJ as the lead federal agency for the federal DPP. Within that framework, the Attorney General has proposed the establishment of the National Domestic Preparedness Office (NDPO), which is up and running at FBI headquarters and is even now furthering the integration of our national response efforts.

Let me emphasize that our combined efforts will not amount simply to a one-time training event. Through the development of the RAID teams and the other supporting Chem-Bio elements, we are in the process of supporting the development of a national standard. Technology in this dynamic field is evolving rapidly, and our goal is to place the nation at the forefront of technological advancement. With cities worried about filling potholes, they cannot all be expected to worry about acquiring costly new WMD-related equipment. We are developing and fielding a model to help firefighters and law enforcement and emergency medical personnel to identify the equipment and procedures they need….."


Disaster response, whether man-made or natural, is essentially a state and local responsibility. Within this context, the role of the federal government in any WMD terrorist incident will be one of support to states and their citizens. We are making significant progress in our shared efforts to tailor federal response plans to support state and local authorities; and we are making this progress, in large part, because the Congress and President Clinton are determined that we do so. The appropriate federal entities are now working hand in hand to provide an integrated response capability. For its part, the Department of Defense will continue to work within the PDD-62 framework to leverage Defense technologies in our nuclear, biological and chemical defense programs and provide functional expertise and information to assist in meeting civilian responder equipment requirements. This is a comprehensive, long-term effort, undertaken at the federal interagency level and designed to support state and local authorities in the event of a WMD incident. As President Clinton said recently, "This is not a cause for panic. It is a cause for serious, deliberate, disciplined, long-term concern." We must therefore approach this problem with reason and rationality. We must have the right frame of mind, and we must work together. Our goal as we move into the 21st century is to have in place an effective, integrated and flexible response mechanism, able to respond to a wide range of unconventional threats against our homeland. …" Committee for Waco Justice "…"** Did the FBI not know about the June 1, 1988 report Amnesty International claimed that CS gas had contributed to or caused the deaths of more than 40 Palestinians--including 18 babies under 6 months of age--who had been exposed to tear-gas in enclosed spaces. American manufacturers of CS gas halted the export of the gas to Israel because of its misuse. Committee for Waco Justice "…** Why did the FBI not tell Reno that a mixture of CS gas and air could be ignited within a certain temperature range and that manufacturers clearly warn that when burned CS gas emits deadly toxic fumes, including hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen chloride--the ingredients of Zyklon B gas used by the Nazis. Manufacturers also warn that when water is poured on a CS gas fire it can create and release a lethal cloud of hydrogen cyanide gas. Committee for Waco Justice "… ** The FBI probably did not reveal to Reno the dangers of both means of delivering the gas, gassing and ferret rounds. The Mark V injection system sprayed a mixture of gas and solvent propelled by carbon dioxide from the end of long booms on the tanks. What the FBI probably did not mention to Reno--it was not mentioned in the Justice Department report or the Fire Report--was that a solvent was used to dissolve the gas before it was mixed with carbon dioxide. The FBI asserts it used methylene chloride, which is flammable under certain conditions. Others suspect rogue agents could have replaced that chemical with even more flammable ones like acetone or benzene. Committee for Waco Justice "…** Did the FBI tell Janet Reno that the "40mm ferret liquid tear gas rounds" would be delivered by M79 grenade launchers? When fired from 20 yards or less, these are capable of penetrating a hollow core door--or killing a human being. Did they tell her they would use more than 400 of these 40mm rounds?

Independence Institute Homepage 1996 David Kopel Paul Blackman "…As another court put it: Civilian rule is basic to our system of government. The use of military forces to seize civilians can expose civilian government to the threat of military rule and the suspension of constitutional liberties. On a lesser scale, military enforcement of the civil law leaves the protection of vital Fourth and Fifth Amendment rights in the hands of persons who are not trained to uphold these rights. It may also chill the exercise of fundamental rights, such as the rights to speak freely and to vote, and create the atmosphere of fear and hostility which exists in territories occupied by enemy forces.[7](p.622)….. One of the reasons for the disastrous February 28, 1993, BATF raid on the Branch Davidians and April 19, 1993, FBI tank attack on the same group was that they were both run as military exercises, planned and executed with the advice of the U.S. Department of Defense. As Rep. John Conyers later pointed out, "The root cause of this problem was that it was considered a military operation, and it wasn't."[13] Attorney General Janet Reno, on the other hand, discussed the incident, and the President's involvement, as similar to her acting as a general during World War II, with the President not expected to exercise constant oversight.[14] (p.623)She acknowledged that the April 19 implementation of the "Plan B" tank and chemical warfare assault on the Branch Davidians meant that "in effect [the U.S. Army] Delta Force's recommendation was carried out."[15]…."

Independence Institute Homepage 1996 David Kopel Paul Blackman "…As part of the planning for the Waco raid, BATF went to the Joint Task Force Six (JTF-6), which covers Texas, and asked for training, medical, communications, and other support. The JTF-6 staff explained that they could only be involved if the case were a drug case.[24] If the case were not a drug case, BATF could obtain assistance from other parts of the military, but would have to pay for it.(p.625) Immediately thereafter, BATF asserted that the Waco case was a drug investigation; Branch Davidian prophet David Koresh was supposedly running a methamphetamine laboratory.[25] The military should have known that the drug claim was merely a guise; BATF came up with the allegation only after being told of the benefits of such an allegation. In addition, the military prepared a memorandum for BATF on methamphetamine labs, and the precautions essential for dealing with such a lab.[26] However, when the paper was presented to BATF agents, they openly ignored the information in front of the soldiers who prepared it.[27] Further, agents from the civilian Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) who were assisting BATF also expressed no concerns about how BATF was addressing the risks of a meth lab in its operational planning, which similarly should have indicated to the military that the allegation was a mere pretext.[28]

Independence Institute Homepage 1996 David Kopel Paul Blackman "…With this knowledge, JTF-6 signed onto the mission of "training a National Level Response Team [BATF strike-force] for Counter Drug operations," in "Support of BATF Takedown of Meth Lab."[29] According to documents received from the U.S. Special Operations Command under Freedom of Information Act requests, the Joint Training operation (JT002-93) was approved due to a request from BATF dated February 2, 1993, requesting U.S. and Texas National Guard assistance in serving a federal search warrant "to a dangerous extremist organization believed to be producing methamphetamine."[30] The Army assistance at Waco would supposedly be "in direct support of interdiction activities along the southwest border."[31] (Notwithstanding the fact that Waco is approximately 300 miles from the southwest border. Moreover, the original claim was that Koresh was manufacturing methamphetamine, not that he was importing it from Mexico.)(p.626) Had BATF actually been planning to take down a methamphetamine lab, its plans would have been far different. Testimony at the 1995 congressional hearings indicated the potential dangers of an explosion if a meth lab is not taken down properly. For instance, because a stray bullet could cause a major explosion, a "dynamic entry" (a violent break-in, the BATF's method of "serving" the Waco search warrant) would be an extremely risky, disfavored approach.[32] In addition, the chemicals involved in methamphetamine production are toxic, capable of injuring lungs, skin, liver, kidneys, the central nervous system, and potentially causing genetic damage. DEA protocol for seizure of meth labs requires that agents wear special clothing and bring other specialized equipment. BATF not only made no such plans, but made express advance plans to use flashbang grenades--grenades which could set off a massive explosion in a real meth lab.[33] When requesting flashbangs for use in the raid, BATF omitted mention of any possible presence of a meth lab. Had BATF really thought there were a drug lab at Mount Carmel, BATF should have taken advantage of the DEA offer of assistance by a DEA (p.627)Clandestine Certified Laboratory Team. But the offer was rejected.[34]

Independence Institute Homepage 1996 David Kopel Paul Blackman "…When JTF-6 was not looking, BATF did not even bother to pretend that drugs were involved. Notably, the initial warrant application included nothing regarding drug law violations--even though the presence of a drug lab would have given BATF clear legal authority to search for the presence of any type of firearm (not just machine guns and explosives, which were the target of the search warrant), and even though the warrant affidavit threw in all sorts of other unsubstantiated allegations about Koresh.[35] After the February 28, 1993, BATF raid was repulsed, BATF sought and obtained a second warrant expanding the authorized scope of the search of Mount Carmel. Even the second warrant application did not include allegations of illegal drug activity….. Although BATF maintained the pretense into late March, the Army was slowly recognizing the obvious. As of late March,[37] the Army had come to believe that its assistance to BATF and the FBI would be reimbursed[38] as is required when there is no drug nexus. By May 15, 1993, the military suspected the possibility that "drug-connection was overstated to secure cost-free SOF training and assistance. No mention of drugs in public media."[39](p.628)…."

Independence Institute Homepage 1996 David Kopel Paul Blackman "…The fall 1993 Treasury Department report on the BATF raid on the Branch Davidians insisted that the investigation of alleged drug use was valid.[46] Treasury reasoned that the sheriff's office had planned to collect the lab equipment but found no record it had done so, "raising the possibility that the illegal equipment might still have been at the Compound."[47] The Treasury Report ignores the fact that Marc Breault (a disaffected ex-Davidian), the source for BATF's information that there had once been a meth lab at Mount Carmel, simultaneously told BATF agent Davy Aguilera that the building in which the meth lab was housed had burned down in Spring 1990.[48] Koresh was thoroughly anti-drug, and it is improbable that he would have started operating a methamphetamine lab after telling the sheriff about its presence.

Independence Institute Homepage 1996 David Kopel Paul Blackman "…What kind of military support did BATF receive? Throughout February 1993, BATF agents learned at Fort Hood how to carry on a surprise military raid against the Mount Carmel Center.[50] The training was conducted by Army Special (p.630)Forces (Green Berets) from Fort Bragg, North Carolina. The Green Berets also allegedly wrote a specific assault plan for BATF to use at Mount Carmel, and four Green Berets were allegedly present at Mount Carmel as observers on the day of the raid.[51] To carry out the raid, BATF had procured helicopters from the Texas National Guard.[52] Unlike federal law, which allows some reimbursed use of the military even when drugs are not involved, Texas law only allows the use of its National Guard helicopters for law enforcement when there is a drug nexus.[53] BATF also made use of the Alabama National Guard for aerial photography. The use was authorized by a "memorandum of agreement" between the Adjutant Generals of the Texas and Alabama National Guards.[54] Even if the drug nexus had been real, there are a number of problems with employing the Alabama National Guard in Texas. Texas law expressly requires the governor's approval for the entry of a military force that, like the Alabama National Guard, is not part of the U.S. armed forces.[55] But Texas Governor Ann Richards never knew about the use of the Alabama or Texas National Guards until after the raid.[56] Alabama law limits the operation of the Alabama National Guard to the state boundaries of Alabama.[57] Thus, the deployment of the Alabama National Guard in Texas was a flagrant breach of the laws of Alabama and Texas.

I Independence Institute Homepage 1996 David Kopel Paul Blackman "…n addition, the "memorandum of agreement" providing for use the Alabama National Guard in Texas violated the United States Constitution. Agreements between two or more states require congressional consent, and Congress had not consented to the Alabama/Texas "agreement."[58] ……Shortly after the raid, Governor Richards blasted the BATF for having lied to obtain the Texas helicopters.[59] BATF then claimed that a British surveillance airplane, recently brought onto the Waco scene, had found new thermal evidence of the methamphetamine lab.[60] Later, a law enforcement expert from the federal government's Sandia National Laboratories would describe evidence of a methamphetamine lab as based on "an overflight using some very unsophisticated, forward-looking infrared devices" and detecting "the so-called hot spot on the compound.[61] That hot spot could have come from any number of heat sources," but the government chose it to be indicative of a meth lab.[62] (At Ruby Ridge, the thermal "hot spot" which was asserted to be the site of Randy Weaver's drug lab was actually a dog house.) An anonymous BATF source told a reporter that the new drug allegation "was made up ... out of whole cloth ... a complete fabrication" to avoid further criticism from Governor Richards.[63]…."

Independence Institute Homepage 1996 David Kopel Paul Blackman "…While the National Guard helicopters were not armed, at least some of (p.632)the BATF agents on board the helicopters were carrying MP-5 machine pistols, contrary to assertions by some government officials.[64] Significant evidence suggests that the BATF agents in the helicopters strafed the roof of the building…… Catherine Matteson, a seventy-two-year-old Branch Davidian woman not accused of any crimes, was interviewed by the Las Vegas Review-Journal. She clearly recalled seeing helicopters firing through the roof and walls of the residence, stating "I saw the yellow flashes."[67] When machine guns fire, there is a yellow flash of muzzle blast, visible even in daylight. During the negotiations, Koresh and his chief aide, Steve Schneider, insisted that there were at least five witnesses who saw three helicopters come over and start shooting into Koresh's room, destroying his television set.[68]…..Schneider's attorney, Jack Zimmermann, who went into the Branch Davidian house during the siege, later testified that he saw many bullet holes in the ceilings with a downward trajectory, indicating that the helicopters had been firing into the compound from above.[69] There is no nearby high ground from which BATF agents not in helicopters could have shot bullets into the building (p.633)with a steep downward trajectory…..

Independence Institute Homepage 1996 David Kopel Paul Blackman "…But strafing a building is not a particularly effective way to rescue children who are thought to be in danger. The second story of the Mount Carmel Center was known to be the living quarters for the women and children, and for Koresh; other men were not allowed up there.[72] Strafing the roof, if it happened, might well be considered grotesquely excessive use of force for serving a search warrant. The persons who did the strafing (p.634)might be considered guilty of reckless endangerment or homicide. If the Davidians fired first at the helicopters, then return fire at particular targets would be lawful, but not random firing through a roof.[73]

Independence Institute Homepage 1996 David Kopel Paul Blackman "…If BATF forces on the ground were using the armor-piercing 9mm Cyclone ammunition (as some sources claim)[75], such action was in disregard for the safety of noncombatants. BATF knew, or should have known, that the armor-piercing ammunition it was using could easily penetrate the thin walls of the compound at Mount Carmel Center, endangering the children whom the BATF claimed to be protecting from abuse.[76] BATF's perception was very different, that the agents were expressly armed mostly with 9-mm machine pistols. "We knew there was a lot of children in there. And we knew there were a lot of women and innocents in there.... And with all these innocents in there, our teams ... took mostly 9-mm firearms that they knew would not penetrate those walls, they knew would not go through and hit innocent children. And, so, in essence, the beating we took was because we were trying not to have firearms that would go through the walls."[77] Actually, (p.635)9-mm rounds can penetrate thin walls like those at the Mount Carmel residence.

Independence Institute Homepage 1996 David Kopel Paul Blackman "…The negotiating team, with the support of FBI psychological and research staff, conducted telephone negotiations with the Branch Davidians.[84] The FBI Hostage Rescue Team (HRT) took control of the perimeter of the 77-acre Branch Davidian ranch. As it turned out, the militaristic Hostage Rescue Team repeatedly sabotaged the progress being made by the negotiators. The Hostage Rescue Team was originally created to rescue Americans abroad who were being held hostage by terrorists. The HRT is trained by Delta Force, the U.S. Army's counter-terrorism squad. But the HRT has frequently been deployed not to rescue hostages in other countries, or even in the United States, but instead as some kind of special force to deal with particularly troublesome domestic criminals. This deployment--at Ruby Ridge, Waco, and elsewhere--has led to predictably disastrous consequences…. At Waco, the Hostage Rescue Team had no hostages to rescue.[86] They defined themselves as being in a "Complex Hostage Rescue Barricade Situation." But to the extent there were hostages at Mount Carmel, the Branch Davidians were hostage in their own home because they were afraid of what the Hostage Rescue Team and the federal government would do to them and their children.[87]

Independence Institute Homepage 1996 David Kopel Paul Blackman "…The Hostage Rescue Team's arrogance is a well-known problem in law enforcement. As Treasury Undersecretary for Law Enforcement Ron Noble observed, "when they come into an operation, they take over, and I've been with other law enforcement officers when it happens, and it is not something that makes law enforcement officers, who believe they're able, happy. That's just the way it is."[88] At Waco, the HRT rapidly established bad relations with the Texas Rangers.(p.638) The HRT began with an anti-negotiation bias. Jeffrey Jamar, the Special Agent in Charge of the San Antonio FBI office, was commander of the entire operation at Waco, and of sorting out the conflicting views of the HRT and the FBI negotiation team. Jamar's immediate superior was Larry Potts, the Assistant Director of the Criminal Investigation Section.[89] Jamar personally had no training in negotiations; he "left that to the experts."[90] The advice of negotiators generally was ignored in favor the HRT's position to steadily increase pressure on the Branch Davidians. This proved to be a fatal error.[91]

Independence Institute Homepage 1996 David Kopel Paul Blackman "…The tanks frightened the children remaining at Mount Carmel Center.[95] The FBI negotiators insisted there was nothing to worry about, since "nobody's going to run tanks through buildings that contain people."[96] In response to the expressed concerns of Cyrus Koresh (David Koresh's oldest child, age eight) about a tank assault on the building, the FBI negotiator promised "the last thing in the world that's going to happen is for the government to take any type of offensive action here. It's just not going to happen. You know, we don't hurt babies, you know, we don't hurt women, we don't do those types of things."[97] HRT commander Dick Rogers later testified that the sole purpose for the Bradley Fighting Vehicles (BFVs) was agent safety; some BATF agents had been wounded by grenades, and the Branch Davidians had a pair of .50 caliber rifles.[98] When Koresh told negotiators that he could destroy the nine Bradley Fighting Vehicles (BFVs) that were originally brought on-site, the BFVs were supplemented with two M-1A1 Abrams tanks and five M278 Combat Engineering Vehicles.[99] Once in place, however, the tanks were used for purposes that did not seem defensive. At various times, tanks would charge at the building. One person (p.640)inside the building reported that men in the vehicles were "shooting the finger at these kids,"[100] and in at least one case "mooned" the Davidians.[101]

Independence Institute Homepage 1996 David Kopel Paul Blackman "…. But of all the factors impeding negotiations, perhaps the greatest factor--in retrospect, the decisive factor--was the Hostage Rescue Team. While the FBI negotiators were in a building miles away from Mount Carmel, at Texas State Technical College, the FBI team (the HRT) was laying siege to the Branch Davidians. HRT sniper teams stared at Mount Carmel, while Branch Davidian sentries stared back. At times, the action-oriented HRT would take action, simply because it could stand the inaction no longer. For example, the HRT temporarily cut off the electricity to the Mount Carmel Center--not for any negotiating or safety purpose--but simply to boost the morale of the tactical "people," and the rest of law enforcement "who [were] out and cold and away from (p.641)home."[103] …..For example, after days of discussions, the negotiators finally decided to send some milk in for the Branch Davidian babies; the tactical team promptly cut off the electricity, making it difficult to store the milk. The electricity cut-off postponed the departure of two Davidians whom the negotiators had convinced to make plans to leave, but would no longer even talk about it.[106]

Independence Institute Homepage 1996 David Kopel Paul Blackman "…Over the course of the siege, FBI tank drivers destroyed a mobile home, a dozen motorcycles, two dozen children's go-carts (expensive presents, recently acquired), tricycles, and bicycles; knocked out the windshield of a bus; and flattened a pickup truck.[117] Cars belonging to the adults were crushed by tanks, or ripped apart with crowbars, with the windows smashed and the tires slashed.[118] The Hostage Rescue Team "carried away the fence from Mount Carmel's front yard, flipped a bass fishing boat, and overturned a bulldozer that the community had rented--for some $3,000 per month--from a local building supply house."[119] Neither destroying children's toys, nor desecrating the cemetery of highly religious people is apt to facilitate negotiations. Instead, the destruction undermined (p.643)the FBI negotiators who were promising gentle treatment for children and adults who left the compound. The tactical team's decisions to increase pressure, often undertaken without consulting the negotiating team, made the efforts of the negotiating team to build trust increasingly difficult.[120] FBI negotiator Byron Sage later acknowledged that having the tanks flatten the cars was a huge mistake that dramatically changed the course of negotiations.[121]

Independence Institute Homepage 1996 David Kopel Paul Blackman "…The military, with all of its internal pressure for conformity, including adherence to a "can-do" spirit, is especially vulnerable to groupthink. The April 19 assault was planned by the military's Delta Force, and executed the FBI counterpart to Delta Force, the HRT.[129] The military during peacetime has an institutional overeagerness to take on high-profile missions, while underestimating the risks of failure. Quasi-military units, such as the HRT, likewise spend long periods sitting idle, and may be overeager to contribute their "solution" to a high-profile problem, while underestimating the dangers of their involvement.

Independence Institute Homepage 1996 David Kopel Paul Blackman "…The Clinton administration is hard at work to remove the remaining restrictions on use of the military in law enforcement. An administration terrorism bill pushed by the President in 1995 defined all property offenses, and all violent crimes more serious than an assault as "terrorism," and authorized the Army, Navy, and Air Force to enforce "terrorism" laws.[150] A bill proposed by Senate Majority Leader Robert Dole did the same thing.[151](p.651)

Independence Institute Homepage 1996 David Kopel Paul Blackman "…Soldiers are not peace officers. At all levels of policing, it is time that police officers be restored to their honored status as peace officers. Police ethicist John Kleinig notes: "Were police to see themselves primarily as social peace-keepers, they would be less inclined to 'overkill' in their dealings with both ordinary citizens and those whose disruptive activities properly require their intervention."[186] To help prevent future Wacos, and the needless loss of life of law enforcement personnel and other persons, law enforcement in the United States should be demilitarized. Cicero's advice to the Roman republic, "Let the soldier give way to the civilian,"[187] must be heeded by those who are intent on preserving the American republic, and the rule of civil law.

Freeper research:

9/2/99 We received the message below from the Napa Sentinel--"The FBI cannot deny they knew there would be a fire. The day before the Waco Fire I received a call from inside Parkland Hospital in Dallas informing me that the Federal Government had order burn beds at three area hospitals including Parkland. I broadcast that information BEFORE the fire on various stations throughout the country. So the Federal Government did expect survivors and knew there would be a fire the day before. Use this as you wish." ….We wish to publicize it far and wide.The information relayed in the message above is seriously corroborated by this: sometime within a year after the Waco atrocity, one of the major network's hour-long "news magazine" programs hosted by Diane Sawyer, among others, devoted the entire program to suspicious facts concerning the deadly Waco conflagration. Prominent among the many indications discussed on the program that indeed the GOVERNMENT was responsible for setting off the murderous inferno wast he fact that on the morning of the massive fire, local fire departments received phone calls from members of various federal agencies on the scene telling the fire departments in no UNCERTAIN terms to IGNORE any fire alarms or emergency calls originating from Mt. Carmel that day and to just "butt out"' in general. A number of local firemen interviewed on the program reported receiving the phone calls and were troubled even at the time about the clear conflict between such "orders" and their humanitarian and professional obligations to prevent damage to property and injury to human life from fire. Of course after what happened at Waco later that day, these people were one heck of a lot MORE troubled. As we all are now. Another highly suspicious fact discussed on the TV program with Sawyer was that film footage taken at the scene indicated some of the tanks on site were firing what appeared to be "firebombs" of some sort or other into the compound.

9/2/99 Freeper D14truth "The Texas Rangers were put in charge of investigating the February 28th raid. For ten days, SAC Jamar refused to allow the Texas Rangers to finish investigating the area behind Mount Carmel Center where the shootout between BATF agents and three Branch Davidians occurred. By then footprints which might help clarify who shot first had been eliminated by rain. Both Texas Rangers and BATF opposed FBI removal of the vehicles from the compound. (JDR:229) ..."

Hamline Journal of Public Law and Policy Volume 18, number 1, Fall 1996 THE UNWARRANTED WARRANT: THE WACO SEARCH WARRANT AND THE DECLINE OF THE FOURTH AMENDMENT by David B. Kopel & Paul H. Blackman "....A BATF memo written two days before the February 28, 1993 raid explained "this operation will generate considerable media attention, both locally [Texas] and nationally." The BATF public relations director, Sharon Wheeler, called reporters to ask them for their weekend phone numbers. The reporters contend, and Wheeler denies, that she asked them if they would be interested in covering a weapons raid on a "cult." Wheeler, on the other hand, states that she merely told them, "We have something going down." After the raid, the BATF at first denied there had been any media contacts. Journalist Ronald Kessler reports that the BATF told eleven media outlets that the raid was coming. The Department of the Treasury has refused to release the pre-raid memos which deal with publicity, asserting that they are exempt from the Freedom of Information Act.

In any case, the BATF's public relations officer was stationed in Waco on the day of the raid ready to issue a press release announcing the raid's success. A much-publicized raid, resulting in the seizure of hundreds of guns and dozens of "cultists" might reasonably be expected to improve the fortunes of BATF Director, Stephen Higgins, who was scheduled to testify before the U.S. Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Treasury, Postal Service, and General Government on March 10, 1993. Investigative reporter Carol Vinzant wrote: In the jargon of at least one ATF office, the Waco raid was what is known as a ZBO ("Zee Big One"), a press-drawing stunt that when shown to Congress at budget time justifies more funding. One of the largest deployments in bureau history, the attack on the Branch Davidians compound was, in the eyes of some of the agents, the ultimate ZBO….

Ownership of machine guns in the United States is legal, but the owner must pay a federal tax and file a registration form with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. The BATF's legal reason for the Branch Davidian investigation was to see if the Davidians were manufacturing machine guns illegally. If, on the other hand, Koresh had simply bought machine guns that were made before 1986, rather than allegedly manufacturing them, and if Koresh had paid the proper tax of $200 per gun and filed the appropriate paperwork, he would have been in full compliance with the law. In other words, the legal cause for the BATF investigation was not machine guns per se, but ownership or manufacturing of machine guns without registration and taxation. The seventy- six person BATF Mount Carmel raid was, ultimately, a tax collection case......

....The federal database of machine gun owners, the NFR&TR, is maintained by the BATF. In October 1995, on a BATF agent training videotape, Thomas Busey, who was then head of the National Firearms Act Branch at the BATF, in charge of the machine gun records, made a startling admission ..... In other words, for many years BATF employees have testified many times per year in NFA prosecutions that the NFR&TR database is one hundred percent accurate. That testimony has been consistently false.

......The BATF investigation of Koresh quickly led to Henry McMahon, doing business as Hewitt Handguns, Koresh's favorite gun dealer. The lead BATF agent on the Koresh case, Davy Aguilera, listed in his affidavit for the search and arrest warrants all of the relatively recent purchases by Koresh, including flare launchers, over one hundred rifles, an M-76 grenade launcher, various kits, cardboard tubes, blackpowder, and practice grenades. All of those items may be lawfully owned without the government's permission. Accordingly, the purchases, while listed in the affidavit, did not in themselves establish probable cause that Koresh or his followers had violated or were planning to violate any federal law.

.....Obviously, it is not illegal to exercise one's First Amendment rights by believing in a false messiah such as David Koresh. Equally important, to exercise one's Second Amendment rights to the fullest degree is not against the law. Yet the BATF warrant application insinuated that the simple possession of a large number of guns was somehow evidence of crime. Such insinuations are not consistent with a federal agent's oath to uphold the Constitution. For an agency to tolerate such behavior on the part of an agent is a significant sign of the agency's own disregard for the Constitution. The question for the magistrate was not whether the Branch Davidians were normal and righteous, or weird and sinful, but whether the warrant application presented probable cause to believe that evidence of a crime would be found at the Mount Carmel Center. Under our Constitution, an observation that people are heavily exercising their constitutional rights must not be an element in creating probable cause. Jan/Feb 94 The American Kevin S. Van Horn "Assault on Waco" ....... Immediately after the ATF assault on Mount Carmel the Federal Government began a campaign of vilification against the Branch Davidians. They were repeatedly portrayed in the press as dangerous, insane, bloodthirsty fanatics. Yet this supposedly sociopathic sect had lived peacefully in and near Waco for over half a century. Let's see what their neighbors have to say about the Davidians....... The ATF's "storm trooper tactics" were "a vulgar display of power on the part of the feds," said former Waco District Attorney Vic Feazell. Feazell unsuccesfully prosecuted seven Branch Davidians in 1988. "We treated them like human beings, rather than storm-trooping the place," he told the Houston Chronicle. "They were extremely polite... They're protective of what's theirs..." "(T)hey were basically good people," said McLennan County Sheriff Jack Harwell. "All of 'em were good people." ......Douglas Wayne Martin held a position of major responsibility among the Davidians; only he and Steve Schneider ever spoke face- to-face with federal negotiators during the siege. Martin was a 42-year-old black lawyer and graduate of Harvard Law School. For seven years he was an assistant professor at the North Carolina Central University School of Law. After moving to Waco he maintained a law practice near Mount Carmel. He had a wife and seven children. .....Waco city council member Lawrence Johnson had known Martin for five years at the time of the assault. He described Martin as a computer whiz and as a diligent lawyer. "I enjoyed working with him. He was smart, he was well-educated," Johnson said.....

One incident which the government and press used to paint the Branch Davidians as dangerous and violent was the gunfight with George Roden that took place at Mt. Carmel in 1988. But it was George Roden who was dangerous, violent, murderous and insane. In 1984 a dispute arose between George Roden and David Koresh over leadership of the Davidians. This culminated in Roden forcing Koresh and his followers off of the Mt. Carmel property at gunpoint . Koresh led his group to the city of Palestine, Texas By late 1987 things were faring badly for George Roden. He had almost no money, few followers, mounting debts and an angry Texas Supreme Court Justice on his trail . So Roden decided to conclusively settle the leadership dispute with Koresh. He went to a graveyard and dug up the body of a man who had been dead 25 years, put the casket in the Mt. Carmel chapel, and said that whoever could raise this man from the dead was the one to lead the Davidians. Koresh reported the action to the Sheriff's Department. He was told that his word alone wasn't enough -- proof was needed. So on November 3, 1987, Koresh and several men went out to Mt. Carmel to take pictures of the body in the casket. The Sheriff had warned them to be careful, because Roden was dangerous, so they armed themselves. The plan was to open the casket, take the pictures, and leave, but Roden caught them, and a gunfight ensued in which Roden was wounded. Koresh and seven other Davidians were charged with attempted murder . Jack Harwell, McLennan County Sheriff, called Koresh on the phone and informed him of the charges. He asked Koresh and the others to turn themselves in, and to surrender their weapons. When deputies arrived at Mount Carmel, Koresh and the other Davidians peacefully complied . Officials traced the weapons and found that each was legally purchased.

On April 25, Koresh's seven followers were acquitted, and the jury hung 9-3 in favor of Koresh's acquittal. The state then dropped the charges against him. Koresh paid up 16 years of delinquent taxes on the Mount Carmel property, which allowed him and his followers to move in . Upon returning to the property they found a methamphetamine lab and large piles of pornographic material. They burned the pornography and reported the meth lab to the DA's office. Fifteen months after Koresh's trial, in the summer of 1989, Roden was approached by a man who claimed to be the Messiah. Roden split the man's head open with an ax . Odessa police charged Roden with murder. The following year he was found not guilty by reason of insanity and sent to a state mental hospital, where he remains to this day.

…..Another tactic the federal government used to demonize the Davidians was to accuse them of child abuse. These accusations originally arose from Marc Breault, a former follower of Koresh who had a bitter falling out with him. Breault quit the sect at the end of 1989 and moved to Australia. He then threw himself into a campaign to discredit his former mentor, in the process leading away most of the Australian members of the sect. In March 1990 Breault, his wife and a number of his Australian followers swore out more than 30 pages of affidavits claiming that Koresh was abusing children. A second set of affidavits was sworn out for use in a child custody hearing in early 1992, in which a Michigan man named David Jewell petitioned to gain custody of his daughter, then living at Mt. Carmel with Jewell's ex-wife. However, the allegations were mostly general and lacking in detail Thus the allegations of child abuse sprung from two sources: (1) a man who hated Koresh and was obsessed with discrediting him; and (2) a child-custody dispute. Note that allegations of child abuse are a common tactic in child-custody disputes. As a result of Breault's efforts, local authorities began an investigation of the child abuse charges. Officials of the Child Protective Services division of the Texas Department of Protective and Regulatory Services, and the McLennan County sheriff's office, visited Mt. Carmel in February and March 1992. They found no evidence of child abuse

On April 23, 1993, in response to the Clinton administration's continued claims of child abuse, the Texas Department of Protective and Regulatory Services offered the following summary of its nine-week investigation: "None of the allegations could be verified. The children denied being abused in any way by any adults in the compound. They denied any knowledge of other children being abused. The adults consistently denied participation in or knowledge of any abuse to children. Examinations of the children produced no indication of current or previous injuries." Texas child protection officials also said they received no further abuse allegations after that time.

Breault had also contacted the FBI, accusing Koresh of a number of other crimes besides child abuse. A February 23, 1993 FBI memo, obtained by the Dallas Morning News, stated that no information had been developed to verify the allegations of "child abuse and neglect, tax evasion, slavery and reports of possible mass destruction." The Clinton administration alleged that the Davidians were abusing children during the siege of Mt. Carmel. This was contradicted by those who actually saw the children. During the siege a man named Louis Alaniz managed to sneak past federal officials to visit the Davidians (he was not a Davidian himself). After leaving, he reported that the children at Mt. Carmel appeared happy, playing and laughing continuously, and that there were no outward signs of child abuse Sheriff Jack Harwell, who was the only outside negotiator brought into the Mount Carmel siege, said there was never any proof that children were being abused inside the compound. None of the children who were released from the compound, Harwell said, showed any signs of physical abuse According to Texas child protective services officials, none of the 21 children released to the authorities showed signs of abuse, and none of them confirmed that any abuse was committed. The children were physically and psychologically examined Dr. Bruce Perry, the head of the team treating the children, stated flatly: "(N)one of the 21 children had been sexually abused or molested."

After the blaze that killed most of the Davidians, the Clinton administration stepped up its "child abuse" offensive. White House communications director George Stephanopoulos claimed that "there was overwhelming evidence of child abuse in the Waco compound." But this claim was contradicted by others within the federal government itself. FBI director William Sessions said his agency had "no contemporaneous evidence" of child abuse in the compound during the siege [48] . "(T)here had been no recent reports of the beating of children." In response to Janet Reno's claim of reports that "babies were being beaten," Sessions said, "I do not know what the attorney general was referring to specifically." The Justice Department itself put the lie to Clinton's and Reno's wild accusations. In a report released in early October, the Justice Department said there was no evidence of child abuse at the compound during the siege or even enough evidence to arrest Koresh on such charges before the February 28 raid.

The press and the federal government made much of the Davidians' collection of guns. President Clinton claimed the Davidians had "illegally stockpiled weaponry and ammunition." But there is no law limiting the number of legal weapons one may accumulate. Furthermore, by Texas standards the Davidians' gun collection was rather small. After the siege investigators found only 200 firearms in the ruins of Mt. Carmel, which amounts to about two guns per adult. But Texas' 17 million residents own a total of 68 million guns, for an average of four guns apiece, while 16,600 Texans legally own machine guns.

.....The ATF acted true to form in its investigation of the Davidians -- the purpose of the raid appears to have been to bolster the ATF's image, rather than any protection of the public safety. From Aguilera's affidavit it appears that the ATF collected no reliable new information for its investigation after June 23, 1992.... Appendix G of the Treasury Department report on Waco suggests another, more disturbing motive for the raid. The appendix, entitled "A Brief History of Federal Firearms Enforcement," contains the following statement: In a larger sense, however, the raid fit within an historic, well-established and well-defended government interest in prohibiting and breaking up all organized groups that sought to arm or fortify themselves... From its earliest formation, the federal government has actively suppressed any effort by disgruntled or rebellious citizens to coalesce into an armed group, however small the group, petty its complaint, or grandiose its ambition.

.....Importantly, this was not a no-knock search warrant, in which agents may knock down doors and burst in heavily armed without prior warning to occupants; such warrants must be specifically applied for, which the ATF failed to do. Nor was a no-knock approach necessary. As we have seen, Koresh and his followers had peacefully cooperated with law enforcement officers on at least three occasions in the past (once after the Roden gunfight, twice during the child-abuse investigation). And in July 1992 Koresh had actually invited ATF investigators to come out to Mt. Carmel and inspect the Davidians' guns, but he was angrily told "we don't want to do it that way." Furthermore, the ATF knew that nearly all the guns at Mt. Carmel were locked up and only Koresh had a key. To avoid any possibility of armed resistance from the Davidians, they could have simply detained Koresh during one of his frequent excursions outside of Mt. Carmel and had him unlock the store of guns in their presence. Absent a no-knock warrant, U.S. law (Title 18, U.S.C. 3109) states that an officer must give notice of his legal authority and purpose before attempting to enter the premises to be searched. Only if admittance is refused after giving such notice is it legal for an officer to use force to gain entry. Said one former senior ATF official, "Irrespective of the situation inside, the notice of authority and purpose must be given... Unless the occupants of a dwelling are made aware that the persons attempting to enter have legal authority and a legal warrant to enter, the occupants have every right to defend themselves..."

Dick DeGuerin, a well-known Houston lawyer, put it more bluntly: "...if a warrant is being unlawfully executed by the use of excessive force, you or I or anybody else has a right to resist that unlawful force. If someone's trying to kill you, even under the excuse that they have a warrant, you have a right to defend yourself with deadly force, and to kill that person." It appears that the ATF never intended to serve the warrant in a lawful manner. ATF agents told the Houston Post that before the raid they had practiced to where it took 7 seconds to get out of their tarp-covered cattle trailers and 12 seconds to get to the front door. It is absurd to imagine that after such a mad dash to the door, the ATF agents intended to stop, knock, calmly state their legal authority and purpose, demand entry, and wait for a response, all before taking further action. So how did the ATF serve its warrant? On Sunday morning, February 28, 1993, 100 federal agents arrived at Mt. Carmel in cattle cars and helicopters. About 30 agents dressed in black commando uniforms and armed with machine guns stormed the complex. According to an Associated Press report, "Witnesses said the law officers stormed the compound's main home, throwing concussion grenades and screaming `Come out,' while three National Guard helicopters approached."

The question of who shot first is in a sense irrelevant, as the ATF agents clearly attacked first when they threw grenades at the Davidians' home. Once the ATF used unlawful force, the Davidians had the legal right to resist them with deadly force. Nevertheless, the Davidians insist that ATF agents shot first. "They fired on us first," Koresh told CNN. "...I fell back against the door and the bullets started coming through the door... I was already hollering, `Go away, there's women and children here, let's talk.'" Davidians in another part of the city-block-sized complex said the battle began when the helicopters circling overhead fired on them without warning. David Troy, ATF intelligence chief, said a videotape was taken of the entire mission [36] . But although parts of this tape were released to the media, one important part was not: the start of the raid. It seems unlikely the ATF would have withheld this footage if it supported the ATF's contention that the Davidians fired first. …..

The ATF's concern for the women and children inside was further demonstrated by their use of the "9 mm. Cyclone" round in their submachine guns. This highly-penetrating round is available only to law-enforcement special operations teams and the military, and is specifically designed to cut through body armor….. ABC broadcast portions of the 911 tapes on its Nightline program. Martin phoned first and spoke with Lieutenant Lynch of the Waco Sheriff's Department. He told Lynch, "There's about 75 men around our building and they're shooting it up in Mt. Carmel... Tell them there are women and children in here and to call it off!" Calling it off took some time. During a later return phone call, even as Lynch and Martin were trying to arrange the cease-fire, Martin's location was receiving heavy gunfire and Martin himself was hit. When requested not to return fire, an unidentified Davidian replied in a disgusted tone, "We haven't been." In the end, it was not humanitarian concerns or negotiations that brought an end to the hour-long assault; it was lack of ammunition. The 100 agents who participated in the assault had a total of only 40 rounds left among them when they finally backed off 4/19/93 "….REMARKS OF THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES AL GORE AT THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE WARSAW GHETTO UPRISING WARSAW, POLAND ……..A half century has passed since the Nazis set out to destroy the Jewish Ghetto here in Warsaw. Hitler had long since decided to exterminate the Jews in a world where few could believe that any government could deliberately, methodically, and ruthlessly carry out the mass murder of millions. Indeed, not even the Jews themselves could at first grasp the full truth about the horror being inflicted upon them. But the Jews of the Warsaw Ghetto fought back. And on this April day fifty years ago, the Nazis were stunned by the fierce resistance into temporary retreat. For weeks, a few hundred poorly armed freedom fighters fought on against impossible odd with their greatest weapon the courage of a righteous cause…..Those who seek power through violence and oppression, rather than the consent of the governed, ignore the bitter lessons of history. Tonight, petty tyrants in other lands seek to distract their people by finding someone different--a different religion, a different ethnic identity, a different heritage of any kind--as a target against which to focus fear and hatred and oppression….."

Associated Press 2/27/93 "…A group of about 75 Branch Davidians, an offshoot of the Seventh-day Adventist Church that moved its base here from Los Angeles in 1935, is known to have a large arsenal of high-powered weapons, the Waco Tribune-Herald said. An Australian private detective who has investigated the group for 2 years alleged that its latest leader, Vernon Howell, abuses the children of his followers, boasts of having sex with underage members, claims at least 15 wives and believes all women in the world belong to him…… The newspaper said it spent eight months investigating the cult, including talking to more than 20 former members. One of them, Robyn Bunds, said Howell boasted of having sex with one of his 12-year-old followers. Others claim he is the father of many of the cult's children, citing numerous birth certificates with no father listed. The detective, Geoffrey Hossack, said he was hired by a group of former cult members who fled to Australia. He presented his findings to McLennan County authorities in 1990, but no action was taken…… Children's Protective Services reported finding no evidence of child abuse and took no action, the newspaper quoted sources as saying. The agency's director, Bob Boyd, said he could not discuss the case. ….The newspaper said the group has military-type assault weapons one unidentified former cult member said it has .50-caliber weapons, AK-47s, AR-15s, Israeli assault rifles and 9mm handguns…."

2/28/93 AP "…A fierce gun battle erupted Sunday as more than 100 law officers tried to arrest the head of a heavily armed religious cult. At least four federal agents died and the cult's leader said a 2-year-old was killed. At least 15 agents were wounded in the 45-minute shootout at the isolated compound of the Branch Davidians' sect about 10 miles east of Waco. Several sect members were also reportedly wounded, officials said. Sect leader Vernon Howell, who also is known as David Koresh, told CNN a 2-year-old child was among those killed. He said he was wounded….. The initial battle began when federal agents hidden in livestock trailers stormed the main home of the sect, witnesses said. The agents had warrants to search the compound for guns and explosives and to arrest Howell, said Les Stanford of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms in Washington…… In his interview with CNN, Howell accused the agents of firing on the sect members first….. ATF spokesman Jack Killorin in Washington said the assault had been planned for several weeks, although he added, ''I think the newspaper's investigation set up heightened tension.'' ….Witnesses said the law officers stormed the compound's main home, throwing concussion grenades and screaming ''Come out!,'' while three National Guard helicopters approached. For a moment, there was no response. Then the shooting began…… " 10/17/95 Peter Boyer & Michael Kirk "….PETER J. BOYER: The siege has gone on now for 23 days, 23 days of two competing solutions: talk and action. [Jeff] Jamar, the agent-in-charge, has signed on for action. He makes it clear to Sage that his mind is made up. Byron Sage, the most visible negotiator, then recommends in writing an escalation of tactical measures, including tear gas. MIKE KIRK: You signed on. BYRON SAGE: Absolutely. I mean, this is kind of a radical departure for a negotiation team to recommend tear-gassing, but we're now what, 20, 23 days into a siege. Haven't had a child out since the 5th of March. PETER J. BOYER: The HRT are ready with a plan. It's simple, aggressive and quick. Under the cover of darkness they would take the compound with Bradley tanks and gas. The Davidians, overwhelmed, would come out. They are ready to act, but first the plan must be approved by Washington. The record shows that using tanks and gas on a compound still holding 25 children was a tough sell to this attorney general. As a local prosecutor, Janet Reno had built a reputation as a zealous child advocate. And on Monday, April, 12th, she said no to the gas plan. The FBI didn't relent. They came back at the attorney general. "The plan's too aggressive,'' she said. Then they'll water it down. She worried the Davidians might use the children as shields. If they did, the FBI promised to back off. Most of all, she worried that the gas would permanently damage the children. A military expert assured her the gas was safe. For five days the FBI tried to eliminate her objections. After the Waco fire, Reno would say again and again that she authorized the gas plan because children were being abused…." 10/17/95 Peter Boyer & Michael Kirk "….JANET RENO: [ABC News "Nightline''] We had had reports that they had been sexually abused, that babies had actually been beaten. I asked when I first heard that for them to verify it and, again, that was the report that was brought back. PETER J. BOYER: When she said, "I was told that babies were being beaten and I said, 'What do you mean? Babies are being picked up and beaten?' 'Yes,' I was told, 'babies were being beaten' ''_ WILLIAM SESSIONS: Then she will have to say who told her that. Certainly, I did not. PETER J. BOYER: She says she doesn't remember. WILLIAM SESSIONS: Well, if it was impressive_ something that impressed her tremendously, then she's responsible for what she heard….." 10/17/95 Peter Boyer & Michael Kirk "….PETER J. BOYER: But FBI documents uncovered by FRONTLINE confirm that as the Bureau was pressuring Reno to approve the gas plan, someone in the FBI told her that children were being abused at Waco. But the FBI knew that children were not being beaten during the stand-off. [interviewing] At the time, what she said was, "I was told that babies were being beaten.'' She told me that she was told that. Web Hubbel [(sic)] told me that he heard her being told that. Did you tell her that? WILLIAM SESSIONS: No…."

American Academy of Religion 9/4/99 "…Background Information and Multiple Perspectives

Archive - The Seige in Waco

A Brief Stop at Mount Carmel

Frontline PBS Program: Waco

Introduction to the Branch Davidians

Koresh Research Homepage

The Tragedy at Waco

The Waco Massacre

Waco: The Rules of Engagement

Waco: The Rules of Engagement - Review

Yahoo! Index for David Koresh Branch Davidians

Resources that Focus on Critiques of the Branch Davidians

Waco Davidians, Branch Davidians, and David Koresh

Resources that Focus on Critiques the U.S. Government

Ashes of Waco

Can Soldiers be Peace Officers?

Cults, Anti-Cultists, and the Cult of Intelligence

Davidian Massacre Web Page

Update on Waco - From Committee for Waco Justice - Carol Moore

The Unwarranted Warrant (Part 1) (Part 2) (Part 3)

Waco Holocaust Electronic Museum

Waco Never Again

Waco White Papers

Branch Davidian Survivors Mount Carmel Center

Washington Post 7/2/95 Steve Higgins (former head of BATF) "…. As the former director of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF), I have personally answered my share of similarly posed questions. And I continue to be surprised - even after five sets of congressional hearings and extensive government reviews - at how much misinformation still persists about the event surrounding Waco. It's probably evidence that what people hear first is what they remember longest, even when subsequent reviews may show the original reports to have been in error……The day has long passed when we can afford to ignore the threat posed by individuals who believe they are subject only to the laws of their god and not those of our government…….they armed themselves with automatic firearms, grenades and semi-automatic .50 caliber rifle, opening fire when the agents arrived. To those who insist that ATF fired first, the Treasury report concluded it was the Davidians who had done so, and the Texas Ranger interviews of the only impartial observers who were there that morning - the media - all support the fact that it was the Davidians who opened fire. In fact, several witnesses reported agents being fired on even before they could exit the trucks. As for those who insist ATF should have simply driven up to the compound and politely asked to conduct a search without displaying any firearms, I refer them again to the Treasury report, which said it best by claiming such an approach would have been "foolhardy and irresponsible." To which I could only add dangerous and potentially suicidal…….In my view the Davidians reacted in a criminal and violent manner. Unfortunately, there is a small but perhaps growing number of groups that feel much the same way, thought they may not cloak their beliefs in religion. By contending that they are not subject to the laws that bind this country, we allow these groups to pose a serious threat that far exceed their relative numbers……With all that has transpired, what will another round of hearings tell us? ……"


Freeper Silver Sumo "…I was in Dallas the day of the fire. I was listening to a local talk radio show, when a woman claiming to be from Parkland Hospital reported that at 6 AM on the morning of the fire, she received a call from "some government agency" asking about the number of available burn trauma beds. She thought this was unusual, and did not associate it with the Branch Davidians. Until she heard a call-in mention the fact that "they can't let them out of there. The Feds are going to kill them and make it look like an accident." The DJ took her name and number, called the Hospital and they put him through to the burn unit. And it was her. The head of the burn unit at Parkland was who she claimed to be…… I heard it at 8:00 AM the day of the fire……The story is real. By the way, my brother was an emergency room orderly at the expensive hospital in Waco, and they had a rumor going around before the fire that ATF agents in full gear stopped by to check on burn unit beds. So, while not as convincing, it is part of the puzzle….."

Freeper Covenator "…GAO Report to the Secretary of Defense, the Attorney-General, and the Secretary of the Treasury, August 1999 Department of Defense Military Assistance Provided at Branch Davidian Incident

The text version is available here:

Military Assistance Provided at Branch Davidian Incident

The Acrobat pdf version is available here:

Military Assistance Provided at Branch Davidian Incident-pdf file …"



....It would not be a significant overstatement to describe the Waco operation from the Government's standpoint, as one in which if something could go wrong, it did. The true tragedy is, virtually all of those mistakes could have been avoided..... I would hope that in the next Congress, followup hearings are held, and legislative measures introduced and passed. Avoiding tragedies such as Waco ought to be a top priority for the Congress and the administration.....

Law enforcement officials have long been required to abide by the Bill of Rights, enshrined in our Constitution. These principles underlie virtually everything they do in their capacity as officers sworn to protect our citizens; and they limit what they can do in fulfilling their specific responsibilities. .....Our armed forces, in carrying out their mission to protect and project our national interests abroad, are not bound by the constitutional restraints placed on domestic law enforcement. This reflects the significant differences between conducting domestic law enforcement operations, and conducting warfare overseas. In a war situation, our armed forces do not and should not have to give ``Miranda'' warnings before shooting the enemy; they need not have ``probable cause'' before an attack. Domestically, our law enforcement officers must do these things. Unfortunately, we saw in the Waco tragedy one logical result of the blurring of lines between domestic law enforcement and military operations: an operation carried out pursuant to a strategy designed to demolish an ``enemy,'' utilizing tactics designed to cut off avenues of escape, drive an enemy out, and run roughshod over the ``niceties'' of caring for the rights of those involved. The protestations of the Attorney General to the contrary, that she authorized the injection of debilitating CS gas into closed interior quarters with no ventilation where dozens of women and children were concentrated, out of concern for the children do not match the Government's actions. While the report reflects this view to some extent, I believe very firm steps must be taken to ``demilitarize'' Federal domestic law enforcement, through substantive legislation and funding restrictions....... I seriously question the role of military officers being involved in strategy sessions, on sight ``observers'' and the presence of foreign military personnel, and the use of military equipment such as armored vehicles. Contrary to the conclusion of the report, I am not convinced that the separation between military operations and domestic law enforcement, codified in the U.S. Code's ``Posse Comitatus'' provisions, was not violated in the Waco operation.....

Forward Looking Infrared Radar (FLIR) was used by the Government, in cameras aboard helicopters and planes flying over the Branch Davidian compound on the day of the final assault. Portions of the FLIR tapes were shown at the hearings; these were under the control of the Government. Of course, the Government used the tapes to buttress its arguments that no shots were fired on April 19 (the day of the assault on the compound) from outside the compound into the compound, and that the fire that destroyed the compound was not started from the outside or by the Government vehicles. Given the severe limitations on questioning by subcommittee members, and the inability to truly review and analyze the Government's evidence, I do not agree with the conclusions in the report that the evidence clearly establishes the Government's position on these issues. On further examination of FLIR tapes, after the hearings, and in discussions with private parties who have reviewed the tapes, I believe sufficient questions have been raised to warrant further study of these two issues: were there shots fired from outside the compound into the compound on April 19th, and were the fires started--intentionally or unintentionally--by the armored military vehicles or personnel therein? Unlike the report, I do not dismiss out of hand the civilian analyses of these tapes and other evidence.....

The Government's use of CS gas in the manner it did, that is, clearly designed to incapacitate men, women and children in a confined, unventilated space, after avenues of escape had been deliberately cut off, was unconscionable; as was the cursory manner in which the Government, and especially Attorney General Reno ``bought into'' the conclusory and simplistic analyses that the use of CS gas posed an ``acceptable'' level of risk. The fact is, while experts may--and did--differ over the precise effects of CS gas on children, or how and in what ways the use of CS gas might act as a catalyst for a fire, no rational person can conclude that the use of CS gas under any circumstances against children, would do anything other than cause extreme physical problems and possibly death. For the Government of this country to consciously use CS gas in the way it did on April 19, 1993 in Waco is utterly indefensible and should never be allowed to be repeated. I believe the deaths of dozens of men, women and children can be directly and indirectly attributable to the use of this gas in the way it was injected by the FBI......

While the report concludes that the evidence clearly establishes that the fire that eventually consumed the Branch Davidian structure was started inside by the Davidians, I think that the most that can be said is that the fire may have been started inside, and even if it did, the evidence that it was deliberately set is inconclusive. I believe there is also the possibility that the fire, or at least some of the fires, may have been caused as a result of the demolishing efforts of the armored military vehicles. While there is no direct evidence that the fire was started from the outside, further study (of the FLIR tapes, for example) ought to be conducted. ....

The report concludes that there was opportunity for the Davidians to escape. While obviously this is true--a handful did escape the maelstrom--I conclude there was no opportunity for the vast majority of the Davidians to have any hope of escape, because of the Government's tactics the morning of the 19th of April. Essentially, the use of the armored vehicles, methodically smashing down portions of the building, cutting off avenues of escape (for example, smashing the walls down to cover the ``escape'' hatch to the tunnel out of the main building), intimidated the inhabitants into seeking ``safety'' in the one secure part of the structure (the concrete ``bunker'' in the center). With massive quantities of CS gas pumped into this area, it virtually guaranteed that most inhabitants would be incapacitated; which they were, and they died in the ensuing fire because of the incapacitating effects of the CS gas and the cutting off of escape routes.....

One area of inquiry which I pursued during the hearings involved what clearly are breaches of ethics, and possible obstruction of justice by Government attorneys and investigators. This aspect of the hearings is completely overlooked by the report. Government documents clearly show deliberate efforts by Government attorneys to stop the collection of evidence and possibly cover up evidence the Government did not want to be available later on. While the Department of Justice went so far as to issue a news release during the hearings, to refute my conclusions, I consider it extremely serious; especially when considered with evidence that two of the ATF agents first disciplined and fired and then later reinstated and records sealed, to raise very troubling questions of ethical violations at best and obstruction at worst. Attorneys who testified at the hearings also raised serious concerns about the attitude and policies reflected in these documents. Documents explicitly showed that ``DOJ [Department of Justice] does not want Treasury to conduct any interviews . . . [that might] generate . . . material or oral statements which could be used for impeachment'' of Government witnesses, and that hopefully if such material is not gathered, ``the passage of time will dim memories.'' (Memorandum from Treasury Assistant General Counsel for Enforcement, dated April 14, 1993.) Earlier, on March 1, 1993, in interview notes, the ATF's initial ``shooting review'' of the February 28, 1993 initial assault at which time ATF agents fired their weapons, the ATF is advised to ``stop the ATF shooting review because ATF was creating Brady material.'' (Note: ``Brady'' material is evidence that would tend to establish innocence or which could be used in mitigation of guilt.) In handwritten notes, taken at some point during the siege, Government attorney Ray Jahn directs that interviews are to stop because exculpatory statements may be generated. This pattern of activity to deliberately avoid collection of relevant evidence, because it might tend to establish a person's innocence, or, as is apparent from other documents, might embarrass the ATF, raises very troubling questions to say the least, about the interests of the Government in establishing the truth and in seeing that justice is done. Neither goal would be met under the circumstances evidenced by these documents. That the Department of Justice casually dismisses these concerns should be of concern to the Congress and to the people of this country.

The procedures under which these hearings were conducted did not lend themselves to adequate inquiry. Important evidence was not available because of tactics by the Government and minority members of the subcommittees to keep evidence out of our hands; such as the weapons taken by the Government from the burned Davidian compound. We were never able to test the weapons to establish whether they were in fact unlawful weapons as the Government charged (which provided a primary justification for the Government's initial action against Koresh and the Branch Davidians)...... Moreover, many witnesses who simply did not answer members' questions, were allowed to escape with dilatory or nonresponsive tactics; which again limited the productivity of the hearings.

Published Book 1995 Dick Reavis Freeper rowdee reports "….Mr. Reavis, on Paqe 289, writes" "Testimony showed that three helicopters were used in connection with the raid, 2 civilian sized Apache models and a larger Sikorsky Blackhawk"….."

From the David Hardy website"… An Army memo obtained under FOIA shows that FBI requested training for their 40mm grenade launchers. Two types of ammunition were to be used; the usual target/practice rounds.... and illuminating rounds. It's hard to see much use for illuminating when a building is surrounded by floodlights. A postscript adds that FBI is authorized to leave with all unfired ammunition.

In the course of the siege, FBI rammed and spilled no less than two thousand gallons of diesel fuel, stored in tanks about sixty feet from the building. The Texas Water Commission later complained, and FBI accepted responsibility for the cleanup. 2,000 gallons spread in a one-inch layer will make a pool a hundred ten feet in diameter. The building--constructed of wood in a dry climate--became all the more flammable. (Strangely, there is no indication that the spill was mentioned to the government's fire experts....)

An apparent breakthrough came when two theologians, Drs. Phillip Arnold and James Tabor, broadcast a discussion on a radio station which FBI knew, from bugs planted inside the building, was regularly listened to by the Davidians……On April 14, however, Koresh sent out a letter to his attorney Dick DeGuerin, stating that he was writing his explanation of the Seven Seals, and that he would give himself up to be judged upon its completion. That he had heard the program was obvious; he requested that copies be sent to Arnold and Tabor. The letter makes it clear the author has no plans of suicide. He speaks of surrender and judgment, and asks how he will contact DeGuerin while imprisoned.

The proposal threatened to throw the assault plans--which had been finalized and submitted to the Attorney General two days before--into the trash heap. The April 14 letter was, accordingly, not shown to the Attorney General. The plans had been finalized; the HRT was going to show it was in control, it would make the Davidians come out on its terms, not in their own good time.

Transcripts of FBI negotiation tapes show Koresh at this point made it clear he was going to surrender. He is writing his explanation of the Seven Seals, discusses Tabor and Arnold, jokes with negotiators. Once he's done, he tells negotiators,

Koresh: Then I'll be out - yes - definitely.

FBI: I know you'll be out, but that could - excuse me I've got a cold. That could mean a lot of things David. That could mean -

Koresh: I'll be in custody in the jailhouse. You can come down there and feed me bananas if you want.

FBI: I know - I know that some point in time that's true. But I'm getting from you - I'm asking you, "When that is finished, are you than telling me that you are coming out the next day, or two hours after you send that out or what?"

Koresh: Oh, I'll probably - when I - when I bring it out - see - my attorney is gonna get the - get to the copy.

FBI: Right.

Koresh: OK? And as soon as he hands it over to the scholars - the theologians - right?

FBI: Um, hm.

Koresh: That's when - he's gonna come back, and that's when I'm going to go out with him, because he said point blank that -you know - one of the guarantees of me arriving down there is that he is gonna go with me.

FBI: So you go on paper here and said that David Koresh told me that as soon as he finishes this manuscript - the seven seals -of which you've finished the first chapter dealing with the first seal -

Koresh: The first seal - right.

FBI: That you're gonna make that available -

Koresh: I'll be splitting out of this place. I'm so sick of MRE's - Dick - that ah -

FBI: Well, I just want to make sure that I have this right - that you're coming out. As soon as that's finished -

Koresh: That's what - it was said by the attorney's -

FBI: Well, I know - I know.

Koresh: That's what I'm saying -


Koresh: It's clarified. Lock, stock, and barrel it.

Later on April 16, Koresh adds "I'm giving you the simple answer. Yes. Yes. Yes. I never intended to die in here."


The final day: April 19.

There was every reason to be cautious at this point. There were, after all, two dozen children inside, some mere infants. All indications were that Koresh was working on the manuscript, and a non-lethal end would follow within some days.

FBI prepared a plan to end the siege by frontal assault: armored vehicles would spray CS gas (actually a mixture of CS in methylene chloride) into the building, while other vehicles fired "Ferret" rounds, plastic projectiles filled with the same mixture.

Risks of the Mixture Injected

The risks of the gas mixture to persons within--and especially to children--were known. CS is a powerful irritant of lungs and breathing passages. It can kill. I've prepared a brief, and inexpert, survey of the medical literature. The doses injected at Waco were astronomical. Failure Analysis Associates' study found:

1. The first assault started at approximately 6:00 A.M. ....

CS concentrations in the rooms directly injected by the M5 delivery alone ranged from 2 to 90 times that required to deter trained soldiers.

Methylene chloride concentrations in the rooms directly injected by gas were as high as 1.8 times the IDLH (Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health) concentration and nearly to the concentration that would render a person unconscious.

2. The second assault started at approximately 7:30 A.M.

CS concentrations in the rooms directly injected by gas from M5 delivery alone ranged from 2 to 80 times that required to deter trained soldiers.

Methylene chloride concentrations ... were as high as 1.6 times the IDLH....

And so on for the remaining two assaults. To be sure, it was windy. But the CS injected would not be swept away; even with elaborate equipment, decontaminating a building after a CS dose is difficult. Most of it would have remained behind, to be supplemented by that injected later.

The Attorney General was advised of a reported case where a child had been dosed with CS and "recovered without permanent injury." A reading of the 1972 medical report of the incident suggests a better conclusion would be: "survived, but barely." The child suffered second-degree skin burns and chemical pneumonia, went into acute respiratory failure, had to be put on a respirator, and spent weeks in the hospital. This was produced by a few CS grenades thrown into a house. At Waco, nearly 400 Ferret projectiles were fired in, and CS was sprayed from four-tank rack arrangements on the armored vehicles. As Failure Analysis Associates concluded in their study of the use, this was the most intensive use of riot control chemicals in the history of the United States. The government planners had actual knowledge of the risks to the two dozen children inside--they'd found, and had to read, the 1972 medical report in order to give the Attorney General the advice they did.

Methylene chloride is even more dangerous than CS--and five pounds of MeCl were injected for every ounce of CS. MeCl is an industrial solvent, with powerful anesthetic properties. It was once used as paint remover--a use which ended after deaths and hospitalizations resulted from inhalation of fumes. A chemical engineer has opined that concentrations may have reached lethal ranges for children, and certainly may have rendered them unconscious and unable to flee. It is noteworthy that several of the dead children were found without any wounds, and with no carbon monoxide in their blood: they had died before there was smoke in the air.

That the proposed assault might lead to a disasterous fire was obvious. The building was dry wood, with hay bales used to block windows. Light was provided by candles and kerosene lanterns. The risk of fire was known. There have been reports that government agents telephoned area hospitals to determine their burn unit capacities. This was confirmed in the FOIA suit, where we obtained the raid plan given to the Attorney General. The plan listed hospitals with burn units to which the injured might be evacuated. When the risk of fire is so obvious that burn units are being polled, and infants unable to flee are on the receiving end, we might expect that only the direst necessity could justify taking that risk. And that the one running it would have a plan for rescuing the children if it did break out. As it turned out, the only fire plan was--to stop the firemen from going in until everyone was dead. That's strong language; it will be justified below. [Continue at the David Hardy Website: In the course of the siege ]

International Workers Bulletin 4/26/93 "...Administration spokesmen like Attorney General Janet Reno, FBI Director William Sessions and Clinton himself have flatly contradicted each other on the circumstances of the attack, its timing and motivation. The claims that the final assault on the religious cult was carried out to save the lives of the children or to stop their sexual abuse by Koresh have no credibility. The assault was mounted in a fashion which was deliberately provocative and with wanton disregard for the innocent lives which were placed in danger. There is no indication that FBI and Justice Department officials gave the slightest consideration to how the 25 children, including 17 under 10 years of age, could be saved, and there were no special tactics devised for this purpose. The FBI did not even call the Waco fire department until after the blaze began...."

International Workers Bulletin 4/26/93 "...Judging from its statements, the White House apparently believes that the great mass of people are simply gullible fools. Clinton's absurd declaration placing sole blame for the massacre on David Koresh is self-serving and contradictory. He denounced the Branch Davidian leader as "irrational and probably insane," claiming "he bears ultimate responsibility for the carnage that ensued." But if Koresh was insane, he was by definition not responsible for his actions. How could federal officials then expect him to respond rationally to an assault on the compound by an armored vehicle? ..."

International Workers Bulletin 4/26/93 "...Moreover, there is mounting evidence to disprove the initial FBI claims that the deaths were the result of mass suicide. All six survivors who have spoken to defense attorneys have given similar accounts that the fire began when an armored vehicle smashed through a wall of the compound and ruptured a large propane tank. The survivors have also stated that the tank attack caused structural damage inside the compound that made it impossible to open doors once the fire began. The position of the bodies so far discovered, distributed widely throughout the compound, indicates that the victims were not herded together or held at gunpoint by Koresh and his closest aides. Rather the fire raced through the old wooden structure so swiftly that most were overcome by smoke and only a handful could make their way out....."

International Workers Bulletin 4/26/93 "...On Thursday, the medical examiner in Waco angrily contradicted government claims that gunshot wounds had been found in several bodies...."

International Workers Bulletin 4/26/93 "...Regardless of what started the fire, it was an armed assault by dozens of federal agents which began the confrontation February 28, and a second assault, spearheaded by armored vehicles, which set in motion the tragic events of April 19. Throughout the siege, the federal authorities rejected such elementary measures for defusing the situation as allowing relatives of the Branch Davidians to speak directly to cult members and seek to convince them to leave peacefully....."

International Workers Bulletin 4/26/93 "...Any objective consideration of the Waco events leads inexorably to the conclusion that political considerations were behind the decision to launch a tank-led assault on April 19. Clinton administration officials were under growing pressure from the federal agents on the spot to settle accounts with Koresh. The New York Times reported, "It was not in the nature of the law enforcement officials, who had seen the federal agents killed during the initial raid on Feb. 28, to let the cult go on with its way of life." Other press accounts cited the determination of federal agents to wreak vengeance for the death of four BATF officers and the wounding of 16 others. They spoke of "bringing things to a logical conclusion." While the need to reassure the FBI and BATF played a role, so did the prospect that Koresh's continued defiance was undermining the authority of the federal government. "These people had thumbed their noses at law enforcement," said Larry Potts, the assistant director of the FBI's criminal division. The Wall Street Journal wrote, "An important factor in deciding to proceed, said one FBI agent, was the feeling among FBI and Justice Department officials that they should take back control of the situation." ...."

International Workers Bulletin 4/26/93 "...There is an obvious and enormous discrepancy between the scale of the force used against the Branch Davidians and the actual threat which this tiny religious group represented..... Waco is not the first such incident, but the latest in a series in which the ruling class has displayed its real character-violent, bloodthirsty and ruthless. From the National Guard assault on Attica in 1971 and the FBI siege of Wounded Knee in 1973 to the bombing of the MOVE group in Philadelphia in 1985 and this past week's destruction of the Davidian compound in Waco, such confrontations have ended the same way: in a hail of bullets or a funeral pyre...."

International Workers Bulletin 4/26/93 "...Despite claims by Clinton that he had only brief discussions with Reno about the decision to launch the final assault, a report last month in the Wall Street Journal noted that he was following the Waco siege with great personal interest and was keeping informed about minute operational details. A Clinton crony from Arkansas, associate attorney general-designate Webb Hubbell, ran the Justice Department during the early part of the siege and sat in on the meeting with Reno Saturday evening where the final decision was taken. The role of Clinton and the actions of his government come as no surprise to Marxists who proceed from a class analysis of all political phenomena.... But when put to the test, the Clinton administration, which boasts of the first woman attorney general, has proceeded just as ruthlessly as any of its predecessors. Indeed, this show of force is now being portrayed in the capitalist media as a sort of "rite of passage," demonstrating that the former antiwar protester is willing to spill blood when required....."

International Workers Bulletin 4/26/93 "... There was no talk of constitutional rights for the Branch Davidians; none of whom was ever convicted of a criminal offense before they were wiped out to the last man, woman and child. The actions of the Clinton administration are far more dangerous and its defense of the Waco massacre far more chilling than anything done or said by David Koresh and his band of fundamentalists..... " Freeper remark "It seems that even the Marxists among us were onto this one...."

Detroit News 7/95 David Morri s AP "….Rejecting Republican contentions, top federal officials said Friday that President Clinton did not pressure them to use tear gas to end the 51-day siege at Waco. GOP lawmakers failed in repeated efforts to elicit answers to the contrary. At one point, former Associate Attorney General Webster Hubbell suggested Republicans in charge of the hearings were allowing themselves to be manipulated by sect leader David Koresh, who was killed in the fatal showdown…… Doyle claimed that agents from the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms fired the first shots while trying to serve warrants at the compound on Feb. 28. He also testified that at least one of the six Davidians who died that day was killed by bullets fired from a helicopter. Four ATF agents also died in the gunfight……ATF and other federal officials have said the Davidians fired first and that no shots came from helicopters. Doyle also rejected the government's contention that the Davidians died in a mass suicide. He said residents were afraid to leave the compound because of a concern "that the FBI might open fire on us." In his statement, Doyle said he did not know how the fire started. However, a summary of his statements to Texas Rangers in the days after the fire quotes him as saying the fire was started inside with Coleman fuel. Two arson experts and one FBI official told the committee the Davidians started the fire. But a witness offered by Republicans as a fire expert said he had "serious doubt as to the accuracy and thoroughness of the government's version" of the fire investigation….. In testimony Friday, former FBI Director William Sessions and Hubbell were among the witnesses who defended the decision to use tear gas. Sessions, who knew at the time that Clinton was working to replace him, said the plan was carefully thought out by the FBI before Reno was asked to approve it. He also said Reno considered the request at length -- and rejected it once -before finally giving the authority to proceed…… He said he had no contact with the White House during the 51-day siege. Hubbell, one of Clinton's closest friends, said he didn't discuss Waco with the president until after the fire. He added, however, that he did inform the White House counsel's office of the decision to use gas and assumed that the lawyers notified Clinton. He also said Reno notified the president of her decision. Bernard Nussbaum, then-White House counsel, declined to testify, citing attorney-client privileg…."

Transcript 4/22/93 "....THE WHITE HOUSE Office of the Press Secretary .... PRESS BRIEFING BY GEORGE STEPHANOPOULOS The Briefing Room 1:43 P.M. EDT.... Q George, why would the President have authorized a plan to use an irritant CS gas against women and children that he had favored banning in wartime? What's the rationale for that? MR. STEPHANOPOULOS: Under the chemical weapons treaty that you cited there is a specific exemption for law enforcement activities. I mean, this is, in fact, that this kind of use of this gas is contemplated under the very treaty that bans it for wartime. This is a specific prohibition. Q law enforcement if it was for some reason unacceptable in war? What's the rationale for having it in one and not the other? MR. STEPHANOPOULOS: It's just that there are certain kinds of gases that are appropriate for law enforcement. This was just a general treaty that bans it for international incidents, but it is fully permitted under the treaty. Q Has any the evidence come out from the investigation in Waco that some of the people may have died from other causes unrelated to the fire? .......Q Can I get back to this, please? Does the President favor that exemption? MR. STEPHANOPOULOS: The exemption is part of the treaty and we have no plans to change the treaty at this time. Q George, was the President aware of that limitation at the time the Attorney General spoke to him about using it? Or did she discuss using that chemical at Waco? MR. STEPHANOPOULOS: She discussed using tear gas. The President did say that she discussed that. And I would just point out that this gas is safe and is relatively harmless. There is an exemption within the treaty for the use of this kind of gas. Q How is it that a civilian agency like the FBI could be allowed to have the authority to use a chemical that the military themselves would not use? And is the President aware that this is not tear gas, but is an irritant that completely incapacitates the individual, whether it be children or women or men, and they wouldn't know which door to go out of because they would have their eyes completely shut and be in trauma at the time it was being used? Is the President aware that this would be the effect of that gas?.......MR. STEPHANOPOULOS: The President was told that the gas would be used. I don't know if he was told the specific type, but he was assured by the relevant law enforcement agencies that this was safe and that it would have its intended effect. I am not an expert on the gas, but I think I would refer you to the FBI and the Defense Department for specific questions. Q Why would an agency of the government that works with civilians of our country and not against an enemy of our country be allowed to use a gas that the military will not use? A chemical, I should say, not a gas. MR. STEPHANOPOULOS: There are general global international prohibitions on the use of chemicals in warfare, though all of those treaties contain exemptions for law enforcement. They are not intended to reach towards law enforcement. That is not a judgment of any kind on the safety of the gases used; it is a judgment on the use of chemicals in warfare. That's what the treaty is designed to prohibit...."

CSPAN 9/7/99 Freeper Too-taxed "...Quotes from

Rep. Charles Schumer, D-NY ...

We can't compare the evil of David Koresh with the mistakes of the FBI and ATF.

They tried their best to save lives...

We have to give them the benefit of the doubt looking at the monster they had to deal with.

I want to thank my Democratic colleagues who've been an effective truth squad.

I recall a quote from ATF agent William Bufford, "I feel like I did after Vietnam. I did a service for my country and I'm still being criticized for it." ...

Rep. Cardis Collins D-IL;

These hearings have been helpful. We've debunked the conspiracy theories with facts, including the fact that there was no secret military role at the raid.


Rep. Conyers D-MI What remains is the investigation of the militia, the clan and the skinheads that are scaring the pants off many people around the nation...."


Baylor College of Medicine Web Site 4/26/93 Bruce D Perry MD PhD "....This Appendix is prepared with specific reference to the children surviving the shoot-out at Ranch Apocalypse near Waco, Texas on February 28, 1993. In the first days following the shoot-out, 21 children were released in small groups. These children were placed in the custody of CPS and housed in a single 'cottage' at Methodist Home. Over the next two months, these children were in the constant care of a multidisciplinary treatment team consisting of professionals, child care and mental health professionals from a variety of institutions and organizations. This cooperative included members from state and local CPS, the Methodist Home in Waco, Baptist Children's Home in San Antonio, Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, the Houston Veterans Administration Medical Center and Texas Children's Hospital in Houston. An ongoing evaluation, crisis intervention and brief treatment process was developed and implemented for these children. As part of this process, information regarding previous allegations of abuse and neglect at Ranch Apocalypse was collected....... SUMMARY: The 'Abusive Environment' at the Ranch Apocalypse' In summary, the picture that evolves from our work with the 21 children released from Ranch Apocalypse is clinically and 'legally' complex -- filled with grays rather than black and white. The data gathered by our team is enough for clinicians to say, as they develop their treatment plans, "this child was exposed to an abusive situation". The same information may not be enough for a CPS investigator to act on a charge of abuse. The group of children released likely experienced physical punishment as very young children, the girls were likely exposed to inappropriate concepts of sexuality, parental ties were undermined by David (see Appendix I), a whole variety of destructive emotional techniques were used including shame, coercion, fear, intimidation, humiliation, guilt, overt aggression and power. This combination of experiences will complicate the long term process of healing for these children. Furthermore it is critical for the families, case workers, therapists, teachers and other adults working with these children to understand the nature of their experiences. Finally, it should be stated that the parents and families of these children did not appear to be purposefully malicious to their children. These families, however, suspended their parental judgment and gave over critical elements of parenting to David Koresh. This proved to be a critical error by the parents. In some cases, parents did break away and take their children. Most, unfortunately, did not. The process by which the Branch Davidian group in Waco was transformed from an isolated, idiosyncratic religious community to a misguided, paramilitary community with admixtures of destructive sexuality and religiosity deserves further study...."

J. Moore 5/97 "...On Friday May 2, 1997 San Diego Police attempted to serve a warrant at a house in the surburb of National City and were greeted by automatic gunfire. Police exchanged gunfire with the suspected criminals inside. The confrontation lasted over and hour and was videotaped. CS gas, the same type used in Waco, was shot into the house. According to the Union Tribune newspaper as the CS gas filled the house it ignited and caused the entire structure and surrounding palm trees to be engulfed in flames. Two people inside the house died of either gunshot or incineration. The recent Los Angeles bank robbery shootout gathered hours of national media attention. Yet the San Diego shootout, every bit as "exciting" as Los Angeles, has been completely ignored. Why would national and major media ignore a story that has all the notorious visual elements so attractive to media sensationalists? During the Waco hearings 3 years ago the Federal Government maintained that CS gas was not flammable. This formed the basis of the mass suicide charge against the Branch Davidians. The Branch Davidian ranch burst into flames after the FBI and other Federal Police pumped CS gas into the occupied buildings. Attorney General Janet Reno approved the use of CS gas. This recent incident with CS gas affirms the conclusions of earlier reports which stated CS gas to be flammable and it's use restricted to out-of-doors. The CS gas explosion knocks the legs from under the Branch Davidian mass suicide theory....."

Freeper xgman 9/10/99 observes "...I don't know much about the "properties" of CS or other gases, but I have gone through "live" gas training both in the army and with the federal government. If it's not flammable, why are NO SMOKING and similar warnings posted on the gas-shacks and throughout surrounding areas ? It sure as hell ain't for second-hand smoke...."


Freeper john3 9/10/99 observes "...Controlled tests are easy to do. However few if any reporters have the slightest understanding or curiosity about such things. The non-flammability argument was useful to those officials under investigation in 1996 so they promoted the notion. The manufacturers of CS gas were however clear on it's dangerous use in confined areas. This is a microcosm of the corrupt cooperation between big media and big government. The evidence of flammability was available but completely ignored by the media...."


Steve La Rue 5/4/97 Union-Tribune Publishing Co "...San Diego police have arrested two more suspects in a jewelry heist at a Saks Fifth Avenue store, they announced yesterday in the wake of Friday's shootout and fire in National City that left two dead..... Authorities have not announced the name of a young woman who died Friday, along with Bobby Lewis Kirk Jr., 23, in a National City house that caught fire during a gunbattle with police. San Diego police attempting to carry out a search warrant at the house in the 2900 block of East Plaza Boulevard in connection with Saks robbery were met with automatic-weapons fire after knocking down the door. They returned fire and called reinforcements. The home eventually caught fire, apparently from tear-gas canisters fired into it. Kirk's mother and her boyfriend escaped the house unharmed. The charred bodies of Kirk and a woman thought to be his girlfriend were found in the garage. The county Medical Examiner's Office conducted autopsies on the pair yesterday. A spokesman said last night that no new information was available regarding the woman's identity or whether she and Kirk died by fire, by police gunfire or by their own hands....."We're going through the house trying to recover some evidence. You need to literally shift through the debris, all the ashes, everything," said San Diego police Lt. Jim Barker.......Kirk, who works at an aircraft repair company outside Tucson, said he had no knowledge of whether his son was in the robbery. Kirk shook his head as he surveyed the gutted house. He asked police if the body was burned beyond recognition, whether there were any photographs that survived the fire, and how tear gas could start such a fire....."


5/5/97 Copyright Union-Tribune Publishing Co "....The young woman who died Friday during a police shootout and fire in National City has been identified by the county Medical Examiner's Office as Rula Day, 17, of Lemon Grove. Day was found in a garage of a home on East Plaza Boulevard where police attempted to serve a search warrant in connection with a jewelry heist last week at a Saks Fifth Avenue store in Fashion Valley. After officers knocked down a door at the home, automatic weapons fire rang out. Police eventually fired tear-gas canisters into the house, which apparently started the blaze....."


The Police Chief (magazine) 6/93 p 54 Lt Col Paul Steiner "....In the basement of the Pentagon lies the Directory of Military Suport (DOMS) which is responsible for many aspects of defense support for civilian activities. DOMS oversees several critical areas of military support for various policing activities; civil disturbance, combatting terrorism, as well as routine army assistance for civilian police. DOMS plays active role in major prison riots, catastrophes, terrorism. DOMS' geography of responsibility includes the entire United States and all affiliated territories. The last instance of large-scale assistance by DOMS to law enforcement (freep note: recall this article was written in '93) was occaisioned by the LA riots of 1992. The Justice Dept was lead the agency overseeing the assistance effort by DOMS, which planned the deployment of 1900 light infantry from Fort Ord, in addition to Marines and members of the USNG. Members of the active military was similarly overseen by the Justice Department and rapidly deployed. Equipment provided to law enforcement entities by DOMS for response to the LA riots by included riot gear, batons, face shields, helos, bus, air lift equipment. DOMS helped to moved 300 agents, and 166,000 pounds of gear. DOMS also accomodates routine day-to-day support for law-enforcement activities, providing equipment for thousands of missions in support of US Marshals, Customs, DEA, BATF, etc.

In 1992 alone, DOMS fielded 1800 requests for support. These involved provision of linguists, rotary wing aircraft, flight simulators, weapons, NVGs, helos, EOD, and dogs. In October of 1992, DOMS had over $75 million worth of equipment loaned out to various civilian LEO agencies around the country. Ten thousand requests are directed to DOMS every year, although all requests are subject to intense scrutiny. Requests must meet various criteria, including but not limited to issues of legality, fiscal responsibilty, equipment availiabily, and effect on overall military readiness. Requests for direct military operations roles are disqualified out-of-hand, in conjunction with Posse Comitatus considerations and 18 USC 1835. ....."


The Police Chief (magazine) 6/93 p 54 Lt Col Paul Steiner "....Posse Comitatus violations carry a $10,000 fine and 2 years federal imprisonment. Persuant to Posse Comitatus strictures, military personnel are prohibited from:

-interdicting vehicles -conducting search or seizures -making arrests or apprehensions, stop and frisk, etc. -conducting survellance and/or pursuing individuals -providing interragators, infilitators Stricly speaking, Posse Comitatus strictures apply only to Army and Airforce but DoD has adopted as matter of policy the inclusion of members of the Navy and Marine Corps as similarly bound by it's restrictions. Posse Comitatus does not apply to those cases in which congress have passed laws specifically for special military involvement addressed at the prevention of: -drug traffickering -civil unrest....."


The Police Chief (magazine) 6/93 p 54 Lt Col Paul Steiner "....The purpose of the first level of review of requests for military assistance directed to DOMS is so that the military will be able to safeguard the vital interests of the citizens. Authorization for aircraft and armored personnel carriers resides at the very hightest levels of the DoD. A second method of law enforcement entities for getting support from the military is for the director to apply to the Exececutive Secretariat of the Department of Defense. ...."



Michael Reagan's Hot Topics 4/18/97 Committee for Waco Justice ".... Carol Moore issued a statement in which she charged that the Congressional hearings in early 1995 "followed the party line--the Davidians ambushed BATF and committed mass suicide. Questions of crimes by these agents were rarely raised and evidence of such, when alleged or chanced upon, discounted." She stated that while many Americans held high hopes that Republican-promised "Waco hearings" would "finally expose federal agents' crimes against the Davidians and the government coverup of those crimes. The House of Representatives held 10 days of 'Waco' hearings in the summer of 1995. The Senate held two days of such hearings in the fall. The hearings did reveal over-aggressiveness and duplicity by agents and officials of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (BATF) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). " Nevertheless, citizens continue to produce new books and films cataloguing compelling evidence that hyped-up BATF agents shot first as David Koresh opened the front door, even as other agents shot from helicopters, killing four Davidians. BATF left ample bullet hole evidence in the walls and roofs of the building of this indiscriminate and illegal gunfire. The Davidians repeatedly told negotiators that when this evidence was discovered Davidians would be freed and federal agents would be prosecuted. Fearing they were right, and angry at the deaths of four BATF agents, FBI Hostage Rescue Team agents deliberately destroyed evidence of BATF gunfire outside the building. And they repeatedly sabotaged negotiations and pushed for a gas and tank attack that could--and ultimately did--destroy the building and its incriminating evidence. Moore charged that "Many Americans believe the U.S. Congress cares more about protecting these federal agents from prosecution than about protecting the American people from such agents. If Congress is to reassure the American people this is not true, it must re-open hearings on Waco to answer the QUESTIONS ABOUT WACO:


1. House investigators determined that "someone" at BATF lied to the military about the Davidians being involved with drugs in order to get U.S. Army Special Forces and other military aid. Instead of pulling out the stops to discover who lied, investigators only whined about the fact that military staff at Fort Bragg were not made available to them or had been pre-interviewed.

2. One of the chief raid planners was William Buford, Special Agent in Charge of Little Rock BATF and a personal acquaintance of President Bill Clinton. The day after the February 28 raid, then-Deputy Treasury Secretary Roger Altman visited the injured Buford in a Texas hospital. Congress never asked about this visit or whether Clinton or his staff had any foreknowledge of the raid.

3. During the House hearings it was revealed that imprisoned Davidian Brad Branch, who was standing behind the unarmed David Koresh at the front door, claims he saw an agent shoot a dog as other agents rushed the door. He claims one approaching agent panicked and started shooting at Koresh, wounding him and mortally wounding his father- in-law. Why did congressional investigators merely whine in their report that the Treasury Department did not let it interview agents before the hearings? Why not grill them now?

4. Why doesn't Congress methodologically investigate the copious forensic and eyewitness evidence that BATF agents in the Blackhawk helicopter shot at Davidians? Instead it quiescently accepts the denials of two BATF agents and 3 National Guard helicopter pilots--who themselves may have shot or covered up others' shooting. Such evidence includes: BATF discussions of using helicopter gunfire as a diversion; an agent in the helicopter admitting agents were armed and permitted to fire in self-defense; the government's allegations Davidians fired at helicopters, which might have triggered such a "self-defense" response, even before such gunfire began; BATF video from inside the helicopter showing the closeness of the approach to the building and containing sounds of close-up gunfire; television video showing bullets entering the roof from an almost perpendicular angle; two Davidians' complaints to 911 officers during the raid about such firing; thirteen Davidian survivors' testimony about it; Davidian attorneys and a prosecution witness' testimony about bullet hole evidence in the highest roof; autopsy evidence indicating four Davidians probably were killed from gunfire from above.

5. Why didn't Congress do a systematic investigation of the "second shooting" of Davidian Michael Schroeder as he approached Mount Carmel several hours after the raid? There is evidence that BATF agents, angry at BATF agents' deaths, gave scant warning as they opened fire on Schroeder, who died of three wounds to the back and two to the head. Troubling evidence like shooting heard after the incident and Schroeder's missing cap suggests that agents then approached and "finished off" the wounded man with shots to the head. The FBI would not allow Texas Rangers to investigate the area for ten days after the shooting, making it impossible to check for footprints.

6. Why didn't Congress grill prosecutors and federal agents about the moving and destruction of automobiles, trucks and a trailer during the siege? Why hasn't Congress asked FBI siege commander Jeff Jamar and chief negotiator Byron Sage--as well as Hostage Rescue Team commander Richard Rogers--about their reactions to the Davidians' allegations that bullet hole evidence in the building would lead to Davidian acquittals and convictions of agents? These questions must be asked in light of Jamar and Sage's conflicting or dubious explanations to Congress about why they withheld from their superiors and Attorney General Janet Reno important information which would have scuttled the gas and tank attack that they supported.

7. During the Senate hearings FBI Waco negotiator Cliff Van Zandt confirmed an allegation by a Davidian hearing witness: , every time Davidians cooperated with the FBI by releasing people, the Hostage Rescue Team would punish them with acts like destruction of property, turning off electricity, or escalated harassment. Why hasn't Congress grilled Hostage Rescue Team commander Richard Rogers and all Hostage Rescue Team members about this phenomena?

8. While FBI agents claim Davidians threw their phone out the window on April 19, Davidians deny this, asserting a tank cut the phone wire before the gas attack began. This made it impossible for Davidians to negotiate a safe surrender. The same agents claim Davidians immediately fired on the tanks, which Davidians also deny. This gunfire allegation gave the FBI the excuse to speed up the gas attack and quickly proceed to the demolition of the building--and an excuse not to fix the phones. Such actions and lies by the agents ensured the building would be destroyed. They also ensured Davidians would be terrified of exiting and being shot, even as they hung a banner asking that their phones be fixed. Why doesn't Congress take every FBI agent at the scene aside and grill each about the events of that day?

9. During the House hearing Representative Howard Coble complained that the U.S. Army had not yet provided to the Committee any evidence of alleged damage to army tanks from Davidian gunfire on April 19. One staffer told me they did finally receive that material from the army. However, if so, it was not included in the transcripts, as requested by Mr. Coble. Is the House investigating committee hiding evidence that there was no Davidian gunfire?

10. Before Attorney General Janet Reno left the FBI Operations Center in Washington on April 19, around 11:00 a.m., she had a telephone conversation with Bill Clinton, one she mentioned during the 1993 House hearings. Incredibly, in neither these nor 1995 hearings did representatives question her about the content of this conversation. Reno left soon after and put then-Associate Attorney General Webster Hubbell in charge. Representatives did not ask her questions about what communication she had with Hubbell in the next two hours that passed before the fire. Nor have they asked if wealthy Waco businessman Bernard Rappaport--who paid Hubbell $18,000 after he resigned in disgrace from the Justice Department--might have had any input into Justice Department or White House decisions on Waco. Nor have they asked Lisa Foster why one reason she believed her husband, White House counsel Vince Foster, killed himself was he felt guilty about "Waco."

11. Will Congress finally dispute the FBI and Justice Department claims that nearly two dozen Davidians were on the first floor but refused to leave the building? Davidians claim these men and women were trapped on the second floor because the tanks destroyed the stairwells.

12. Former U.S. Army and BATF fire investigator Richard Sherrow testified at the hearings. He later signed an affidavit for the Davidian civil suits stating that there is a strong probability that an FBI tank started at least one fire on the second floor that, fed by strong winds through long hallways, quickly spread to the rest of the building. He notes suggestive evidence that FBI agents shot an incendiary "flash bang" into the gymnasium after the first fire started. Will Congress finally take this evidence seriously--even it means the U.S. government may lose 1.5 billion dollars in lawsuits?

13. Why did several FBI tanks continue ploughing burning, bullet-pocked walls and other evidence into the fire for at least ten minutes towards the end of the fire, as seen on television videos? (During the hearings one FBI tank driver volunteered a dubious answer, a possible attempt to pre-empt such a question.)

14. The controversial new film "Waco: The Rules of Engagement" provides evidence relevant to most of the questions above. It also presents infrared video experts who opine that there is clear infrared video evidence that FBI agents shot at Mount Carmel, perhaps at escaping Davidians, during the fire. Will Congress take these allegations seriously enough to grill FBI agents about this?

15. Confidential memoranda and handwritten notes revealed during the 1995 House Waco hearings exposed the fact that the Treasury Department, under pressure from the Justice Department and Webster Hubbell, halted its post-February 28 raid shooting review because agents' stories "did not add up." In fact, interviewers were generating "exculpatory" material that could help the Davidian defendants at trial. Hubbell promised to produce his "Waco files" to Congress, but did not do so. Does Congress condone this unconstitutional Justice Department practice of squelching evidence that might help defendants?

16. The Department of Justice would not allow a company chosen by House investigators to independently test the Davidians' guns to see if they really are illegal machine guns, or if the FBI was falsely claiming this. It then claimed the Department could not afford to independently test them. Considering recent findings of faulty FBI lab work, and even evidence of fabrication of evidence, this FBI allegation, which has led to 140 year sentences for six Davidians, must be independently verified. ...."


Frontline/First publiched in the New Yorker 5/15/95 Peter Boyer "...As a tourist attraction, the site does not offer much; after the incineration of the compound, on April 19, 1993, bulldozers razed what remained of the buildings, and also the concrete bunkers below. Still, some people have come--a constant flow of them, determined to walk among the ruins, gaze at the foundations beneath the rubble, or glimpse the Davidian swimming pool, which the bulldozers somehow left in place. They walk through the grove of young crape myrtles, each bearing a cross and the name and sometimes the picture of a Davidian who died in the fire. But only a few of the visitors are motivated by religion. "Most of them are tourists, but some are constitutional activists," Amo says; that is, members of that portion of the American extreme fringe which believes the F.B.I. raid on the Davidian compound exemplified a government at war with its citizens. To them, Waco is a shrine, and April 19th is a near-mystical date, warranting sober commemoration. Last month, on the second anniversary of the Waco conflagration, among those gathered at the site were former Attorney General Ramsey Clark, who represents some Davidian survivors and families, and who believes that a special prosecutor should investigate the government's actions, and an honor guard from the Northeast Texas Constitutional Militia, which showed up in full military dress to dedicate a stone monument listing the names of the dead. It was also on that morning, of course, that a bomb exploded at the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, in Oklahoma City. Timothy McVeigh, the principal suspect in the bombing, had himself made the pilgrimage to Waco, an experience that is said to have fed his rage against the federal government. The phony driver's license that McVeigh handed to the police officer who arrested him listed the issue date as April 19th. If the Oklahoma City horror alerted the American mainstream to a dangerous and heretofore mostly unregarded fringe, it also served as a reminder that Waco remains a piece of unfinished national business...."

Frontline/First publiched in the New Yorker 5/15/95 Peter Boyer "...But the government has never convincingly addressed the question of its own culpability in the Branch Davidian disaster, and its failure to do so has created a psychic void that is filled by paranoiac scenarios. Dr. Alan A. Stone, a professor of psychiatry and law at Harvard University, who was one of ten experts invited to review the Waco event, believes that the mistakes made at Waco will continue to fuel extremism until they are acknowledged. "The further I get away from Waco, the more I feel that the government stonewalled, " Stone says. "It would be better if the government would just say, 'Yes, we made mistakes, and we've done this, this, and that, so it won't happen again.' And, to my knowledge, they've never done it." McCain, among others, has called for congressional hearings into the handling of Waco, so that "when people say that the government plotted to go in and kill women and children, we can say, 'Wait a minute, here are the facts that came out in a congressional hearing.'"...."

Frontline/First publiched in the New Yorker 5/15/95 Peter Boyer "...Furthermore, evidence seems to suggest that a key misrepresentation and an omission by the F.B.I. played a part in winning her eventual approval of the plan it had devised for the ending of the siege..... The negotiators' approach was to build trust over time and then exploit it toward the desired end--getting people out of the compound without further loss of life to either side.

At times throughout the impasse, the two factions were distinctly at odds. While negotiators were talking with Koresh and others in the Branch Davidian compound, the tactics team was increasing pressure, often without consultation. At one point in March, the negotiators successfully talked Koresh into allowing two people out, but that very night the tactics squad turned off the electricity to the compound, enraging Koresh. Several days later, the negotiators won the release of seven more people, but the tactics team bulldozed Davidian cars outside the compound and broadcast loud music into the night. As the standoff continued, the tactics-team maneuvers came to include the exploding of stun devices whenever a Davidian wandered past a certain boundary without permission.

The negotiators complained that the trust they'd built was being undermined. Among those who supported them in that view were some of their colleagues in the F.B.I. By the second week of the standoff, Peter Smerick and Mark Young, psychological profilers for the F.B.I., began to worry that the tactics people were "action-oriented" and inclined to move too quickly toward a tactical rather than a negotiated solution. They warned, too, that the tactical methods would drive the Davidians closer together in their faith in Koresh by demonstrating that the government agents were the enemy, just as Koresh claimed. The lack of progress in negotiations, which was cited as one justification for the tear-gassing, seems to have been at least partly attributable to the harassment from the tactics team...."

Frontline/First publiched in the New Yorker 5/15/95 Peter Boyer "...As the plan for using tear gas began to advance within the F.B.I., officials rejected advice that escalating the pressure dramatically -as in tear-gas action-would provoke the very apocalypse that Koresh had hinted at. Smerick and Young said that the tactics people should move away from the compound and that tactical pressure "should be the absolute last option we should consider." Clinton Van Zandt, of the F.B.I.'s National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime--the so-called "Silence of the Lambs" team--and Dr. Joseph Krofcheck, a psychiatrist, studied a letter given by Koresh to the F.B.I. on April 9th, which contained scriptural references to destruction by fire and explosion, and concluded that an F.B.I. confrontation with Koresh might "bring this matter to a 'magnificent' end, in his mind, a conclusion that could take the lives of all of his followers and as many of the authorities as possible." ......By the time the F.B.I. came to Reno for approval, on April 12th, its leaders were presenting a united front. A Justice Department report, compiled after the conflagration, offers no indication that Reno was ever informed of the dissension within the Bureau, or that she was told that some negotiators still hoped to talk more people out of the compound. Reno, on the job for just a month, had not yet built constituencies in the Justice Department, and had no cadre of confidants...."

Frontline/First publiched in the New Yorker 5/15/95 Peter Boyer "...The report, which was made public in October of 1993, insists that "F.B.I. did not try to 'railroad' her," but a careful reading of the Department's own chronology strongly suggests that the senior Bureau officials who intensively briefed Reno in the week before the assault sought to eliminate her reservations to the gas plan by ruling out alternatives and by satisfying her doubts. And at least one F.B.I. official went beyond that......On April 14th, Reno again met with Sessions and his deputies. This time, they brought along the current and former commanders of the United States Army's Delta Force commando squad. The Army people told her that the tear gas was safe, that it was used every year on United States soldiers during training, and, apparently, that it wouldn't catch fire. Dr. Harry Salem, an Army toxicologist, told Reno that the gas would likely not hurt the kids or pregnant women. Richard Rogers, the head of the Hostage Rescue Team, said his men would soon need to "stand down" for rest and retraining. Reno wanted to know why, if they needed relief, SWAT teams couldn't be sent in. She was told, according to the report, that the rescue team was "essential." So by the second meeting the F.B.I. had added a new element of urgency: the tactics guys, essential for controlling the scene, would soon have to withdraw if the plan wasn't approved....."

Frontline/First publiched in the New Yorker 5/15/95 Peter Boyer "...The next day, April 15th, Reno again asked, "Why now?" Her advisers telephoned Byron Sage, who was one of the principal negotiators. He believed further negotiations would be fruitless. Koresh was being disingenuous in his discussions about such Davidians as the "Seven Seal," and Sage said he'd never seen such a total impasse. Besides, he said, agents on the ground were getting tired and their tempers were fraying. Hubbell related this conversation to Reno, who still did not approve the plan. On April 16th, Hubbell reported a decision: Reno's answer to the F.B.I.'s gas plan was no. But, instead of accepting her decision, Sessions and his two top deputies, Floyd Clarke and Larry Potts, came to the Justice Building, and Sessions asked to see Reno personally. Reno, still unconvinced of the urgency, asked for a documented statement outlining the plan, the current state of negotiations, and the situation inside the compound. By the next day--a Saturday--Reno had received the documentation. She then reversed herself, and approved the plan. The tanks moved in on Monday. ...." 1997 Paul Broyles "....In the Fall of 1994, I wrote the following paper for a course at the Iliff School of Theology on Cults, Sects, and Religious Movements. The following is Copyrighted by Paul Broyles 1997: "...The raid propelled a virtually unknown cult, even among the experts on Adventist cults, into the national limelight. For almost two months reporters jumped on every detail of the cult they could. Yet the sources for this knowledge came from highly questionable sources. The affidavits, which legitimized the raid, came from members who had left the Branches up to four years earlier. The experts in the area of cults reported Davidians theology, ideology, and practice by extrapolating Seventh Day Adventist beliefs---many of which proved false assumptions. And the government used speculation, innuendo, and official statements to "cast the Branch Davidians as subhuman, and to make some effort of FBI assault seem unavoidable, even welcome." ..."

House of Representatives Report 104-749 8/2/96 Committee of Government Reform & Oversight "..."The staff also had an opportunity to inspect the physical evidence taken from the ruins of the residence after the fire, much of which had been used in the criminal trial of surviving Davidians. By prior agreement with the Justice Department, a potential witness at the hearings, Failure Analysis Associates, Inc., was to inspect some of the physical evidence in order to respond to tampering allegations. It was believed that the views of scientists from Failure Analysis, who had often performed scientific evaluations for the Federal Government, including the Justice Department and NASA after the Challenger explosion, would be beneficial given public suspicions about the firearms recovered from the site of the Davidian residence. The inspection would not have damaged the weapons and was to have been conducted in the presence of all parties. It was hoped that the inspection would determine whether the Davidians had attempted to alter legal, semi-automatic weapons by converting them into illegal, automatic weapons as the ATF had alleged, and whether any of this evidence had been altered after it was gathered from the destroyed Davidian residence. When the scientists arrived in Austin, the Department declined to make the firearms available to them. The Department agreed instead to conduct the tests itself and present its findings to the subcommittees. A short time later, the Department urged, for cost considerations, that the tests not be performed. As a result, no tests were performed on the firearms." ....."

Star-Telegram 5/20/99 Jack Douglas Jr. "... Tarrant County Medical Examiner Nizam Peerwani, one of the highest- paid public coroners in the country, is asking for a $33,500 increase in salary and benefits, according to documents released yesterday. Peerwani's first assistant, Deputy Chief Medical Examiner Marc Krouse, who is also at the top of national pay charts, is seeking a $44,000 boost in salary and benefits, the documents show. ....A study by the Star- Telegram last year showed that Peerwani and Krouse were then the highest-paid medical examiners in Texas, and that Peerwani made more than his counterparts in New York, Los Angeles, Chicago and Philadelphia.

The salary under the new proposal would not change for two other deputy medical examiners, who each make $125,000 a year. But in addition to their regular salaries, they would each receive $31,250 in benefits...."

Freeper andrew: "... (BEGIN AUDIO CLIP, FBI SURVEILLANCE TAPE, APRIL 19, 1993, 6:17 A.M.)

FBI AGENT: Be advised that there are still shots being fired from inside the compound.


FBI AGENT: We have a white flag out the front door. A hand did come out.


FBI AGENT: Zero one, zero you copy, be advised we do not have any ferret rounds, we have military gas only.


FBI AGENT: Turn off the record audio for a little while.

FBI AGENT: Do what?

FBI AGENT: Turn off the audio.


Research on Criminal Government 9/11/99 George Zimmerlee "...Recent reports give details about evidence which supports the theory that FBI may be responsible for starting the fire a Waco, especially a report, completed Thursday afternoon, consists of a 13-page narrative and about 200 pages of exhibits. This is an analysis of documents which probably are on this list, documents denied under the Freedom of Information Act, as classified documents. From a recent story: A Government Accounting Office investigator who looked into military involvement in the Waco standoff was quoted Tuesday in one published report as saying that military documents indicate that classified technical gear provided to the FBI in Waco included specialized robot-driven video equipment and electronic jamming devices. Any direct military involvement in a civilian law enforcement operation would have required a presidential waiver of the law barring such activity. Also notable is the fact that the use of electronic jamming devices by a government agency would also require a waiver in the form of a document from the President invoking Section 706 of the Communications Act. My request to the White House for this document was met with no denial that the President signed the order to suspend the Act....."

Freeper JC Huntington analysis 9/11/99 "....One of the key questions regarding the Waco tragedy is, "who fired the first shot"? If the Davidians surprised the ATF by firing through the closed front door as the ATF claims, then the picture of the Davidians as crazed, gun toting killers itching for a gunfight with the feds would have some support.

On the other hand, if the ATF agents were the first to fire, then government claims that the ATF agents were "ambushed" would be shown to be yet another lie, and the returned fire by the Davidians would be legal self defense. On April 13, 1993, six days before the conflagration consumed the Davidian Complex, David Koresh talked to the FBI and the FBI recorded the conversation. During the conversation an FBI negotiator asks Koresh how it came to pass that the ATF "got their asses all shot up like that?". This prompts Koresh to recount the beginning of the gunfight.....

FBI: How come if you knew they were coming you didn't just come out and meet 'em

Koresh: I did! I did! I did! It's on the tape! Look at the tape!

FBI: How come they got their asses all shot up like that?

Koresh: Huh?

FBI: How come they got their asses all shot up like that?

Koresh: Well Look at the tape! I came out on the on the front porch ...

FBI: Why ... I mean where did all that ... where did all that frickin' gunpower come from?

Koresh: Gerald, you know, you've seen the tapes. Be honest now. Be Honest! Here I am ....

FBI: You're gotta help me out cause I came in here just a couple of weeks ago

Koresh: Well, John, ask to review those first tapes.

FBI: Alright

Koresh: Ok -- Here I am at the front door totally unarmed, my my my feet out on the front porch the the door in my left hand (unintelligible) behind me, my right hand up and the exact words that I hollered out as they were all blowin' out of the back of the trailer ... my my exact words were, you know "Get back! There's women and children here! Let's talk about this!"

And all of a sudden they were comin' around you know ... that that shot was fired and it was right here in the door in the very angle where I was, and the door kicked . . . and at that point there, you know ah ah ... its all on tape I know you all got that tape, because I saw the guys right across the street when I was on the front porch, over there taping it!

...David Hardy is a Tucson lawyer that has filed a number of Freedom Of Information actions regarding the Waco matter. One of Hardy's more interesting findings is that, according to the ATF, all of their photographic evidence is missing:...The "official" videocam, set up to film the operation, mysteriously ejected its tapes rather than recording them.....That wasn't the only "official" videocam filming the front of the building during the raid. There was another, mounted on a tripod beside the communications van. And another at a sniper position. And still another (although this may overlap with one of the first two) filming from an "elevated position." Mysteriously, none of these videotapes can be found. And the agency officials who saw them in the past say that every single camera malfunctioned in the seconds before the raid....The "official" still camera's film....and indeed the official still camera...vanished from a table in raid headquarters, surrounded by Federal agents, during the raid. At least that's what the ATF's Public Information Office swore happened. (Crime may be rising, but you would think a room full of Federal agents would be safe from thieves). ....While "unofficial" cameras were there in abundance (three of the four agents killed had them, and the videos of agents show them wandering around snapping pictures), their film seems to have wandered off. Despite a court order, only two rolls of film could be found, neither of them depicting the raid itself...."

1/96 Expert Testimony Richard Sherrow "…My name is RICHARD L. SHERROW and am President of RICHARD L. SHERROW and Associates in Mesa, Arizona. I am a former Fire and Explosion Investigator with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, United States Department of Treasury, and retired as a Senior Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technician from the United States Army. I have more than thirty years experience as an explosives and arson investigator, have been involved in over 40 major fire investigations, and have qualified as an expert witness in federal and state court in 18 states. In addition to arson, fire and explosion expertise, I have served as a Staff Instructor at both the U.S. Army Chemical Center and School and Redstone Arsenal and have been a technical writer and instructor in the use of chemical and biological weapons, including riot control agents. In addition, I have received training from the BATF, FBI, U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, U.S. Air Force, DuPont and the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC). I have attended the Ohio Fire Academy and the National Fire Academy (NFA). I am also a graduate of the Police Academy at Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, Alabama. I am a past member of the International Association of Bomb Technicians (IABTI)….."

1/96 Expert Testimony Richard Sherrow "… External electrical power was turned off to the structure prior to the fire but a diesel generator of unknown capacity was present within the structure and had been known to be energized intermittently between February 28 and April 19, 1993. Moreover, several storage areas and rooms were known to contain large amounts of highly flammable and combustible materials, including, but not limited to, gasoline, kerosene, lamp oil, Coleman lantern fuel, paint, petroleum distillates, tar and roofing materials, acetylene and oxygen containers, gunpowder, metal shavings, and a large quantity of small arms ammunition. Internal heating and cooking fires were provided by improvised wood-burning stoves and propane fueled gas ranges, respectively. Due to the lack of external electrical power, internal lighting was accomplished with Coleman-type gas pressurized lanterns and glass oil-burning wick lamps. It is known that a large, commercial-type gas range was located in the kitchen/dining area adjacent to the four-story tower. This range was fed by a large, 100 pound propane tank located externally to the dining room. The propane was conducted through the wall at that location by a conduit pipe. The tank appeared to be nearly full of propane as evidenced by a spectacular boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE) during the fire. Mount Carmel Center was occupied as a multi-family residential building with shared common areas, including a commercial-sized kitchen, and compartmented into many smaller rooms used for personal quarters…."

1/96 Expert Testimony Richard Sherrow "…On April 19. 1993, at approximately 6:00 a.m., agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation began executing a plan to introduce a riot control agent, ortho- chlorobenzalmalononitrile (CS). CS is a micro-pulverized particulate riot control agent designed for crowd dispersal in open areas. Although no open or closed cup flash point has been determined for CS, it is a combustible solid. Published information on CS by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) states that the ceiling exposure limit for CS is 0.05 parts per million (ppm) or approximately 0.2 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m^3). The ceiling exposure limit is not to be exceeded at any time. NIOSH information lists CS as having an immediate danger to life and health (IDLH) exposure limit of 2 mg/m^3. Information contained in the U.S. Justice Department report on Waco states that 10 mg/m^3 is the concentration of CS which will deter trained troops. Moreover, powdered CS may be a fire hazard in concentrated quantities and can produce a flammable dust. During the next six hours, the FBI utilized M728 Combat Engineer Vehicles (CEV) to breach the outer walls of the building and to inject CS. A CEV is a large armored vehicle, weighing in excess of 50 tons, is equipped with a 165mm demolition gun and is modification of the M60A1 Main Battle Tank, The CS was injected by use of a Mark V delivery device. The MK-5 delivery device consisted of several bottles of pressurized carbon dioxide which was used to entrain the particulate CS in a gaseous stream, This stream was injected into the structure through a nozzle located on the end of a boom connected to the CEV. In addition to the CS injection utilizing the Mark-5 delivery systems on the CEVs, FBI agents in Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicles (BIFV) fired SGA-400 Ferret barricade penetrating cartridges into windows and areas not reachable by the CEVs. A Ferret is a 40 mm projectile containing particulate CS and a liquid suspension agent, methylene chloride. The Ferret is a non-pyrotechnic munition specifically designed for barricade situations. At least 400, and possibly more, of these Ferret rounds were fired in and at Branch Davidians during the breaching and CS insertion operation….."

1/96 Expert Testimony Richard Sherrow "…Besides the SGA-400 Ferret cartridges, information from documents obtained from the FBI through the United States Department of justice indicates that military pyrotechnic munitions may have been fired into Mount Carmel. Documents disclosed indicate that agents could not penetrate either the underground shelter roof or the top of the rear four- story tower with Ferrets. Therefore, they fired at least one "military" round and referred to this munition as a "bubblehead." As a retired U.S. Army senior explosive ordnance disposal technician, I am unaware of the nomenclature and function of a "bubblehead" nor can I find any reference to such a munition in official military publications. However, I am familiar with a device known as a "bunker buster," which is a munition about the size of a softball and designed to penetrate fortifications. I recall that this munition was of foreign manufacture and filled with plasticized high explosive (HEP). It may have had other fillers, including chemical riot control agents. The exact identity of a "bubblehead" would have to be determined before any possible contribution to the fire could be established….…In the event that members of the Branch Davidians contemplated or began to execute a mass suicide, it was the plan of the FBI Hostage Rescue Team (HRT) "to disrupt any suicide attempt with flash-bangs." "Flash-bang" generically refers to pyrotechnic stun munitions designed to temporarily incapacitate or disorient personnel by producing a loud report and blinding flash. These munitions contain an explosive/incendiary pyrotechnic composition. A number of these munitions manufactured by the Nico Corporation were known to be fired during the 51 day standoff and were in the possession of the FBI HRT on April 19, 1993. Use of stun munitions in barricade situations is extremely hazardous due to the potential of causing an accidental fire…."

1/96 Expert Testimony Richard Sherrow "…In addition to the CS and methylene chloride introduced by the above methods, the Gray report refers to the induction of choloracetophenone (CN), another riot control agent. CN comes in both liquid and powder forms: CN-B is a mixture of CN and benzene and CN-C is a mixture of CN and chloroform in a liquid state. CN is highly flammable in its liquid state; in its powdered state, CN has a flashpoint of 59' C. It is known that many of the Branch Davidians were in possession of protective masks. Therefore, the effective use of CS or CN would require the introduction of quantities of these agents far in excess of that required to deter trained troops (10 mg/m^3 for CS) and well past the levels required to pose an immediate danger to life and health (2 mg/m^3 for CS). Calculations by engineers for an independent casualty laboratory, Failure Analysis, Inc., have concluded that the average concentration of CS inside of Mount Carmel was 10 to 90 times that necessary to deter trained troops (100 to 900 mg/m^3). In my professional opinion and based upon my experience with the use of these riot control agents, the concentration of CS and/or CN introduced was designed to overcome the protective masks by rapidly debilitating their filters and posed an immediate threat to the life, health and safety of those inside Mount Carmel, especially the unprotected children….."

1/96 Expert Testimony Richard Sherrow "…During the six hours of the escalated plan to introduce CS (and possibly CN) into the Mount Carmel Center, CEVs made numerous breaches in the exterior walls of the structure. The purpose of this breaching was ostensively to provide openings for members of the Branch Davidians to "escape" the building. However, these operations significantly damaged the structure, causing numerous internal load-bearing failures and resulted in restricted egress from the structure. As an example, the area immediately over the trap door leading to the buried school bus and external underground storm shelter was obstructed by debris. Further, both staircases leading to the upper floors were disrupted or destroyed by the CEV breaching operations. At one point, a significant portion of the building can be seen to be off its foundation because of the repeated collisions of the CEVs with the structure. These breaching operations probably resulted in sprung doors, destruction of flooring and creation of attendant falling and entrapment hazards and probably prevented normal communication between adjacent areas of the structure. Despite the claim that the purpose of the breaching operation was to secure exits for the Branch Davidians, in reality the CEVs began to systematically dismantle the building as evidenced by the destruction of the gymnasium immediately prior to the fire. …."

1/96 Expert Testimony Richard Sherrow "…During the breaching operation, one of the CD/s (CEV-1) was ordered to penetrate the structure from one side to the other. CEV-1, with its bulldozer blade pushing debris in front of it, penetrated to the base of the four-story tower, making contact with the concrete storage structure at the tower's base. This structure was already in a weakened condition from a previous fire as noted above. The contact, made by such a large and powerful vehicle, probably caused a structural failure and resulted in an internal avalanche of the room contents and partial failure of the concrete ceiling. This entrapped numerous people, mostly women and children, who had taken refuge therein. …."

1/96 Expert Testimony Richard Sherrow "…At about 12:06 p.m., CEV-1 was dismantling the southeast corner tower of the exterior wall at the ground level. At 12:06:24, CEV-1 departed the southeast corner, possibly clipping the edge of the structure as it turns away. At approximately 12:07:41, a small heat signature is observed on the FLIR in the second floor window of the southeast corner tower, less than two minutes (and possibly as little as one minute, seventeen seconds) after the CEV had made violent contact with that area of the building. This heat signature is described by the Quientere report as a 100 kilowatt fire, consistent with a "wastebasket" size fire and was estimated to be one-half meter in diameter (about a foot and a half). This is consistent with a small incipient smoldering fire that has erupted to produce visible flame. Survivors of the conflagration reported that a lit Coleman lantern was located in that immediate vicinity. Coleman-type lantern becomes extremely hot in operation, reaching as much as 700 degrees Fahrenheit. This temperature is sufficient to cause ignition of combustible material even in absence of an external flame source. Moreover, if the flame of the lantern had been extinguished, the fuel would continue to be expelled from the manifold under pressure from the tank. Personal conversations with the manufacturer indicates that combustible materials should not be placed with one foot from the lateral sides of an operating lantern and no closer than four (4) feet from the top side due to heat production and risk of fire. If a lit Coleman-type lantern, which had been operating for some time, had been knocked over by CEV contact with the building or shaking of the building by vibration from the operation of the CEVs outside, the heat from the lantern chassis, the mantle flame, and the continued production of atomized fuel could cause a fire consistent with that observed on the FLIR at 12:07:41. …."

1/96 Expert Testimony Richard Sherrow "…On April 19, 1993, the day of the fire, the government was operating a United States Customs Cessna Citation jet aeroplane equipped with a Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR) video camera….. The following is the sequence of the fire as it appears on the FLIR:

12:06:24 CEV-1 leaves structure, possibly clipping southeast corner tower while turning away.

12:07:41 A small heat signature is observed in the southeast corner tower window, second floor, immediately over where CEV-1 had been operating a minute or so before.

12:08:49 A large heat signature is observed at the rear of the dining area and at the base of the tower.

12:08:56 As the FLIR aircraft circles the structure, sight is lost of the southeast tower but an explosion of hot gas is observed emanating from the southeast side. This appears to be consistent with a flashover and/or backdraft of the room of original fire origin. However, a flashover may have occurred earlier while outside the visual range of the camera.

12:09:12 A large heat signature appears in the front windows of the southeast tower. A long heat signature is observed streaming in the wind and spreading to the adjoining roof of the front of the structure.

12:09:31 A very large heat signature, consistent with fire and hot smoke, is seen breaking out around the eaves of the southeast tower.

12:09:44 A very large heat signature, consistent with hot smoke, gas or flame, is seen at the rear of the structure in the vicinity of the dining room area.

12:09:50 A small heat signature is observed in the windows of the chapel on the southeast side of the structure.

12:10:00 A small heat signature is observed in the windows along the back of the front corridor of the structure and is consistent with hot gas, smoke and possibly flame travelling down the corridor.

12:10:22 A growing heat signature is observed in the wreckage of the gym and is consistent with fire growth from the chapel.

12:11:02 A very large heat signature emanates from the southeast corner, dining area and gymnasium. Hot fire brands are seen blowing off of corner tower roof and landing in vicinity of the dining area.

12:11:05 Firebrands are seen blowing off of the southeast corner tower roof and are sucked into hole in chapel area wall by ambient external wind and internal venturi effects…."


1/96 Expert Testimony Richard Sherrow "…1. At the time of ignition, there were ambient winds in excess of 25 knots gusting to 40 knots (28.7 to 46 mph). These extremelyhigh winds are quite significant with respect to the firegrowth and spread. The angle of the wind to the structure,from southeast to northwest, is in direct line with the fire growth and propagation as would be expected…… 2. There were two large holes made in the front of the structure by the CEVs; one through the front of the double doors and one directly in the center of the building. Both of these breaching operations caused considerable structural damage to the flooring of the second story, opening that story to the one below. Moreover, high winds were able to enter through these breaches and create a venturi, or wind-tunnel effect, in the transverse corridors in the front of the building…… 3. Despite the conclusions articulated in the reports authored by Gray and Quientere stating that the wind had nothing to do with the fire growth and propagation, another arson investigator retained by the United States to investigate the Mount Carmel blaze testified at the criminal trial that: ...what I believe to be substandard construction and the fact that some of its integrity had been compromised by the tanks, the building was well ventilated. Once the fire started, there was no reason the fire... could not just burn unheeded. …..and ….I might also add that the wind was a very real contributory factor to the... spread of the fire and to its intensity. ….and …... what that would do, it would introduce a whole volume of air that may not have been available to the fire, and as the fire burns it needs that air to sustain itself. Not only would the construction or the fire load, whatever furniture may be inside the building, add to it, the holes were going to create a cross ventilation, which are also going to spread the fire in the direction of the wind…."

1/96 Expert Testimony Richard Sherrow "…After reviewing the evidence, I have reached a preliminary conclusion on the cause, origin, nature and growth of the fire. This opinion is only preliminary as much additional evidence is required before any conclusion can be reached which has a confidence level greater than possible.

1. The fire originated in the southeast corner tower from the tipping of a lit Coleman-type lantern which fell onto combustible materials, most likely bedding materials, as the room was utilized as sleeping quarters, and was most likely caused by violent contact or mechanical shock associated with the CEV removing the corner of the southeast tower directly under the point of origin. The time of origin could have been as late as 12:06:24 p.m., but could have been earlier.

2. The fire smoldered, producing toxic and combustible gases in the room. As these gases collected, the combustible materials ignited, producing visible heat and flame. This ignition Is first detected by the FLIR at 12:07:41 but may have been burning for some time prior to this.

3. A flashover of the second floor room of southeast corner tower occurs, This appears on the FLIR at 12:08:56 but appears to be already in progress. The flashover could not have been observed earlier because the FLIR operator had the southeast corner tower out of the field of view.

4. At the time of ignition, there were ambient winds in excess of 25 knots gusting to 40 knots (28.7 to 46 mph). These extremely high winds are quite significant with respect to the fire growth and spread. The angle of the wind to the structure, from southeast to northwest, is in direct line with the fire growth and propagation as would be expected.

5. There were two large holes made in the front of the structure by the CEVs; one through the front of the double doors and one directly in the center of the building. Both of these breaching operations caused considerable structural damage to the flooring of the second story, opening that story to the one below. Moreover, high winds were able to enter through these breaches and create a venturi, or wind-tunnel effect, in the transverse corridors in the front of the building. This venturi effect created a negative pressure zone in the interior and pulled air from the southeast corner of the building toward the west and north sides. The velocity of the airstream was considerable according to eyewitness survivors. Further, an additional venturi is created by the demolition of the gymnasium and breaching of the exterior wall directly behind the chapel on the southeast side of the structure.

6. Approximately ten minutes earlier, CEV-1 attempted to make a through and through penetration from the front of the structure to the rear. During this penetration, CEV-1 struck the reinforced concrete structure at the base of the center four-story tower wherein most of the women and children had taken refuge. This deep penetration severely disrupted the building structure and opened the ceiling of the dining area to the second story hallway.

7. As the fire flashes over in the southeast corner tower, the fire is pulled into the second story transverse hallway by the venturi created by the ambient winds. Hot, burning and combustible material is sucked by the wind and negative pressure into the hallway and transported rapidly throughout. Once these firebrands encounter the obstructions in the middle of the building from the CEV-1 penetration, they are ducted into the dining area by the breach in the floor.

8. At 12:08:49, approximately a little over one minute, a heat signature is observed at the rear of the dining area which appears to be fire. Most of the heat signature appears to be outside of the building at this point. The signature is unique in that comparisons with visible light video show it producing a white vapor which is consistent with burning propane. Moreover, much combustible material, petroleum distillates, paints, and lantern fuel were stored in the rear of the dining area according to witnesses.

9. In addition to the venturi ducting down the transverse front corridor, the fire grows because of the flashover from the southeast corner tower fire and spreads rapidly through the attic of the adjoining chapel. A surviving witness has stated that he heard a cry of fire coming from the second floor and went up into the chapel attic to investigate, crossing a causeway built over the rafters. The chapel attic and causeway were contiguous with the second floor front corridor and separated only by a blanket. When the witness arrived at the junction of the transverse corridor hallway and the chapel attic, he observed a "wall of fire" traveling down the corridor. The witness stated that: I'm a drummer in a rock band. The fire was blowing down the hall like a blowtorch and was the loudest sound I've ever heard. There was no way I could get into that hall and couldn't stay there because of the intense heat. The witness further advised that the time between when he heard the cry of fire and his arrival at the door to the corridor was approximately one minute, strongly indicating rapid fire propagation.

10. The fire growth in the chapel was accelerated by the presence of petroleum distillates and lantern fuels. Surviving witnesses stated that approximately one dozen cans of Coleman lantern fuel were moved from the front door area to the chapel to prevent their destruction by CEV penetration.

11. Once the chapel was fully involved, the fire then spread to the gymnasium area. The northwest side of the gymnasium had been completely destroyed by action of CEV-2. This reduced the surface to mass ratio of the fuel (building materials) such that the fire was able to secure a rapid purchase and accelerate its growth. In addition, the action of CEV-2 in this area may have crushed numerous fuel and propane containers, aiding in the rapid propagation and growth of the fire. Such fuel appears to show on the FLIR as dark spots and it is known from surviving Davidians that fuel and propane containers were there.

12. Abetted by high winds, the fire rapidly spreads, completely destroying the rest of the structure…."

1/96 Expert Testimony Richard Sherrow "…The conclusions of the Government's experts assert that the occupants of the building could have escaped the fire had they wanted to. In fact, the Gray report states that occupants had up to five (5) minutes from the ignition of the fire to exit the building. This is not consistent with the fire spread or known reactions of fire-related human behavior. As noted above, the breaching operations of the CEVs caused considerable disruption and mechanical failure to large portions of the structure; in fact, the entire southeast side of the building was knocked off its foundation by action of the CEVs. This disruption probably created multiple hazards including entrapment, crushing, and restrictions of egress and community between floors. Early breaching operations are known to have occluded access to the trap door leading to an underground shelter. Eyewitness testimony and statements establish that CEV operations destroyed or significantly damaged the two stairways leading from the upper floors, trapping those occupants to the upper levels of the structure. Moreover, doors were known to be sprung and were unable to be opened because of structural distortion. The noise generated by the high winds blowing through the building and that from the unmuffled CEV engines also would inhibit the spread of an alarm…. Many of the fire victims, mostly the women and children, died inside or in close proximity to the concrete structure at the base of the four story tower. This is the same structure which had been in the path of CEV-1 during its deep penetration. The actions of CEV-1 in making this penetration had bulldozed large amounts of material, if not against, then in front of the door, limiting egress…. The injection of CS had occurred numerous times during the day. Each injection filled at least part of the building with a dense cloud of particulate matter, limiting breathing and visibility. When flashover occurred in the southeast corner tower, the combustion products were rapidly distributed throughout the building. This initial warning was ignored by some occupants because they mistook the fire products as another CS injection, delaying their apprehension of danger and severely limiting their time for escape….."

1/96 Expert Testimony Richard Sherrow "…As with all fires, the combustible products, including carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen cyanide (all of which were found in the Branch Davidian victims who died by smoke inhalation), deprive the brain of oxygen and cause confusion, limiting a fire victim's ability to apprehend danger and to execute a plan of escape. Moreover, the toxic combustion products produced by the injection of methylene chloride into the structure, phosgene (PG) and chlorine (Cl) gas, could have rendered large numbers of people unconscious and prevented their escape from the fire. According to the Material Safety Data sheet and hazardous chemical data published for methylene chloride, the vapors can readily accumulate and can cause unconsciousness and death in confined and poorly ventilated spaces, it is an eye, skin and respiratory tract irritant. Toxic, methylene chloride is a narcotic in high concentrations and is metabolized by the body to form carbon monoxide. Moreover, methylene chloride is flammable in its vapor state, and may have contributed to the spread and rapid growth of the fire…."

1/96 Expert Testimony Richard Sherrow "…The accepted rule in fire investigation is to look for arson as the cause only after all other sources of ignition have been eliminated. It appears from an examination of the Gray and Quientere reports that they proceeded in reverse fashion: determined that the fire was arson and set out to prove it. Moreover, much valuable evidence was destroyed at the direction of agents of the United States by the subsequent and needless destruction of the fire scene by bulldozers. …… Based upon the information and evidence available to me, that published by the United States Departments of Justice and Treasury, and that submitted in the United States' Motion for Summary Judgment in the above-captioned case, it is my expert opinion as a fire and explosion investigator that no opinion could be reached by the government's investigators which has a confidence level greater than possible as explained above. The preliminary opinion expressed in this declaration is just as consistent with the evidence and as plausible a scenario as that postulated by the reports authored by experts for the United States. However, only through the examination of additional forensic evidence believed to be in the possession of the government's experts can a probable or conclusive cause and origin determination be made. …."

US District Court Texas Eric R Larson PhD "…UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS DEBORAH BROWN, et al., Civil Action No.H-95-587 Plaintiffs v. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, et al. Defendants …..DECLARATION OF ERIC R. LARSEN, Ph.D. ….. 1. My name is Eric R. Larsen. I am at present a consultant specializing in work relating to combustion properties of organic materials, fire technology, fire cause, origin and spread, and combustion modification (fire retardance) of polymers…… I retired as a Senior Scientist at Dow Chemical Co. in 1986, after thirty years with the company. I hold 47 U.S. patents on chemical processes, including one on a halogenated anesthetic now used in about 90% of eterinary anesthesias. I have authored or co authored 35 scientific publications, including articlesin the Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology on fire retardant chemicals and in Drugs Affecting the Nervous System on the mechanism of chemical narcosis. I am a member of the Editorial Advisory Board of the Journal of Fire Science……I have been asked to render an opinion on the probable effects of the CS gas injections into the Davidian residence at Mt. Carmel, outside Waco, Texas. In preparing this opinion I have consulted the study of the gassing undertaken by Failure Analysis Associates, sketches of the dimensions and internal structure of the building,the Forward Looking Infrared tape made of the fire, and MSDS (Manufacturers' Standard Data Sheets) for the chemicals involved. The two chemicals involved were o chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (commonly known as "CS"), and methylene chloride (MeCl2), in which the CS was dissolved before spraying. ….."

US District Court Texas Eric R Larson PhD "…The effects of the CS applied by the injector units can be briefly stated. Upon being sprayed, MeCl2 would rapidly evaporate, until only crystals (dust) of CS remained in the air. Depending upon the size of the original droplet the CS particles could be 1 micron or larger. Spray that wetted a wall would lead a deposit of CS that might or might not be a dust, but would slowly release and make the building uninhabitable for days or weeks: it would not be blown out by the wind. The initial spray would contain vapor concentrations of MeCl2 above its flammable limits. As it dispersed, the vapor concentration would become flammable, and as dispersion continued it would eventually fall below the flammable limits. As the MeCl2 droplets evaporated, the droplets would decrease in size and their flammability increase. The same would be true, albeit on a smaller physical scale, for the impact of each Ferret round. That is, impact would produce what may be visualized as an expanding bubble of droplets and vapor. Within that expanding bubble there would be, for a certain tima core where the MeCl2 concentration is too high to ignite, an outer edge where it was too low to ignite, and an intermediate zone where the concentration was right for ignition. If the ignitable portion contacted a flame source such as a candle or a lantern, fire would result…."

US District Court Texas Eric R Larson PhD "…The narcotic effects of MeCl2 would follow a similar patterns. Anyone caught in the spray itself would experience tachycardia and possibly cardiac arrest. MeCl2 is known to sensitize the heart, particularly if the person is already under stress or fearful. In the case of most inhalation general anesthetics this effect is most pronounced if the person experiences a rapid change in the air concentration--partial pressure of the compound--of the agent. As the cloud expanded within the building anyone exposed would experience difficulty in breathing due to the CS. The MeCl2, being a potent anesthetic agent, would tend to alleviate the pain as narcosis set in and the brain began to shut down…."

US District Court Texas Eric R Larson PhD "…In lay terms, MeCl2 is a very potent, fast-acting inhalation general anesthesia agent--nearly on a par with Halothane, the most potent agent currently used in surgical anesthesia. When MeCl2 is inhaled, it moves from the lungs through the blood to the brain, where it interferes with the electrical activity of the cognitive function of the brain. Of the material inhaled, about one-third is transferred to the brain, where it partitions into the lipid portion of the nerve cells and essentially shuts them down. The remainder partitions into other lipid repositories of the body. As the lipid reservoirs are filled, it will be necessary to reduce partial pressure (concentration) of the gas or the degree of anesthesia will continue to increase until death results. Anesthetic effects of MeCl2 on humans can be predicted from animal studies of Halothane. Studies of effects on dogs have been used for years to predict effects on humans, since anesthesia effects on the two species are similar. In the dog it has been shown that a concentration of 0.46% (volume) in inhaled air will eliminate spontaneous movement, 0.69% will produce nonreaction to an incision, and 0.81 will produce nonreaction to a tail clamp. Effects will vary from animal to animal. In any event, concentrations of MeCl2 only half those which Failure Analysis calculated were created by the injections into the Davidian residence would have rendered unprotected individuals unable to escape a fire….."

US District Court Texas Eric R Larson PhD "…I have attempted to determine the situation in the "vault" or "bunker," a concrete room where the deceased children and many of the deceased women were found. The injection of a single Model 5 bottle into this room would cause the occupants to become comatose and unable to escape. Two bottles could have raised concentrations to lethal levels. Four bottles (the load carried by some of the injecting vehicles) would have produced full anesthesia within 10-20 seconds and death unless there was some way to quickly remove the unconscious victims from exposure. If the MeCl2 dissipated between injections, the occupants would tend to recover between the injections: they would be cognizant of what was going on around them, but only in the sense that a "falling-down" drunk is cognizant. It is doubtful that they would be able to plan an escape. Those surviving each injection would have gone through cycles of pain from the CS, anesthesia from the MeCl2, and awakening to renewed pain from the CS. The exposure of a room of children to these cycles can aptly be described as torture….."

US District Court Texas Eric R Larson PhD "…Both the CS and the MeCl2 vapor would be flammable under the conditions of the injection. The CS dust would pose the risk of a flash fire; a dust explosion would be possible but I do not think likely. I do note that the lower explosive limit of CS dust is 25 parts per million, and the government's own experts, testifying during hearings in the House, indicated that concentrations up to 110 ppm were achieved by the injections. A thin layer of CS dust, or concentrated MeCl2 vapor, laying near the floor would suffice if the lower flammability limit is exceeded: this is what happens when flame follows a trail of gasoline vapor. As the flame moves it will create a draft and as air and additional fuel are sucked into the flame the fire ball may grow. I would expect such a fire to follow the hallways in the same way that fire will follow as gasoline vapor trail. Considering the direction of the wind and the fact that the fire behavior suggests most of the internal doors were closed, I would expect such a flash fire to move from the north end of the building down the hallways toward the kitchen and chapel. I note that some of the survivors have stated they witnessed a fireball flashing down the hallways. This is consistent with my analysis…."

US District Court Texas Eric R Larson PhD "…I have personal experience with flash fires--having been twice caught in them--and would not expect the flash fire itself to cause serious burns to persons whom it passed by. However, if the flash fire met materials which would act like tinder--hay, paper, spilled fuel--it would likely set these afire. If there were multiple sources of this tinder, such a flash fire would act as a quick fuse to start fires at various places in relatively short order……. During combustion, both chemicals involved produce toxic smoke. CS generates hydrogen cyanide, while MeCl2 generates hydrogen chloride and chlorine. Both give copious amounts of carbon monoxide. …."

US District Court Texas Eric R Larson PhD "…To determine the exact effects of CS and MeCl2 on individuals and on the fire will require obtaining detailed information presently kept by the government. Dr. Uhlig, and Failure Analysis, estimate injection of about 7 gallons of MeCl2 and 2 pounds of CS. Figures given by the government's experts at the House hearings would extrapolate out to about twice these figures. Dr. Uhlig mentions other estimates which would put the figures much higher, up to 90 gallons. In my opinion, even if the lowest figures are used, many of the deaths of occupants, particularly of the children, were caused directly or indirectly by the effects of MeCl2 injected….."

US District Court Texas Eric R Larson PhD "…During the House hearings, a government witness testified that the Attorney General had been briefed on the case of a toddler who was exposed to CS and recovered without permanent harm. The case appears to be that reported in Park & Giammona, "Toxic Effects of Tear Gas on an Infant Following Prolonged Exposure," American Journ. of Diseases of the Child, vol. 123 p. 245 (March, 1972). The article, interpreted as showing recovery without harm, in fact suggests that two hours' exposure to CS placed the child in torment and in risk of death. The child was immediately treated, but required suctioning to relieve airway obstruction, experienced chemical burns to the skin, ultimately went into severe respiratory distress and had to be placed on a respirator. Those who advised on the gassing thus had actual knowledge of severe risks to children….."

US District Court Texas Eric R Larson PhD "…The manufacturers of these materials warn of risks of toxicity and fire in their MSDSs. Considering the number of "red flags" raised by even a casual reading of the manufacturer's literature, and the effort which went into planning, I find it improbable that those using CS and MeCl2 in the quantities used at Mt. Carmel did not have actual knowledge that their plan would result in deaths of persons inside. I declare under penalty of perjury that the above is true and correct…."

Wall Street Journal 8/2/95 James Bovard "….Within 36 hours after the Feb. 28, 1993, initial assault on the Branch Davidian compound, the federal government abandoned routine law enforcement to avoid gathering evidence that might embarrass the government. A Sept. 17, 1993, Treasury Department confidential memo to Assistant Treasury Secretary Ronald Noble stated that on March 1, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms initiated a shooting review and "immediately determined that these stories [of agents involved] did not add up." Justice Department attorney Bill Johnston "at this point advised [ATF supervisor Dan] Hartnett to stop the ATF shooting review because ATF was creating" exculpatory material that might undermine the government prosecution of the Davidians. …."

Wall Street Journal 8/2/95 James Bovard "….The coverup continued on April 14, 1993. That day, the Treasury Department assistant general counsel, Robert McNamara, sent a memo to several top-ranking Treasury officials stating that the Justice Department "does not want Treasury to conduct any interviews or have discussions with any of the participants who may be potential witnesses" because of fear of creating exculpatory material. The memo noted, "While we may be able to wait for some of [the witnesses] to have testified in the criminal trial, the passage of time will dim memories." The Justice Department also warned the Treasury Department not to contact outside experts to analyze the original raid: "DOJ does not want us to generate gratuitous `expert witness' materials; the prosecutors are concerned that these people won't have all the facts upon which to base a thoughtful opinion and could play into defense hands." …."

Wall Street Journal 8/2/95 James Bovard "….Congressional Democrats, who spent the first days of the hearings denouncing David Koresh for child abuse, strove mightily to claim that the CS gas the FBI used on the 21 children and 60-plus adults at Waco was as innocuous as a Flintstone vitamin. But Bill Marcus, a senior science advisor at the Environmental Protection Agency, pointed out that the CS would effect children between eight and 20 times as harshly as it affected adults. Mr. Marcus observed: "The FBI failed to read and follow the label directions" on the CS gas and the methylene chloride that agents mixed it with. Regarding the methylene chloride that the FBI inserted into the compound, former ATF fire expert Rick Sherrow testified, "The Dow Chemical Corporation Materials Safety Data Sheet specifically states that this chemical forms flammable vapor air mixtures [and] `[i]n confined or poorly ventilated areas, vapors can readily accumulate and cause unconsciousness and death.'" Rep. John Mica (R., Fla.) observed that even if the children didn't die directly from the CS gas, "we sure as hell tortured them for six hours before they died."

Wall Street Journal 8/2/95 James Bovard "….The briefing book the FBI gave Attorney General Reno on April 12, 1993, contained false information on the effects of the CS gas. The document stated, "Experience with the effects of CS on children including infants has been extensively investigated. Available reports indicate that, even in high concentrations or enclosed areas, long term complications from CS exposures is extremely rare." However, Defense Department toxicologist Harry Shaw testified that only two studies were available on the effects on children. One study showed that an infant exposed to CS for a few hours had to be hospitalized for 28 days; the FBI intended to gas the children in the Waco compound for 48 hours.

Wall Street Journal 8/2/95 James Bovard "….Rep. John Shadegg (R., Ariz.) made a painfully short presentation on July 28 showing the massive portions of the Davidian compound destroyed by FBI tanks before the fire began. Under vigorous questioning, the FBI's Floyd Clarke admitted, "The destruction of the building was part of the ultimate plan which was included" in the briefing book given to Attorney General Reno on April 12. Yet, though FBI officials admitted that they were far along in the process of destroying the building before the fire started, the official FBI statement to the hearing still bragged, "The FBI agents demonstrated remarkable restraint and did not fire a single shot during the entire standoff." And, while Mr. Clarke stated that the assault was intended to destroy the compound, former FBI commander Jamar insisted: "The intent was to hopefully get their attention to where they would engage in serious negotiations." Destroying their home was an excellent means of getting the Davidians' attention but was not the kind of good-faith gesture that could have advanced negotiations. …"

Wall Street Journal 8/2/95 James Bovard "….The highlight of Attorney General Reno's testimony yesterday was her assertion that the 54-ton tank that smashed through the Davidian compound should not be considered a military vehicle -- instead it was just "like a good rent-a-car." Such an observation does not inspire confidence in the Justice Department's moderation in its future operation…."

Waco Leader 7/21/95 Hugh Davies "….A FOURTEEN-YEAR OLD girl has helped to demolish the myth that the dead Branch Davidian cult leader David Koresh was a martyr destroyed by a ruthless FBI operation at Waco, Texas, in April 1995. In evidence to Congress, which is investigating the episode, Kiri Jewel described how the self-proclaimed messiah used the sect as a cover for rape….. The teenager said she was five when her mother, who also died in the fire, took her to join Koresh's sect. He was obsessed with the biblical Apocalypse and sex. "David was planning to lead the group to Israel to re-take Jerusalem. He taught that there would be a big battle between the forces of the world and his people." However, this was a cover for abuse. Koresh used a wooden stik to hit the children. "It was called Kelper." Kiri said that she slept with Koresh and her mother in one bed. She recalled a childhood friend who, at the age of 14, "has a baby for David". There was an uneasy silence in the congressional chamber as Kiri began to talk of her first sexual encounter with the cult leader at a motel in Waco when she was 10. ….."

United States District Court—Houston 1/96 Richard Sherrow Expert Testimony "…."I have made a preliminary investigation into the cause, origin, nature and growth of the fire which consumed the Mount Carmel Center near Waco, Texas, on April 19, 1993, and where members of the Branch Davidian religion perished as a result of said fire. This preliminary investigation was based upon the Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR) video, still photographs extracted from the FLIR, still photographs taken from the air and from the ground during the fire, broadcast news video, videography taken by a private investigator while the government was in control of the Mount Carmel Center, signed statements and interviews of Branch Davidians who survived the fire, official reports and case notes of federal and state law enforcement agents, the reports of the United States' fire investigators (namely Paul Gray and James Quiontere) and from my own personal inspection of the fire site. Based upon this preliminary investigation, I am able to conclude, within my professional opinion, that it is consistent with this evidence that the fire originated from a single point and spread throughout the Mount Carmel structure. It is also consistent with evidence that the original fire was started by a M728 CEV striking the southeast corner tower of Mount Carmel. These conclusions are as consistent with the evidence as the conclusions reached in the Gray and Quientere reports and they are in direct contravention to conclusions reached in the Gray and Quientere reports." …."

EmergencyNet News Service 2/28/93 Updated 3/3/96 "….A bloody assault has been carried out by agents of the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (BATF) at the Mount Carmel compound of a little known religious sect called "Branch Davidian", ten miles East of here. The original raid to serve warrants occurred early on Sunday morning (Feb. 28th) and was supposed to have been a "complete surprise"; unfortunately it wasn't a surprise and four BATF agents were killed and sixteen wounded by forty- five minutes of withering automatic gunfire from inside the compound. BATF agents killed were Conway LeBleu-age 30, of Hammond LA, Todd Mckeehan-age 28, of Mandelville, LA, Robert Williams-age 26, of Little Rock, AK, and Steven Wills-age 32, of Houston, TX. Of the sixteen (16) other agents that were injured, most were said to have been shot by automatic weapons fire . . . including that from a .50 caliber machinegun. According to BATF agent and spokesperson Sharon Wheeler, "The problem was that we were outgunned . . . and we couldn't fire randomly into the building because of women and children known to be in there." …"

EmergencyNet News Service 2/28/93 Updated 3/3/96 "….The stand-off between the off-shoot Seventh Day Adventist fundamentalists and more than 250 federal officers have gone on for more than 96 hours. During the course of the siege, Cult leader David Koresh (legal name - Vernon Howell) has offered a number of "biblical tirades" on radio and television stations, before he was isolated from the media by federal law enforcement officials. At one point Koresh offered to surrender himself and all of the estimated seventy-five (75) other "Davidian" followers if he were allowed make a religious speech on a Dallas radio station. But, after making the speech, Koresh did not surrender. During the past several days, however, Koresh has released a total of twenty (20) children, women, and elderly adults…."

EmergencyNet News Service 2/28/93 Updated 3/3/96 "….Monday (Mar. 1st), the Federal Bureau of Investigation sent it's elite Hostage Rescue Team from Washington, DC, where it had been participating in the Investigation of the World Trade Center bombing. Because of the nature of the crimes associated with murdering a federal agent on Sunday, the FBI is said to have assumed over-all control of the investigation and negotiations at the compound….. BATF and FBI sources have said that they intend to "wait out" Koresh and his followers, and that they don't anticipate a further assault on the compound unless circumstances change dramatically. One agent, who asked to remain anonymous, said that most of the negotiators were hopeful of being able to "manipulate" Koresh into surrendering, but that his irrational behavior and references to "waiting for instructions from God" are troublesome to some agents. He said that there is some fear that Koresh may commit mass murder or cause mass suicide if he is not totally convinced that the negotiations are being satisfactorily conducted... "

Newsweek 4/5/93 Barbara Kantrowitz Peter Annin Ginny Carroll Bob Cohn "…In the bungled Waco raid, federal agents may have been shot by their own men. The first shots were fired shortly after 9:30 on that bloody Sunday morning in Waco more than a month ago. An hour later, four agents from the federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms lay dead or dying. Sixteen others were injured. As the standoff between the law and the Branch Davidians continued last week, NEWSWEEK learned that some federal law-enforcement officials now believe that at least some ATF agents were brought down by friendly fire. The official, who insisted on anonymity, believes that an investigation will show that agents were downed by colleagues: "I'm afraid it's inevitable." Although there will be no conclusive findings until the siege ends, a federal source involved in the Waco situation says that "there is evidence that supports the theory of friendly fire." During the assault, "there was a huge amount of cross-fire," he says. The official, who insisted on anonymity, believes that an investigation will show that agents were downed by colleagues: "I'm afraid it's inevitable." ….."

Newsweek 4/5/93 Barbara Kantrowitz Peter Annin Ginny Carroll Bob Cohn "…* In phone interviews with NEWSWEEK, jailed cult members who left the compound complained that the Branch Davidians have been unfairly demonized and that the ATF shot first….."

Newsweek 4/5/93 Barbara Kantrowitz Peter Annin Ginny Carroll Bob Cohn "…. But according to numerous sources interviewed by NEWSWEEK, the cult members probably learned about the raid by chance. As these sources tell it, the cult's suspicions may have been aroused by an apparently innocuous conversation between a journalist and a mailman named David Jones -- who also happened to be a longtime Davidian. On edge: Jones is the brother of Rachel Jones Koresh, David Koresh's legal wife. On the morning of the raid, Jones was driving in his mail car. As he returned to the compound, he noticed a parked white vehicle and asked the person inside if he was lost. Jones somehow suspected that the driver was a journalist. Sources say the journalist did not specifically tell Jones about the raid, but the conversation raised Jones's suspicions. Jones drove into the compound and told fellow cult members about the journalist, sources say…."

Newsweek 4/5/93 Barbara Kantrowitz Peter Annin Ginny Carroll Bob Cohn "…Some cult members didn't trust Gonzalez because he had money and drove a nice car -- even though he claimed to be a college student. They came up with a plan to get Koresh away from Gonzalez without alerting the agent. One cult member telephoned a relative and asked the relative to call Koresh. When Koresh left Gonzalez to take the call, followers told him about the journalist. According to a telephone interview with Brad Branch, a Koresh follower who left the compound and is now in custody, Gonzalez went away shortly after the phone call, saying he was going to his home across the street to get breakfast. But he stayed in his house for only a few minutes -- not long enough to eat -- and that fueled the cult members' suspicions. Soon afterward, Branch says, he saw two trucks come speeding down the compound's driveway. Branch claims ATF agents in the trucks began firing almost immediately -- a charge categorically denied by the ATF….."

Newsweek 4/5/93 Barbara Kantrowitz Peter Annin Ginny Carroll Bob Cohn "…'We lived it:' Riddle says the Davidians resent being called a cult. "If we're a cult," she [Riddle] says, "then all these churches are cults . . . If I've been brainwashed, then anybody who practices the Bible's teachings is brainwashed. The difference is that we live the Bible. Other people go to church on Saturday or Sunday and the rest of the week do their own thing. We lived it." …… " "…..

Recorded Flash Signatures Are Not Sun Reflections From Broken Glass Because:

The FLIR aircraft was consistently out of position in azimuth to record sun reflections when flashes occurred.

The FLIR aircraft was also out of position in altitude to record sun reflections when flashes occurred.

If flashes are sun reflections from glass, the glass had to come from somewhere. Mt. Carmel window glass size doesn't match flash size; the window glass is far too small and has the wrong aspect ratio (i.e. shape). Further, there are many more flashes than proximate Mt. Carmel windows. The above observations apply to unbroken glass; since the window glass was probably shattered, the FBI's flash explanation is even less likely.

For multiple flashes, the glass layout implied by the FBI's flash explanation is at best implausible. A better descriptor is "absurd."

The FLIR tape includes multiple flashes from single Mt. Carmel locations. Physics shows that multiple sun reflections from glass on flat ground can't come from single locations. Because of the sun's collimated light, it's impossible.

The observed flash repetition rate implies the small, high wing, fixed landing-gear FLIR aircraft must fly at Mach-1.8 to duplicate the videotaped flashes. It would disintegrate.

Recorded Flash Signatures Are Not Sun Reflections From Blowing Debris Because:

Sun reflections from blowing debris can't generate the observed flash size, shape, repetition rate, orientation, and location stability.



6/22/93 Freeper d14truth "...Paul Wilcher, an attorney investigating gun running out of Mena, Arkansas was found dead on a toilet in his apartment. No cause of death was reported by the coroner. At the time of his death, he was investigating connections between the "October surprise" of 1980, drug smuggling,and gunrunning out of Mena, Arkansas. He also researched the BATF assault on the Waco, Texas Branch Davidians. He was planning on producing a television documentary on his findings. He had delivered a 105-page affidavit to Janet Reno detailing the evidence he had collected regarding the drug operation at Mena, just three weeks before his death...."

From: ``Investigation into the Activities of Federal Law Enforcement Agencies Toward the Branch Davidians,'' House Report No. 104-749, 8/2/96 "....The involvement of the White House occurred in several ways. According to White House Chief of Staff Mack McLarty, two parallel lines of communication existed_one from Acting Assistant Attorney General Stuart Gerson to McLarty, and the other from Gerson to White House Counsel Bernard Nussbaum. Senior advisor Bruce Lindsey also kept informed on developments in Waco.(598) \598\ Justice Department Report at 242......"


Trial transcripts 9/16/99 "…..The question of whether the approaching ATF agents fired on the Davidians' dogs has arisen from time to time--largely in the context of whether these shots might have been the first shots of the gunfight. That the dogs were shot is indisputable: during the criminal trial several agents testified to shooting them:
Trial transcript at 2317 (ATF Agent Petrilli)
A. I began to fire when I was somewhere in this area (indicating) in front of these cars. There was a dog there that was attempting to jump over the fence and I had seen there were other agents moving up in that direction, so I fired at the dog....

Trial transcript at 2459, 2510 (ATF Agent Gabourie):
A. I fired one round at a dog that was coming over the fence, if I can, approximately right there (indicating).
Q. What type of dog was it?
A. To me, it was a mix between a German Shepherd and a huskie.
Q. And there was a female agent who fired, also?
A. Yes, sir.
Q. Do you recall whether or not she shot at the same dog you fired at?
A. Yes, sir, she did.

Trial transcript at 4584, 4601 (Davidian Kathryn Schroeder, as government witness)
Q. Immediately after the shots--the first shots were fired, you heard the dogs yelping in pain, correct?
A. It was after the beginning fire-fight. I don't know that it was the first shots.
Q. Okay. But very quickly into the fire-fight?
A. Yes.
Q. .... How many dogs did the ATF shoot out there that day?
A. There were five, the mother and four pups.
Q. Okay. And they were--were they all shot?
A. Yes….." 6/15/93 Freeper HAL9000 "….Today's featured document at The Smoking Gun: Answering charges that the Justice Department covered up the FBI's use of pyrotechnic devices at Waco, Rep. Henry Waxman (D-Ca.) has released records showing that, in 1995, Justice officials gave Congress "substantial evidence of the use of military tear gas rounds" at the Branch Davidian compound. Included in documents Waxman forwarded yesterday (September 13) to John Danforth, the special counsel investigating Waco, was this 1993 FBI interview report with a bureau pilot. R. Wayne Smith told fellow agents of hearing a radio transmission during which agents spoke "relative to the utilization of some sort of military round...on a concrete bunker." (5 pages) …."

Waco Holocaust Electronic Museum Carol Valentine 9/17/99"… Cavanaugh is heard on tape trying to get David Koresh, and Davidian Steve Schneider, to admit that no one fired on them from the helicopters. Koresh exploded in anger when Schneider relayed the message. Taking over the telephone from Schneider, Koresh denounces Cavanaugh as a liar, and demands that he "get real." Before the meandering conversation is over, Cavanaugh and Koresh wind up agreeing that someone with a rifle may have fired from the helicopters, but not from a gun MOUNTED on the helicopter…."

Waco Holocaust Electronic Museum Carol Valentine 9/17/99 "….A key piece of evidence that someone did fire from one of the helicopters is in the autopsy report on Davidian Jaydean Wendel. Ms. Wendel was shot to death on the first day, during the initial phase of the BATF attack. The bullet struck the top of her skull toward the right side, tracked downward and to the left where it was found lodged in the lower left of the cranial vault. The bullet was a 9 millimeter hydra-shock round, a cartridge which is standard federal law enforcement issue. The BATF commandos were carrying mostly 9 MM MP-5 machine pistols and 9 MM Glock sidearms……So, here we have ballistics evidence that a round that struck a victim on top of her head, tracking downward through her skull, and the type of cartridge that killed her was a cartridge used by federal law enforcement. As the autopsy report stated in receipt of the spent bullet as evidence: "One sealed manila envelope labelled 'firearms evidence' and containing one 9MM calibre copper jacketed bullet, with 6 lands and grooves and a right twist. The bullet weighs 138.2 grains and is consistent with Federal "Hydra-Shok" brand ammunition."….. We also have the blatantly erroneous description of Jaydean Wendel's fatal wound in the JUSTICE DEPARTMENT'S report on Waco. Justice claimed Ms. Wendel died of a bullet wound to "the chest," when the autopsy report clearly stated, and the drawings clearing exhibited, that the fatal wound struck the top of her skull…."

Waco Holocaust Electronic Museum Carol Valentine 9/17/99 "….Steve Schneider's attorney, Jack Zimmerman, a Marine Corps veteran of Vietnam, noticed holes in the ceiling of Mount Carmel's upper floor. The bullet holes had signs of what forensics experts call "inward beveling:" The splintering of the wood all faced down and in from the holes, indicated shots from outside and above. Two Davidian survivors testified as follows: Davidian survivor Catherine Mattson said: "I heard three helicopters. The reason I knew they were three was I looked out the window and I could see they were firing on us . . . And they turned, and when they turned I fell to the floor, because I could see that those bullets could hit me if I was standing. They went to the front of the building. And it seemed like by the time they got to the front, they were firing again." (Shown in Day 51, a video available from the Mt. Carmel Survivors Fund.) Davidian survivor Annetta Richards: " I was actually getting ready for worship. I heard a noise like a helicopter, and then I heard bullets start firing; bullets start coming in from every direction. And the helicopter were flying low over the building. The sound of it was so low that at that time I thought they had landed on the roof. Bullets were coming in from all directions." (Day 51)….When some of the Davidian children left Mount Carmel shortly after the BATF dynamic entry raid, one of them drew a picture of the building. There were black dots covering the roof. A psychiatrist asked what the dots represented. "Bullets," came the reply. This drawing and the child's remarks were published in NEWSWEEK…."

Waco Museum "…But let's turn to Sgt. Raymond Coffman, the Texas Ranger in charge of the crime scene in the concrete room, to find out what happened instead (full text of Sgt. Coffman's testimony). …..Sgt. Coffman testified that the concrete room was filled with three to four feet of exploded ordnance--not concrete debris from a non-existent structural "collapse." He describes the interior: Sgt. Coffman: "Initially, the problem we had with the interior of it, there was probably three to four feet of exploded ordnance, weapons laying around and that sort of thing, so we had to literally use shovels to shovel through the door to get -- to make a way in there, where we could start uncovering other items. The problem there was, every time you'd pick up a shovel, it was sort of like sand, more would fall into place, so it took quite some time before we could get to the first weapons." (Transcript, pg. 902) Sgt. Coffman said it was impossible to count the expended shells by hand. A five-gallon scoop was used to gather the shells, and the shells then counted. Three such scoopfulls of spent shells were so gathered and counted, and an average number arrived at for the three scoops. The Rangers then kept track of how many five-gallon scoops it took to empty the concrete room of shells. By this method, the Texas Rangers estimated that there were 400,000 spent cartridges in the concrete room. (Transcript, pg. 905) Sgt. Coffman: "After we started digging down through some of the cooked-off rounds, we started coming upon these wooden crates that were lined up. As you can see, they are just -- we had to pry that up with a shovel, and these are full. Like this particular boxes here (indicating) is some of the rounds I talked about that are still in their original containers. Those are 20-round boxes there . . . Those were still live." (Transcript, pg. 922) Trial testimony reveals that live ammunition was found in the room, including .22 caliber, 9-milimeter, .45, .223. 7.62, and .50 ammunition (several thousand rounds in original containers) (Transcript, pg. 905); and 133 weapons, including 69 AR-15 types, 12 pistols, 11 shotguns, one M-1, two M-4s, one grenade launcher, two .30 caliber carbines and one .30-caliber 30-30 carbine (Transcript, pg. 907)…. But the diagram of the first floor of the Mt. Carmel Center made by AFT informant David Block, the Dumb Diagram published in the Treasury Report, on page 47-- clearly labels the concrete room as a pantry area. The words "dry food" "ref." and "food storage" are clearly marked on the diagram (Dumb Diagram of Mt. Carmel: First Floor)…..There was no arsenal in the pantry/concrete room before the raid of February 28. Indeed, there was no mention of the room and its usage during the siege. But right after the fire and the possession of the property by the US troops on April 19, the room underwent a transformation. It was instantaneously a "bunker " and an arsenal--and a mausoleum…..The concrete room measured nineteen by twenty feet; the walk-in refrigerator, which measured eight feet by four feet, contained only water (Transcript, pg. 957); therefore, the space in which the 400,000 spent shells, the wooden boxes of unused ammunition, and the various 133 guns/grenades/rocket launchers were situated measured twelve by fifteen feet. Yet we are asked to believe that 33 or 43 people (see below) crowded into this space to seek protection from the C/S gas attack. (Transcript, pg. 902 and 903.) ……Defense attorney Tinker asked if there was a lot of debris mixed in with spent cartridges. In response: Sgt. Coffman: A little bit. I wouldn't call it "a lot." Mr. Tinker: Well, as you went about -- as you went about, would you say that 25 percent of it was rubbish? Sgt. Coffman: Oh, no, sir, I wouldn't say near that amount was rubbish. (Transcript, pg. 939.) Forty-three Bodies, Not Thirty-Three Bodies Sgt. Coffman said he supervised the removal of 43 bodies--not 33 bodies--and that those bodies were buried or partially buried in spent cartridges (Transcript, pgs. 953, 948, and 958). Asked if the 43 bodies were buried underneath the burned-out cartridges, Sgt. Coffman said that the majority of them were so buried. "There was five or six that were partially uncovered that you -- well you really wouldn't --unless you knew what you were looking for, you wouldn't know it was a body. Having done this before, I knew what they were . . . " (Transcript, pg. 955). …."


FRONTLINE DOCUMENTARY 8/95 "…Excerpts from FRONTLINE interview with Dr. Nizam Peerwani, Chief Medical Examiner for the Tarrant County Medical Examiner's District, in Northcentral Texas……

Q: In your analysis of cause of death, what did you find?
A: We had a total of 33 bodies from within the bunker. There were 25 children, and the remaining were adults, mostly women, I remember there was one or two adults -- young adults, males, there. Most of them had died as a result of smoke inhalation or suffocation. And a couple of them had died as a result of blunt trauma due to collapsing debris. There was this young Jane Doe who had a fractured neck, a cervical fracture. She probably died quickly as a result of that. But there were at least three kids who had been shot to death. And one was stabbed to death. The remaining, of course, died of suffocation or smoke inhalation.

Q: Were you able to determine how many, if any of them, died prior to the fire?
A: We did discover the presence of carbon monoxide as well as evidence of inhalation in at least 50 of the victims throughout the compound. Now, remember there were some 75 bodies left in the compound, that died as a result of the 19th of April disaster. Of these, there were 50 we could document presence of carbon monoxide as well as some evidence of smoke inhalation. So we're pretty sure they were alive when the fire broke out.
The remaining 25, because of state of decomposition, or perhaps because they were wearing face masks or perhaps because of the location in the bunker, we did not detect or see any smoke or any carbon monoxide present. We couldn't say with absolute certainty that all of them had perished -- perished as a result of fire. But you can say that some had died of suffocation, at least nine. There was one particular case that we didn't know why the person died. We left the cause as undetermined.

Q: Can you describe what must have happened to the women and children that you found there? Can you reconstruct their last moments from what you found there?
A: There has been a lot of speculation if this is a mass suicide or not. And -- Did they all go there to die? Ah, we don't really think do. What I feel personally is that they tried to escape. A bunker was perhaps the safest area in the compound.

Q: There were a number of adult males that you determined died of gunshot wounds. Could you describe those bodies, where they were found and the cause of death?
A: David Koresh and Schneider were lying next to each other in their little room, which we call the communication room. And David Koresh had a single gunshot wound up his forehead. A high velocity gunshot. When the bullet entered his forehead and exited at the back of the head. Schneider was shot once in the mouth -- the bullet entered the upper palate and also had -- exited in the back -- also had a high velocity gunshot wound. The question is: Did David Koresh shoot himself and Schneider shoot himself? Or did Schneider shoot David Koresh and then turn around and shoot himself? Certainly both are possible. We cannot be certain as to what really transpired.

Q: Can you talk about the possible residue from the gas attacks? Was there any that you found in these victims?
A: No. We looked for the gas there. The gas that was used was CS gas--it's really a tear gas. It's generally used for crowd dispersal. We looked for the parent compound in all the victims that we had tissues and blood to examine. We also looked for the metabolite of the drug. Specifically, the o-chlorobenzaldehyde and malononitrile, which had two byproducts of the CS gas. And we didn't detect any in any of the cases.
There's no doubt there was exposure. But we also know that the CS gas has an extremely short confine, five to ten minutes. It is rapidly eliminated from the body. There were some bodies where we had no specimens to analyze.

Q: Was there any residue from the propellant used in the launching of the ferret rounds--any sort of combination of chemicals or residue?
A: No. We did a rather comprehensive drug analysis and separate cyanate studies. Cyanate, of course, is a toxic gas but usually as a result of fire also. We did pick up a small amount of cyanide in the bodies of some of the victims. In fact 40 of them had cyanide. But every living person has cyanide. Some of them had slightly higher amount of cyanide. Fire of course produces a lot of cyanide. Especially if there are plastics. And we did what is called a mass spectrometry screening for anything and everything that's possible within a certain range of spectrum. And we picked up nothing extraneous. So I can tell you that we didn't detect any propellants or any of the CS gas in the bodies.

Q: You did pick up cyanide though on 40 victims?
A: Yes.

Q: And there's no way to tell if in fact the cyanide that was produced in the process of gassing had any role in the deaths of the victims?
A: Let's put it this way. We did not attribute CS gas as a cause of death in any of those cases…."


Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….Waco: The Rules of Engagement humanizes David Koresh and his Branch Davidian followers, and provides a scathing and, if true, damning indictment of the FBI and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF). It premiered at the 1997 Sundance Film Festival to very positive reviews. Critics in San Francisco and Boston, where it played at independent theaters to small audiences, agreed that the film raised serious questions and was worth seeing. Still, Gazecki found commercial distributors and everyone else in Hollywood singularly uninterested and unhelpful….. Gazecki was so deeply and egocentrically involved in his project he had quite lost touch with the American public's response to Waco. He seemed not to realize that in the jungle of Waco the liberal establishment was his natural enemy….."

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….

Though CS is supposed to be used outdoors to disperse mobs, the FBI's plan was to keep injecting it until the Branch Davidians were driven out of their compound. Instead, the 51-day stand-off at Waco ended in a fireball. News cameras were kept at a sanitized distance and observers could barely see any sign of human life. More than twenty young children, most too young to be protected by gas masks, were subjected to six hours of CS gas and died in the fire. But neither their innocent faces nor their ghastly corpses were ever viewed by the American public who, as the news media discovered, rapidly lost interest in the tragedy and showed little sympathy for the unseen victims. As standard "journalistic" practice, television stations now poll their viewers to give them the kind of news they want. Within weeks, Waco had dropped to the bottom of those polls, even in Texas. The American public had seen and heard enough, and their verdict was the "Waco Wackos" had brought it on themselves…..The public's lack of interest came as a great relief to the Clinton administration. Though the ATF plan to raid the Davidian compound was put together during the Bush administration, the go-ahead was given by Clinton's new appointees. …."

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….In the congressional hearings held immediately after the disaster, Michigan Democrat John Conyers blasted Reno for her role in the tragedy. Conyers was vociferous about the many children who lost their lives. Only days into her job, Reno looked the Congressman straight in the eye and, choking with emotion, promised she would remember the children every day of her life. She took full responsibility but acknowledged no mistakes. Perhaps because government officials so rarely have the courage to take responsibility for any negative result, Reno became the most recognizable and well-liked member of the Clinton cabinet. Indeed, every time the Attorney General has since been challenged about Waco, her stock with the American people has gone up and their conviction that the Branch Davidians brought it on themselves has been reinforced. Surely Janet Reno is not the person to blame for the decisions made at Waco: indeed, her first impulse was to say no to the plan. The lead official at Justice who was most involved in Waco decision-making was then-Associate Attorney General Webster Hubbell. He talked directly to the agents on the ground at Waco, and became convinced that the gas plan was necessary. FBI agent Larry Potts, who played a central role in the FBI's stand-off with Randy Weaver at Ruby Ridge, had a similar function in Waco. Janet Reno may have been in charge, but these men were calling the shots in the Washington command room. Still, if even a fraction of this documentary's claims are true, Reno helped circle the wagons and bury the truth after the fact……

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….

Reno had ordered the Justice Department to investigate itself and the FBI. The supposedly independent investigator, Edward Dennis, an assistant attorney general during the Reagan administration, based his report on that less than searching self-examination. The result was a total whitewash: Dennis proclaimed the operation a success even though all the patients died. He determined that the Branch Davidians had started the fire themselves in a mass suicide and that the FBI had never fired a single shot into the compound…..….Only by comparison was there a more aggressive investigation of the ATF, which had planned the original, military-style "dynamic entry" into the compound. The ATF's independent investigators, unlike the Justice Department's, laid out the evidence so that a fair-minded person could reach an independent judgment. But the report is written as if to protect the agency. The authors demonize the Branch Davidians and give the agents the benefit of every doubt. Most troubling to me was the report's uninformed and unwarranted portrayal of the Branch Davidians as cold-blooded killers: "On February 28, Koresh and his followers knew ATF agents were coming and decided to kill them"; they "prepare[d] a deadly ambush." Despite these distortions, the report singled out for sanctions the two agents who were in charge of the dynamic entry, and they were forced out of the ATF. The Branch Davidians insisted throughout the stand-off that these men should go to prison and the report certainly did not exonerate them. Still, they were able to appeal the sanctions, and were later restored to their previous standing…..The authorities bulldozed the ruins of the Waco compound and quite literally covered it up; there could be no further possibility of physical evidence turning up that would raise new questions about the alleged wrongdoings of federal agents at Waco. Case closed….. "

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….During the stand-off at Waco, President Clinton had charged David Koresh with sexual abuse of the Branch Davidians' children. Reno made similar claims about child abuse to justify her own decisions to approve the gas-attack. These allegations profoundly influenced public opinion against Koresh and the Branch Davidians. On that basis alone, many Americans were convinced that Koresh was evil and that was enough to close their minds about possible over-reaching and wrongdoings by federal authorities…….In the second round of congressional hearings, the Democrats deployed the same strategy. At the outset of the hearings a young adolescent girl, under New York Congressman Charles Schumer's gentle questioning, testified in an entirely believable manner about David Koresh forcing her to submit to sexual intercourse…. The Democrats put a human face on Waco and the battle for public opinion was lost: before the Republicans got started, they found themselves defending a child-molester….. Here and in other places Gazecki's long documentary is not long enough to encompass the complex background of the Waco tragedy. As the title advertises, his documentary is primarily about the misdeeds of federal agents and their violations of the "rules of engagement." ….Before considering those misdeeds it is worth confronting the allegations of sexual and child abuse lodged against Koresh. The film deals with them briefly and gingerly. Gazecki includes some footage of the young teenage girl testifying before Congress; one of Koresh's lawyers then undermines her testimony by referring to similar claims the girl made in a custody dispute. Gazecki leaves us with the impression that she might be lying. This portrayal is irresponsible and misleading. Koresh had convinced his followers that he was the Lamb of God prophesied in the Bible. He possessed the good seed and his offspring would occupy a special place in the Kingdom of Heaven. Koresh apparently had memorized many passages in the Bible and could quote relevant scripture to support his claim. You may think this is madness, but Koresh's followers, many of them well-educated and deeply religious, had faith in his special powers. Husbands practiced abstinence while they allowed Koresh to cohabit with their wives. Parents permitted Koresh to have sex with their pubescent daughters. Many of the children who died in the compound were Koresh's biological offspring. Though the children were subject to strict physical discipline, lengthy religious instruction, and a diet free of artificial ingredients, caffeine, and candy, there was never any evidence of child abuse in the sense of neglect or battering that concerned Janet Reno. Nor is there evidence that Koresh molested prepubescent girls. Instead, girls who had reached menarche were induced to have intercourse with Koresh in expectation that his "brides" would have the privilege of bearing his special children. Koresh and the Branch Davidians certainly knew that outsiders would disapprove of these sexual practices and downplayed them in public. Still, the secular state apparently had sufficient evidence to charge Koresh with statutory rape. But despite complaints by outsider parents who were not believers, Koresh was never prosecuted….. "

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….

Gazecki constructs his film through a series of juxtapositions that powerfully carry his argument about official misconduct and distortion. We see liberal Democratic congressman Tom Lantos of California belligerently asserting that David Koresh was a madman with fanatic followers and that anyone who thinks differently must also be mad. Then we are shown scenes of a calm and sensible Koresh explaining scripture and talking reasonably to his followers, who look like ordinary church-goers. As a result, the usually clear-thinking Lantos looks like the madman. In this fashion virtually all of the government officials from Attorney General Reno on down are made to look like fools or hypocrites. Trying to explain how it came about that the FBI was using tanks, Reno maladroitly compares the arrangement to renting a car: this, after we have watched the "rented" tanks demolishing the compound's walls. ATF and FBI spokesmen appear constantly in these juxtapositions to be dissembling, deceiving, or misleading in their communications to the media, Congress, and the American people. …."

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….Gazecki also uses juxtaposition to support critics of the government's handling of Waco. In my report, I had suggested that the FBI's psychological warfare strategy had nothing to do with the psychology of Koresh or the Branch Davidians, that it was instead a function of the FBI's own group psychology--that agents were determined to show Koresh that they were in control. The film shows me reiterating this interpretation, and then cuts to an FBI spokesman in a press conference who is explaining the FBI's new aggressive tactics during the stand-off. The agent, obviously hot under the collar and fed up, is shown walking off the podium and stating: "We are going to show them that we control the compound and they are impotent." I had never seen that footage before, but could not have invented a more perfect illustration of what I had written…."

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….Indeed, during the long stand-off the Branch Davidians realized they were being smeared, and made a video to show their human faces to the American people. Men, women, and teenagers (many of them persons of color) explain why they came to Waco and why they are remaining in the compound. They believed God was on their side and--seen from their perspective--one begins to recognize that the Branch Davidians were subjected to great injustices. The ATF investigation concedes that after the raid, in an effort to cover up mistakes, the ATF hierarchy provided the public with "misleading or wrong" information. The Branch Davidians express their indignation about all this in their video. But the FBI prevented the release of that video for months after the tragedy. Parts of it are presented in the documentary, and they will come as a startling revelation. If Americans had seen the video, the Waco tragedy would have left us all with a guilty conscience; perhaps the final tragedy would not even have happened. Ironically, the Justice Department's Dennis Report specifically notes the FBI's concern "that if the tape were released to the media Koresh would gain much sympathy." The FBI waged a misguided public relations campaign to keep Americans from sympathizing with the Branch Davidians. The American media bought it and pressured the FBI to take more aggressive measures against the "Waco Wackos." …."

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….Nonetheless, the ATF planned the largest armed raid in the bureau's history. The bureau received military training from the US Army at Fort Hood to prepare agents who had never before participated in such an effort. The ATF clearly misled Texas's then-Governor Ann Richards by falsely claiming that illegal drugs were involved. (The Branch Davidians, like the Seventh Day Adventists, reject all such drugs as a matter of religious tenet.) The illegal drug story was required under federal statute for the ATF to obtain the use of the Texas National Guard's military helicopters. Those helicopters were supposed to arrive first at the compound to create the diversion and surprise necessary for a "dynamic entry": diversion and surprise would allow ATF agents to put up ladders and invade the compound through the second floor window--beyond which, according to their faulty intelligence, lay the locked armory to which only David Koresh had the key. The ATF plan was to get there before Koresh could unlock it. If the timing failed, the plan put at risk the lives of 80 federal agents and more than 100 Branch Davidians……. Even at the time, the acting Assistant Treasury Secretary in charge of law enforcement thought the plan was unwise and unnecessary when it was laid out to him just hours before the operation started. His first response, like Janet Reno's, was to say no. But he was misled by the agents in charge who convinced him that the Branch Davidians posed a real threat of violence to their neighbors. The official investigatory report concedes that the plan was inept if not irrational. But it maintains that the Branch Davidians were violent and ignores the possibility that the ATF raid was a dangerous provocation. ….."

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….As is now well known, the ATF had an agent, Robert Rodriguez, inside the compound on the day of the raid. Rodriguez was pretending to be interested in the Branch Davidians' faith in order to gather intelligence. David Koresh knew all along that Rodriguez was an ATF agent; in fact, many days earlier Koresh had learned from his neighbors that the ATF had the compound under surveillance. Still, Koresh tried to proselytize Rodriguez. On the morning of the raid, when Koresh learned that the ATF was coming, he told Rodriguez that the Branch Davidians knew he was an agent and that they had been informed of the impending raid. Permitted to beat a hasty retreat (by these supposed killers), the agent informed his superiors that they had lost the essential element of surprise. Everyone in the ATF had agreed that if the element of surprise was lost they would call the operation off: because the main objective was to seize the locked armory before Koresh could distribute weapons to his followers, any other decision was completely irrational. Yet the ATF pushed ahead…."

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….Gazecki's documentary shows ATF agent Rodriguez weeping as he testifies before Congress about how he told his superiors, how they ignored his warning, and how those superiors had been lying to Congress. Gazecki has him nicely juxtaposed with one of the superiors who in bureaucratic "double speak" is explaining to Congress why a warning is not a warning. The ATF leaders must have learned something from Rodriguez as they hurriedly decided to advance the time of their assault. But because of the ATF's almost-unbelievable incompetence in failing to coordinate radio wave bands, the helicopters did not learn of the changes, kept to the original plan, arrived late, and failed to serve their diversionary function. With neither diversion nor surprise, tragedy was inevitable….."

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….Why on earth did the ATF go ahead? The most realistic answer I have heard is that the ATF was worried about its own morale and standing. The ATF has had many critics over the years and been the object of scorn and ridicule by other law enforcement agencies. (Competition and bad blood among federal law enforcement agencies is well-known inside the Beltway.) It has frequently been suggested that the ATF be dismantled and its functions assigned to the FBI. The ATF wanted to pull off a bold military-style coup that would be widely publicized on television and allow it to display a huge collection of illegal weapons confiscated by its competent and courageous agents. Such a coup, it was thought, would strengthen and protect the ATF, impress Congress, enhance the agency's prestige, perhaps even increase its budget allocation…."

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….Though the agency's conduct does not constitute a government conspiracy, it is equally preposterous to describe what transpired at the compound as an "ambush," as the ATF report does. Having been warned, and expecting to be attacked, the Branch Davidians had more than enough time to open their armory and distribute weapons. Whether illegal automatics or legal semiautomatics, their weapons had enormous killing power. Military experts who have examined Waco agree that if the Branch Davidians had decided to kill the agents, as the ATF report claims, they could easily have slaughtered them. They had time to station themselves in strategic positions, including a tower that rose above the compound. Armed with automatic weapons, two or three of them could have fired on the cattle cars in which the agents arrived at the compound (the ATF's idea of Texas camouflage)--had there been a real ambush, most of the agents would have been killed before they even dismounted from the cattle cars, and many more as they jumped down. Even after the ATF took cover, the Branch Davidians' strategic firing positions in the tower made the agents visible targets….."

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….If not a result of conspiracy or ambush, why were the first shots fired? The answer may be painfully banal. The complex ATF plan (of which there was never a written copy) called for the first agents who dismounted to use fire extinguishers to fend off the Branch Davidians' watch-dogs. As this began, Koresh, who said he had stationed his people to defend the compound, came to the door unarmed to confront the ATF. The ATF report incredibly has the Branch Davidians greeting the cattle cars with a hail of bullets and grenades while Koresh comes to the open door unarmed. It is impossible to believe that these events happened simultaneously as described. Koresh consistently maintained that he could not believe that ATF agents in full battle gear would assault the compound if they knew there were women and children inside. He came to the door to try to explain the situation to them. The first gun shots were then fired by agents at the dogs when their fire extinguishers failed to control them. One of Koresh's bodyguards, on his own initiative, then fired at those agents; agents responded by opening fire on the compound. The agent closest to Koresh, who was still at the open door, dropped to the ground and shot the unarmed Koresh through the pelvis and wrist. The door closed and gunfire broke out on all sides leading to the battle already described. …"

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….In short, the ATF did not go to the compound intending to shoot first and serve warrants later, as Gazecki suggests. Nor did the Branch Davidians intend an ambush to maximize their kill of federal agents, as the ATF's official report insists. Indeed, when the firing began, Wayne Martin, a Branch Davidian and an African-American graduate of Harvard Law School, called 911. Portions of the tapes can be heard in Gazecki's documentary. Martin's spontaneous reactions do not suggest a man participating in an ambush. A trained lawyer and minister, Martin was obviously shocked that armed troops were firing on women and children….."

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….As to Gazecki's charges that the ATF's borrowed helicopters fired on the compound, he has presented convincing circumstantial evidence. Three helicopters arrived late on the scene as the fire-fight began. The occupants of the helicopters could not communicate with the leaders on the ground because of the radio-band problem. The agents in the helicopters with automatic weapons had no idea what was happening, and may well have joined in the fire-fight. Gazecki has compelling audiotape of the exchange between ATF agent Cavanaugh and the Branch Davidians during those exact moments. Early in the raid, the two sides had no way to communicate; Martin had reached the local police on their 911 line but they could not contact the ATF. On the tape, telephone communication has been established and we hear a Branch Davidian desperately telling Cavanaugh that the helicopters are shooting automatic weapons into the compound. Cavanaugh denies this. Koresh, though he had already been wounded, comes on and tells the agent they are not going to talk any longer if Cavanaugh refuses to acknowledge the reality that the compound is taking automatic weapon fire from the helicopters. Koresh had no reason to invent this complaint at that time, and Cavanaugh had no way of knowing what was going on in the helicopters. Cavanaugh ingeniously resolves this dispute over the phone by saying he intended only to deny that the helicopters had mounted automatic weapons. Subsequently, the ATF denied that agents ever fired from helicopters. Before Congress, Cavanaugh wept and swore that it was impossible for anyone to think that ATF agents would fire from helicopters. If he believed that they had, he claimed, he would throw away his badge. Gazecki's film contains a convincing refutation of Cavanaugh's testimony about the helicopters. Regrettably, Congress never heard it, as no member of Congress confronted or cross-examined him….."

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….Gazecki is less than objective in failing to emphasize that the Branch Davidians fired on the helicopters. This is yet another example of the adversarial style on both sides. In the film, one actually seems to hear the Branch Davidians taking automatic weapon fire from the demonic ATF. In the ATF report we are shown the unarmed helicopters and the bullet holes caused by demonic Branch Davidians…… "

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….When the FBI replaced the ATF at Waco, their initial strategy of negotiating with the Brach Davidians soon shifted to a declaration of all-out psychological warfare. Most behavioral scientists who have studied the events have questioned the FBI's decision. Because of the Branch Davidians' religious beliefs, end-of-the-world expectations, and acceptance of Koresh as the Lamb of God, such tactics might have driven members to mass suicide. When I and the other panelists appointed by the Justice Department met with representatives of the FBI's behavioral science group for briefings on July 1, 1993, we were told in no uncertain terms that they had decided Koresh was a sociopath who had conned his followers. Their spokesman opined that, when push comes to shove, common criminals such as Koresh, who have antisocial personality disorders, act in their own self-interest…."

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….The arrangements of the Justice Department for its investigation of Waco in my opinion were not designed to produce a searching inquiry. The panelists were briefed by law enforcement officials who had not been directly involved in Waco, and we were asked to prepare individual reports suggesting improvements in federal law enforcement for the future without a detailed understanding of what happened at Waco. Career Justice Department lawyers were to conduct the separate factual investigation; the so-called independent investigator, Edward Dennis, was to prepare his report based on the Justice Department's self-examination, and we were instructed not to ask questions about this ongoing investigation. My objection to these arrangements was considered an aberration, indicative of some personal psychopathology. And my subsequent criticism of the process and its findings was taken as a further proof of my bad judgment and "paranoia." At one point, it seemed as though the Justice Department had removed me from the panel. Eventually it was agreed that I would delay my own report until I had studied the factual report and could pursue any unanswered questions with Justice Department lawyers or the FBI…."

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….During this subsequent process I discovered that Peter Smerik, the agent who actually provided behavioral science input at Waco, had submitted two remarkably contradictory memoranda to his superiors. In the first, with impressive psychological insight and prescience, he had noted that Koresh was a religious fanatic, not a con-man sociopath, and that his followers were true religious adherents. He warned his superiors that psychological warfare might drive the Branch Davidians to collective suicide. Twenty-four hours later, he sent a memo advising the FBI to press ahead with psychological warfare. ….In the fall of 1993, I asked Smerik about his 180? turnabout. His response, clear and unmistakable, was: "my superior told me I was tying his hands." He had caved into the pressure and had provided his superiors the advice they wanted to hear. During the congressional hearings in 1995, I sat behind him and heard him testify under oath that no one had actually said those words to him, that no one had pressured him. He testified that it was all in his own head: he had pressured himself. None of the members of Congress present seemed to recognize that Smerik was recanting and had closed ranks with his fellow agents. …."

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….Gazecki compellingly substantiates this conflict inside the FBI. He presents excerpts culled from the reels of negotiation tape in which the negotiator apologizes for behavior by the tactical forces that violated promises made to the Branch Davidians. These tapes indicate that federal agents at times behaved not like professionals but like hooligans--for example, pulling down their pants and mooning the people in the compound. The film also substantiates my opinion, shared by many commentators, that third-party negotiation should have been utilized. On the tapes we hear the Branch Davidians insisting that negotiation with the FBI has reached a dead end and asking for third-party negotiators…."

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….Gazecki claims to show us something far more despicable. He believes that on the day of the gas attack some of the FBI's tactical forces began shooting their automatic weapons into the compound and crushing Branch Davidians under the tanks. According to the autopsy reports at least 20 corpses had bullet holes in them and some of the bodies were maimed. The Justice Department's explanation of the bullet holes was that fanatic leaders had shot church members; it gave no explanation of the maimed bodies…"

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….When the panelists were assembled on the first day at the Justice Department we were told that we would be given information about the final conflagration that had been gathered through top-secret technology. We were informed that all such information would be redacted from the published investigation under a federal statute--it was--and we were sworn to secrecy…."

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….The panel was told that the FBI's top-secret listening devices picked up all sorts of extraneous noise and conversation, making it impossible to decipher meaningful information as it was recorded. We were also told that well after the fire FBI experts had deciphered a conversation in which the Branch Davidians' inner circle reported that on the night of the final day Koresh had decided it would end with them "stepping out onto the surface of the sun." Obviously, we were told, if the FBI had heard that information in real time, they would have taken a different course the next morning. But here was the convincing but secret evidence that the Branch Davidians had committed mass suicide. The FBI never played that tape for the panel nor were we ever given a transcript. Nonetheless, I accepted this oral information as the basic factual premise of my report and concluded that the FBI had inadvertently driven the Branch Davidians to this extremity. To my knowledge this "secret" information convinced the other panelists as well that Waco had ended in mass suicide…."

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….First, there is a still photograph, apparently taken by authorities after the tragedy, of a ferret round of CS gas that was fired into the compound. A Branch Davidian survivor has testified that many such rounds were fired and that they sounded like mortar fire. This information is confirmed by the Dennis Report, which describes the ferret rounds as "non-burning." Gazecki's film, however, claims that they are pyrotechnic devices that explode to deliver the gas, and further argues that these devices, not the Branch Davidians, set fire to the compound. Ferret rounds are either pyrotechnic or not: that question can easily be resolved. However, as the CS gas is in fact a powder that must be dispersed, it is not inconceivable that the canister includes some mechanism for that purpose. The Dennis Report's description of these rounds as "non-burning" seems evasive rather than definitive. And as the compound was filled with highly volatile fumes, pyrotechnic devices could have sparked the fire…."

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….The documentary's second kind of evidence consists of films, presented at the congressional hearings, that show a tank ramming back and forth repeatedly through a section of the compound until it collapses. The panelists were never told that this was part of the FBI's "not an assault" plan. Yet Gazecki also has tape of an FBI spokesman saying that they knew in advance that the women and children might be placed in a bunker near the kitchen, and so intentionally rammed the tank through the wall to deposit gas in the bunker area. The Justice Department has consistently argued that tanks were used only to inject gas or to create exits so that the Branch Davidians could escape. But the Dennis Report reveals that one of the tanks was ordered to clear a path through the compound to the main tower so that another tank could insert CS gas in that area; that during that "endeavor" a portion of the roof collapsed; and that "an apparent deviation from the approved plan began that involved . . . dismantl[ing] the building." …"

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….These uses of the tanks could not have occurred without risk of injury to the occupants. Did Attorney General Reno know the tanks would be used in this risky destructive fashion when she approved the plan? On the day of the tank assault Reno was scheduled to give a talk in Baltimore. She testified that the FBI advised her to go ahead with the talk so as not to create unwarranted concern. She was therefore not in the Washington situation room when the tanks began demolishing the walls of the compound. The documentary argues that the maimed bodies described at autopsy were in fact mangled by the tanks…."

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….Because I was very concerned about the lethal risks to small children of prolonged exposure to CS gas, I asked many questions about the tank plan. Not until Gazecki's film, however, did I learn that the FBI intended to deposit the noxious substance directly on the bunker where they believed the children would be. Nor was I informed that tanks would push down walls to reach that location. The FBI plan in fact imposed much greater risk of loss of life than I was told or had imagined. Gazecki may therefore be correct in believing that some Branch Davidians were crushed by tanks. I had never before considered that possibility…. There has already been enough discussion of this heat-sensitive evidence in the media to suggest that Gazecki's expert has given a plausible but not irrefutable opinion. If it is true, then many FBI agents knew about it and there was a massive cover-up…."

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….There is no doubt in my mind that the FBI's plan for the last day went awry, just as the ATF's did on the first day. Some of the FBI agents obviously did not follow the established plan. Even the Dennis Report acknowledges this much. The FBI may have circled their wagons after the fact, honoring the law enforcement code of silence. They would not be the first or last law enforcement group to do so. But the Justice Department's job was to dig out the truth; that was what the Attorney General promised the American people…."

Boston Review Alan A. Stone "….The ATF conceded errors but never acknowledged that the raid was tragically unnecessary. Neither the FBI nor the Justice Department conceded any errors. The government's self-investigation glossed over the evidence of conflict within the FBI at Waco; it denied the lethal risk of CS gas to infants; it never explained the "apparent deviation" in the tank plan; it never described how decisions were made at Justice or who made them; it never offered convincing reasons for its failure to use third-party negotiations; and it never questioned the wisdom or the practical consequences of demonizing the Branch Davidians.

…..Also see: Alan Stone's original
report to the Justice Department.

Interview with Gordon Novel 10/6/96 Freeper Ol' Dan Tucker "....Well, StarTech got the big 250 gallon propane container that the government swore up and down blew up and made that fire ball. And it's sitting over there. It was dead empty and had never been filled up. The government arson investigator, Paul Gray, swore before the Congress that he saw it blown up. The pictures of it, we have the original receipts now. We have the original-- It was an absolutely empty container. The University of Maryland was paid a quarter of a million dollars by the Justice Department to write a report that attributed that explosion in that blast over the church vault as being a hundred gallons of propane. Well, there's no-- And it's dead over the vault. The only propane container back there was an empty one and we now have it photographed so...."

Freeper Ol' Dan Tucker 10/13/99 "....PROGRESS REPORT STUDY OF MARKING, RENDERING INERT, AND LICENSING OF EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS Way down in the glossary, I found this:

SPECIALTY EXPLOSIVES Any specialty tool used for a particular purpose other than blasting, such as explosive-actuated device (jet-tappers, jet perforators), propellant-actuated power device (construction nail guns), commercial C-4, detasheet, oil well perforating guns, etc. I found this interesting tidbit on a Simon and Shuster web site for the The Rogue Warrior on the RogueWords page; Detasheet: Olive-drab, 10-by-25 inch flexible PETN-based plastic explosive used as a cutting or breaching charge. I found this on the Environmental Safety and Health Manual web page, Appendix B, Class/Division Definitions: Class/Division 1.1 (Mass explosion)...... From the USDOE Human Subjects Research Database, Fiscal Year 1997, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory web page: ..... Etc., etc. The hits go on and on....It would be reasonable to say that this hole could have been created using detasheet. Gordon Novel was correct in 1996 about the unexploded propane tank, as I have proven with the propane tank photos recently and it appears that Gordon Novel may be once again correct about the type of explosives used to punch a hole in the roof of the kitchen. The configuration that he describes the detasheet being placed may just be the "bubblehead" munition that dl4truth referred to on earlier threads...... "...The bomb material, gentlemen and , at the hostage rescue team was, as you know as detasheet, d-e-t-a-s-h-e-e-t, which comes in olive drab waxed paper in 10 x 20 inch lengths and was put into a 20 inch camping container which we have all the photographs of and this is a PETN plastic explosive... So that just so happens that when you put that much detasheet inside of a 20" x 8" high container you'll get exactly that type of fireball and exactly that type of hole in the top of the vault so its about as good a evidence as you can possibly get..."--Gordon Novel, October 17, 1996 ..."

THE REAGAN INFORMATION INTERCHANGE 10/11/99 FBI transcripts and documents "....

6:00 a.m.

FBI Agent Byron Sage (in telephone call to the Davidians announcing the tear gassing of the compound): OK, we're in the process of putting tear gas into the building. This is not an assault. We are not entering the building. Not an assault.

Branch Davidian Steve Schneider: You are going to spray tear gas into the building.

Agent Sage: In the building ... We are not entering the building. This is not an assault.

Unknown male: Tear gas (unintelligible)

Agent Sage: Do not fire your weapons. If you fire, fire will be returned.

Mr. Schneider: Everybody grab your gas masks. ...

6:01 a.m.

Mr. Schneider: Everybody wake up. ... Let's start to pray (unintelligible) ...

6:05 a.m.

Unknown male: You want it poured?

Unknown male: They're hitting the building. Whoa.

Unknown male: Pablo, have you poured it yet?

Unknown male: Huh?

Unknown male: Have you poured it yet?

Unknown male: In the hallway.

Unknown male: Things are poured, right (unintelligible) ...?

Agent Sage (via FBI speakers outside the compound): Do not fire any weapons.

Unknown male: Need to get the fuel out.

Agent Sage: We do not want anyone hurt

Uknown male: Do you want me to pour it already?

Unknown male: We want the fuel.

Agent Sage: The gas will continue to be delivered until all ...

Unknown male: You want some here?

Agent Sage: ... are out of the building. Come out now.

6:12 a.m.

Unknown male: Go get another mask.

Unknown male: You got to get the fuel ready.

Unknown male: I already poured it. It's already poured.

6:16 a.m.

Unknown male: All the kids, all the kids. All the kids are down in the (unintelligible) ...

Unknown male: OK, if you (unintelligible) face, man.

Unknown male: What you doin' now?

Unknown male: Don't move around (unintelligible) get ready. Don't let anybody come in.

Unknown male: Nobody comes in, huh?

Unknown male: Nobody ... (unintelligible)

Unknown male: Right.

7:20 a.m.

Unknown male: Whoa, whoa, whoa.

Unknown male: Don't fire. Don't fire. Don't fire.

Unknown male: Pat, they just rammed into the wall.

Unknown male: Get out, get out.

Unknown male: Look at the gas.

Unknown male: Looks like acid?

Unknown male: Tear gas is irritating (unintelligible).

Unknown male. I know. They're (unintelligible) said there are fire there.

7:23 a.m.

Unknown male: Is there a way to spread fuel in there? There.

Unknown male: I don't know. I know that one (unintelligible)

Unknown male: So we only light 'em as soon as they tell me last chance, right? Not if they (unitelligible)

Unknown male: Well, that's the fuel. We should get more hay in here.

Unknown male: The fuel has to go all around to get started.

Unknown male: Well, there are two cans here. If that's poured soon (unintelligible) to take.

Unknown male: All kinds of (unintelligible)

Unknown male: All kinds of what?

Unknown male: Somebody shootin' live cannons (unintelligible)

(tank sounds)...

7:24 a.m.

David Koresh: Yeah, Lord. You're waging a storm, in the whirlwind. You're way, way. All we can do is wait.

9:20 a.m.

Mr. Koresh: The got two cans of Coleman fuel down there? ... Huh?

Mr. Schneider: Empty.

Mr. Koresh: All of it?

Mr. Schneider: Think so.

Mr. Koresh: Did you check?

Mr. Schneider: Nothing left.

Mr. Koresh: Out of both cans?

Mr. Schneider: I got some mineral oil here.

9:44 a.m.

(Mr. Schneider has been discussing how the sect might repair a telephone line that was severed by the tanks within minutes after the tear-gassing operation began. It is the sect's only means of talking with the FBI)

Mr. Schneider: Just respond accordingly ... 'cause we do want to get a line to say at least something to 'em. ... We've asked that we can finish the seven seals. Here's the manuscript. The first one is about completed. It was worked on all last night. But there's no way to know. I gotta work with David ... you know."

11:15 a.m.

Unknown male: He's up in his room.

(unintelligible conversation, broadcast interview in background)

Unknown male: Putting on prayer (unintelligible)

Unknown male: What? For what?

Unknown male: (unintelligible)

Unknown male: Oh, (unintelligible) God says (unintelligible). Come down here. Go low 'cause they shoot high.

Unknown male: (unintelligible) They're getting it fueled.

Unknown male: No problem.

Unknown male: Where is (unintelligible)

Unknown male: They're lighting 'em here. (unintelligible) through the ditches. (unintelligible) place

(Radio broadcast in background)

Unknown male: When are they gonna go bring the children? ...

11:25 a.m.

Unknown male: Tell (unintelligible) are you kidding. Light 'em.

Unknown male: (unintelligible) Go and see if you can light up the torches.

Unknown male: (unintelligible) go in the house.

Unknown male: (unintelligible) give me the torch.

Unknown male: Is it lit?

Unknown male: Look out for that. No. They're already lit.

Unknown male: What are you gonna do? Now we're committed.

Unknown male: (unintelligible)

Unknown male: Whatever you've got, you use. (unintelligible).

Unknown male: (unintelligible) the idea. When you're (unintelligible). They're just lying to you.

Unknown male: That's what I say. (unintelligible)

Unknown male: (unintelligible)

Unknown male: (unintelligible) In here.

Unknown male: (unintelligible) have to move.

Unknown male: Go get with the kids.

11:40 a.m.

Unknown male: (unintelligible)

Unknown male: I want a fire around back.

11:48 a.m.

Unknown male: They're gassing (unintelligible).

Unknown male: (unintelligible) gas.

Unknown male: (unintelligible) stay down (unintelligible)

Unknown male: Let's keep that fire going (unintelligible)

11:49 a.m.

Unknown person: Look out ... (sounds of running feet, tank crashing into wall)

11:54 a.m.

(loud crashing noise)

Unknown male: ... Be cool (unintelligible)

11:56 a.m.

(loud crash)

According to FBI records, the last bug inside the compound stops transmitting at 11:57 a.m. According to FBI infrared videotapes, the first fire inside the compound broke out at 12:07:42. the second fire erupted at 12:08:48, and the third at 12:09:45....."


Link for the interview with Gordon Novel, October 17, 1996 from Freeper aristeides

Freeper frankm from part three Gordon Novel, October 17, 1996 "...There's a missing five and a half minute section of the tape from 10:40 to 11:02 or somewhere in there, 10:47 to 11:02 AM in the morning and I saw that tape in New Orleans on December 22, 1995 and Colby didn't want to release that tape because he says if I give you that, he says, they're going to know who, who is getting all this information and ah, as a result, we saw them using blinding lasers being fired at Davidians who tried to come out of the building in the rear and they were blinded and then the tanks came up and drove them into the building and pushed the blade directly at them. But it was all on the missing five minutes tape...."

Record of Congress "....DISSENTING VIEWS OF HON. CARDISS COLLINS, HON. KAREN L. THURMAN, HON.HENRY A. WAXMAN, HON. TOM LANTOS, HON. ROBERT E. WISE, JR., HON. MAJOR R. OWENS, HON. EDOLPHUS TOWNS, HON. LOUISE M. SLAUGHTER, HON. PAUL E. KANJORSKI, HON. CAROLYN B. MALONEY, HON. THOMAS M. BARRETT, HON.BARBARA-ROSE COLLINS, HON. ELEANOR HOLMES NORTON, HON. JAMES P. MORAN,HON. CARRIE P. MEEK, HON. CHAKA FATTAH, AND HON. ELIJAH E. CUMMINGS........The text of the majority report entitled ``Investigation into the Activities of Federal Law Enforcement Agencies Toward the Branch Davidians'' is based on 10 days of hearings (July 19-August 2, 1995) jointly held by the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight's Subcommittee on National Security, Criminal Justice, and International Affairs and the Committee on the Judiciary's Subcommittee on Crime....Throughout those hearings, the minority repeatedly insisted that no new facts or evidence emerged as a result of this extensive investigation. The majority report proves that basic point.......The majority report suffers from several deficiencies.

First, the findings reached are not supported by the hearing record or other evidence. The text of the report states that the Davidians started the fire, however the findings conclude that the evidence is not dispositive on the question of who started the fire.

Second, the report is internally inconsistent. For example, while critical of the FBI for failing to consult those outside of its control during the negotiations, it then commends the FBI for allowing lawyers representing the Davidians to enter the compound and conduct several hours of discussions with their clients. Clearly, these attorneys were not controlled or directed by the FBI. Their efforts to end the standoff were discussed by the majority report.

Third, the report omits important evidence from the hearings. At no point does the report discuss the allegations of child physical and sexual abuse perpetrated by David Koresh. Additionally, the report fails to mention the riveting testimony of Kiri Jewell who testified at the hearings concerning Koresh' sexual molestation of her when she was 10 years old. Instead the report dismisses the criminal conduct of David Koresh by summarily stating the Koresh was not subject to congressional oversight.

Fourth, the report reflects a willingness to believe Koresh over Federal law enforcement officers and personnel. For instance, the report asserts that Koresh's lawyers negotiated a credible surrender agreement. However, Federal law enforcement personnel on the advice of psychiatric and linguistic experts determined that the ``agreement'' was a continuation of prior manipulative stalling tactics. The report ignores no fewer than four prior instances in which Koresh reneged on promises that he and his followers would leave the compound. Moreover, the report ignores that Koresh did not state a time certain for surrender and had not allowed anyone to leave the compound for 3 weeks prior to the ``agreement'' or 5 days following the agreement.

.....Additionally, the majority report calls for Attorney General Janet Reno's resignation because of her decision to allow the insertion of CS tear gas. Attorney General Reno stated during the hearings that the decision to use tear gas was a difficult one but all those consulted who had personal knowledge or professional expertise agreed that the use of tear gas was the only way to compel the Branch Davidians to leave the compound without use of force or loss of life. Evidence and testimony during the hearing clearly indicated that the CS tear gas was not direct, or proximate cause of the ignition or acceleration of the fire. Evidence conclusively found that the Branch Davidians started the fire.Therefore, the deaths of the Davidians who remained in the compound should not be laid at Attorney General Reno's feet. This finding of the majority squarely contradicts their finding that Koresh was the author of the events at Waco......

II. Factual Background

.....After the siege, the Texas Rangers conducted an extensive search of the Branch Davidian compound. They discovered 48 illegal machine guns,seven illegal explosives of various types, nine illegal silencers and over 200,000 rounds of ammunition. A series of indictments were returned against 10 Branch Davidians between March 30 and July 20, 1993. The indictments contained charges relating to the ambush of ATF officers on February 28 and various firearms violations committed between February 1992 and February 1993. On August 6, 1993, the U.S. Attorney's office in Waco obtained another superseding indictment from the grand jury combining all previous indictments into one and added two additional defendants. On September 9, 1993, Kathryn Schroeder entered a guilty plea to one count of armed resistance of a Federal law enforcement officer. As a part of her plea agreement, she agreed to testify against the other 11 defendants. A Texas jury convicted 8 of the 11 Branch Davidian defendants of various firearm offenses. The convicted defendants received sentences ranging from 3 to 40 years with 7 of the 8 defendants serving sentences of 40 years imprisonment......

IV. The Arrest and Search Warrants Were Legally Sufficient

......Therefore, while assertions contained in the underlying affidavits concerning the physical and sexual abuse of children may have been beyond the scope of the ATF's jurisdiction, it is abundantly clear that probable cause existed to obtain an arrest warrant for David Koresh and search warrants for the Mount Carmel compound and the facility known as the ``Mag Bag.''......In its attack on the validity of the warrants, the majority does not present any facts that would undermine the integrity of the core paragraphs of the ATF affidavits establishing probable cause. Instead of providing testimonial or documentary evidence to challenge the validity of the warrants, the majority raises the unsupportable implication that a Federal law enforcement officer made false statements in securing the warrants. Such an unwarranted and unsupported attack on the credibility of a Federal law enforcement officer is simply irresponsible.....

VI. Military Assistance Did Not Violate Posse Comitatus

.......The Department of Defense provided minor nonreimbursable assistance to the ATF in connection with the events at Waco. ......In the planning stages of the raid, the ATF requested Special Forces assistance from the Department of Defense. This request was forwarded through Operation Alliance and Joint Task Force 6. The initial request raised legal questions with Special Forces attorneys regarding the permissible scope of assistance. Specifically, Special Forces Attorneys were concerned with the proposal for DoD to review the ATF raid plan and perform on-site medical emergency services. Acceding to such a request would have clearly violated the Posse Comitatus Act's mandate prohibiting the military's ``participation'' in civilian law enforcement activities. Therefore, the initial request was significantly scaled back and limited to the facilitation of ATF training. The military did not offer any training involving the specific details of the raid plan or any advice concerning the accomplishment of the mission......Special forces provided assistance limited to facilitating ATF training at Fort Hood .......In sum, there is no evidence to suggest that the Posse Comitatus Act was violated by the Department of Defense. Additionally, the National Guard units utilized by the ATF were not in a ``federalized'' status and therefore were not subject to the proscriptions of the act.....

VII. Despite Inadequate Intelligence Operations, ATF did not Prematurely Reject the Siege Option

.......The first option to arrest Koresh away from the compound followed by a subsequent service of warrants was rejected after careful consideration. Contrary to the majority's assertion, the ATF explored the possibility of arresting Koresh away from the compound. However,there are two problems with this assertion. The first problem is that it ignores the fact that a lawful search warrant had to be served for the premises. There is no reason to believe that the Davidians in the compound would not have reacted in the same manner had the search warrant been served without Koresh on the premises or attempted to destroy evidence if time elapsed between Koresh's arrest and the execution of the search warrant.......Second, as of February 1993 the ATF had conducted several hundred raids of this kind. There had only been one case involving prolonged armed resistance. Moreover, Koresh had previous encounters with the State officials, police authorities and the judicial system. During these previous encounters, Koresh did not react violently to searches or service of process. Therefore, neither the agency's history nor Koresh's personal history yielded any information that would tend to indicate a violent reaction. It is pure speculation for the majority to argue that Koresh could have been arrested away from the compound........

X. The FBI Negotiations and Tactical Operations Were Sometimes Contradictory

......We disagree with the majority's assertions that on the 46th day of the siege, the FBI should have believed the representations of Koresh's attorney who relayed Koresh's representation that he and his followers would leave the compound if Koresh were allowed to write his exposition on the Seven Seals of the Biblical Book of Revelations. Early in the siege, Koresh was allowed to speak to religious scholars concerning his interpretation. In response to a promise to surrender, an audiotape containing his interpretation of the First Seal was played on a radio broadcast. However, Koresh did not surrender at that time. FBI behavioralist Murray Miron believed that this latest attempt was merely another stalling tactic. Therefore, based on his prior behavior and manipulative personality, it was not unreasonable for negotiators to conclude that Koresh would not honor this latest promise.....

XI. Law Enforcement Officers Could Benefit From Future Use of Outside Behavioral and Psychological Experts

We disagree with the majority's assertion that the FBI should have developed a thorough understanding of the religious tenets of the Davidians. During the course of the negotiations, the FBI attempted this approach and abandoned it because it became clear that the tenets were based on Koresh's personal thoughts and rapidly changed to suit the occasion. Therefore, this would not only have been futile but would have pushed back the time of the service of the warrants thereby allowing Koresh to amass even more illegal weapons......

XII. The Use of Tear Gas Was Unfortunate But Necessary

The majority report suggests that the decision to use gas was not the only option available to compel the Branch Davidians to leave the compound....Because the FBI decided not to fire any shots during the standoff, the Davidians walked outside of the building on several occasions to smoke cigarettes, empty chamber pots, feed chickens and gather water from rain water runoff. Finally, the large amount of firearms and ammunition (200,000 rounds) found within the compound, and the gathering of other interested and potentially dangerous individuals (para-military and Militia groups) contributed to their concern about the continued degradation of the situation and their ability to adequately secure the perimeter of the compound. In fact, during the standoff two people, not people previously affiliated with the Davidians, infiltrated the perimeter and entered the compound. The FBI was concerned that failing to end the standoff would allow others (particularly para-military militia groups) who had begun to descend upon the compound to enter the perimeter. .......CS tear gas is a common riot control agent used in the United States and Europe. The purpose of tear gas is to cause irritation of the eyes,skin and respiratory system sufficient to encourage an individual to leave the premises or any open area. CS is considered the least toxic agent in the family of chemical tear gas irritants. In order to reach a level which would be lethal to fifty per cent of the population, CS must be in concentrations of 25-150 thousand milligrams per minute, cubed. The CS gas used at the Davidian compound was significantly less concentrated than the lethal level. The CS gas used was in a concentration which would only reach 16,000 milligrams per minute (cubed) if all of the gas used had been released at the same time, in a single closed room and the residents of that room had been exposed continuously for 10 minutes. At Waco, CS tear gas was released throughout different areas of the building while openings were created in the windows and walls. The CS gas was inserted for a total of 5 minutes over a 6-hour period. A total of twenty CS canisters were deployed on April 19.....There are no documented cases in which the use of CS gas caused death. Reports that Amnesty International linked use of the gas to deaths of Palestinians in the occupied territories, is an extremely biased reading of the report. Released in June 1988, the report discussed the use of two kinds of tear gas, CS and CN. CN gas has proven to be lethal in closed quarters. The overwhelming majority of evidence on ill-effects of CS was anecdotal. Medical care had not been sought or documented. Moreover, because of religious prohibitions autopsies had not been performed. Therefore, there is no reliable scientific data which would lead to the conclusion that CS alone was implicated in any of the deaths......The Himsworth Report, issued by the British Government, found that there is no evidence of any special sensitivity of the elderly, children or pregnant women. Additionally, the Himsworth Commission chronicled the effect of CS gas exposure on one infant and found that the child recovered rapidly after removal from the area affected by CS tear gas. This report was supported by a report which appeared in a Medical journal. The author not only set forth a treatment protocol for children exposed to CS tear gas but noted that full recovery was highly likely. Moreover, the majority report contends that the presence of CS gas may have acted as an accelerant during the fire. That is unlikely. While CS is combustible (it will burn if ignited, much like paper), it is not a chemical accelerant or a flammable agent. .....

XIII. White House Officials Were Informed But Not Involved in the Decision to Use Tear Gas

White House officials were informed but not consulted about the use of tear gas. On April 18, Web Hubbell, Justice Department White House Liaison, and Attorney General Reno informed the President about the plan to gradually insert tear gas into the compound over a 2 to 3 day period in an effort to render the compound uninhabitable and compel the occupants to leave. During that conversation, Reno told the President that April 19 was not envisioned as ``D-Day'' and that the use of the tear gas would not be the beginning of an assault on the compound......

XIV. The Branch Davidians Started the Fire and Chose to Remain Within the Compound While It Burned

......There is no doubt that the Branch Davidians started the fire. We disagree with the conclusion of the majority report which states that the evidence concerning the origin of the fire is not dispositive. ......It should be noted that the fire department was called after the blaze began. However, they did not attempt to put out the fire because during the blaze gun shots were heard coming from and within the compound. The safety of any firefighter who approached the compound could not be assured. Therefore, the FBI determined that the local firefighters should not be allowed to approach the compound.... The CS tear gas did not act as an accelerant for the fire. CS is a powdery particulate. When used in a tear gas canister or other tear gas delivery system, CS particulate is suspended in methylchloride and carbon dioxide. Neither CS particulate, methylchloride or carbon dioxide are flammable. They actually inhibit the outbreak of fire....."


WACO: A NEW REVELATION 1/7/00 Jim Rarey "….First, why didn't they leave the compound? While it is true that David Koresh believed that he and at least some of his followers were destined to become martyrs in resisting the "New World Order", he did give his followers the option of leaving early on and many did. The new evidence discloses two chilling events that seem to show intent by the tactical operations people to make Koresh's prophecy come true. Before the final assault, the FBI negotiator informed the Branch Davidians that no one would be allowed to leave the compound for any reason and if anyone tried, measures would be taken to drive them back into the compound. Early in the morning of the last day, two men left the compound at the rear of the building. A helicopter was went to intercept them and FBI FLIR tapes show automatic gunfire coming from the helicopter. The entire right side of one of the bodies was missing, evidently having been run over by a tank later in the day. ….."

WACO: A NEW REVELATION 1/67/00 Jim Rarey "….Second, did the FBI start the fire?... FBI and local TV film footage pinpoints three areas in the compound where fires broke out almost simultaneously. Six exploded pyrotechnic devices (flash-bang grenades) were found in the evidence lockers. According to Texas Ranger records, they were recovered from the three areas where the fires started. In the inventory, they had been mislabeled as "silencers." …"

WACO: A NEW REVELATION 1/7/00 Jim Rarey "….By far the most sickening evidence disclosed, indicating premeditated murder, was the destruction of the "bunker" in which the younger children, infants and some women had taken refuge. The "bunker" was an old records storage vault of six to eight inch steel reinforced concrete. The physical evidence showed that a shaped high explosive charge had been detonated on top of the outside of the vault. Steel reinforcement bars were bent down and inward showing that the blast came from above. The explosion probably killed everyone in the vault. In the end, this may have been an unintentional act of mercy, since the victims in the vault were literally cremated as temperatures reached above 3,000 degrees in the ensuing fire. A Federal Fire Inspector testified to an affidavit he had read to the effect that the FBI went in on foot and planted the high explosive shaped charge. The explosion also ruptured a nearby propane tank causing a fireball effect….."

WACO: A NEW REVELATION 1/7/00 Jim Rarey "….Third. Missing and/or destroyed evidence. No explanations have been offered by the authorities for missing or destroyed evidence. Such items included three or four reels of film taking by the ATF in the Feb. assault, pages torn from an ATF surveillance log. A pyrotechnic device fired at one of the outer building, which had earlier been photographed, came up missing…. Most grisly, however, was the disposition of the corpses of the victims. After preliminary autopsies, the corpses were stored in two refrigerated trailers, supposedly to await further forensic tests. The electricity was then turned off.. ."

WACO: A NEW REVELATION 1/7/00 Jim Rarey "….Fourth. What about Delta Force? At first it was vehemently denied that "Delta Force" was involved in any way. As one former Special Ops veteran put it, "they can say that with a straight face since there is no unit officially known as 'Delta Force', its real name is Combat Applications Group."….. A former CIA operative testified he had been told at a briefing session that elements of Squadron B of Delta Force were at Waco and "pulling triggers." …"

WACO: A NEW REVELATION 1/7/00 Jim Rarey "….Fifth. Was the White House involved?…. Foster along with Webster Hubbell, another Rose Law Firm partner and number three man at the Justice Department (some say the de facto head of Justice) and Bernie Nussbaum, White House Legal Counsel (and Hillary's college law professor and mentor on the Nixon Impeachment Committee) met with the Commanding General of Delta Force and others on April 14th to make (or relay?) the final decision to go ahead with the military solution for Waco. All files relating to Waco, along with others, were taken from Foster's office the night of his death to the White House residence for review by Hillary Clinton. They have not been seen or heard of since. According to Foster's secretary, he was also working on a memo about Waco the day he died. That has not been seen either…"

WACO: A NEW REVELATION 1/7/00 Jim Rarey "….Miscellaneous. Then FBI Director Sessions scheduled a trip to Waco to conduct face-to-face negotiations with the Branch Davidians. He was physically prevented from boarding the waiting FBI plane by (unnamed) Department of Justice officials. A memo had been written to President Clinton by a Deputy Attorney General urging that Sessions be fired and replaced by one of his deputies who favored the military resolution of Waco. Sessions was later fired when he refused to resign…."

From email to Alamo-Girl 12/999


Freeper zeugma 10/7/99 "…Those of you interested in Waco might want to check out the following link...

This ZIP file contains just about every article published by the Dallas Morning News about the siege of the Branch Davidians in Waco. It contains about 200 files most of which are news articles published in the DMN…. It also contains copies of the warrants and various other files. Overall it's pretty interesting stuff to have on hand….."

Freeper cynical 1 1/6/00 "….My name is Ron Engelman. I was a talk show host in Dallas prior to, during and after the Waco attack, seige and murders of the Branch Davidian. About a week before they were all killed by our government, they hung out a banner that said "We want Ron Engelmond". Following that message I met with FBI Agent Clif Van Zant who told me he was the lead negotiator with the Branch Davidians. I have since seen him on TV as a "profiler". Gee, The FBI lied to me. Van Zant said that I would be able to meet with David Koresh at a table outside the Branch Davidian complex. The next day on the air I relayed what I had been told. Minutes afterwards, the FBI contacted the station and ordered that I retract what I had been told. This whole thing stinks to high heaven. I can only hope and pray that people like Mike McNulty, a friend of mine, continue to probe, learn the truth and FORCE the people of this country to see what is really going on. It's time to lose the rose colored glasses and blinders and see what the truth is….."


Freeper Ol'Dan Tucker 1/7/00 "…
This is an aerial photo, presumably taken by the FBI at 9:00am, April 19, 1993. The lightened circle in the center of the image highlights what is thought to be a Davidian outside the building. Sierra 2 spotted this individual and alerted the command post. Falcon 2 was dispatched to intercept this individual. Jimmy Riddle and Phillip Henry's shot and mangled bodies were both found behind the building. Note the angle of the shadow of the four-story tower being cast on the roof of the building below it. This places the sun behind and above the camera position in the following images…."

Freeper Ol'Dan Tucker 1/7/00 "…
This shot shows the position of the camera as being diagonally behind the building as evidenced by the flag pole being on the left side of the building and the water tower being on the right. The Huey is just to the right of the water tower, slightly above the perceived horizon…."

Freeper Ol'Dan Tucker 1/7/00 "…I am not disputing Allard's credentials. During this portion of WANR, Allard was showing videotape and discussing flashes coming from the Huey that the videotape showed. All of the images I posted came from that section of WANR. If they have FLIR evidence that shows the flashes coming from the helicopter, they didn't present it at any time during the course of the running of WANR.

There was FLIR of Mt. Carmel taken from the airplane orbiting at 9,000' which is the same subject matter as was shown in WTROE (two people rolling out from beneath the Bradley and opening fire inside the back of the gym), but is of much higher quality. This was compared to FLIR from USAF sources taken in Somalia that shows U.S. soldiers rappelling from a Blackhawk and firing their automatic weapons once on the ground, but no FLIR of the flashes coming from Falcon 2.

I don't dispute the possibility that both Riddle and Henry were killed by automatic weapons fired from an aerial platform such as Falcon 2, the Huey seen in WANR. I do dispute Allard's assertion that the flashes seen on videotape near the helicopter were created by the muzzle-flash of an automatic weapon and I have a few of reasons for saying so. …"

Freeper Ol'Dan Tucker 1/7/00 "…First, they present videotaped evidence during the portion of WANR that Allard is discussing the helicopter incident.

Second, Allard states that under close examination of the video they discovered that there were what appeared to be individual flashes contained within each of the "three" larger flashes. He stated that when they timed the flashes they came up with a rate of flashing that was the equivalent of 600 flashes per minute, which corresponds to the rate of fire of most machine guns. He briefly discussed the possibility that the flashes were "reflected sunlight," but discounted that possibility because, as he said, "the helicopter would have to have been shaking very violently, which is clearly impossible." The problems I have with his assertions are as follows:

1) The relative size and brightness of the flashes seen on the videotape are not normal for modern military weaponry because of both flash-suppressants in the gunpowder and the effectiveness of the flash-hiders attached to the end of the barrel. The flashes seen in the video are more like those commonly seen in Hollywood movies where the flash has been chemically enhanced for dramatic effect.. ..

3) One point that Allard either ignores, or fails to take into account the vibration produced by the main rotor blades of the helicopter itself that is transmitted throughout the helicopter's airframe including the windscreen. The Huey's main rotor spins at about 600-650 rpm, thus could produce a vibratory pulse of similar frequency to a modern automatic weapon. Vibration at the noted frequency could cause any sunlight reflected off the windshield to produce an effect similar to the muzzle-flash of an automatic weapon being fired, especially at the distances present when this videotape was recorded…… "

Freeper Ol'Dan Tucker 1/7/00 "…Since I don't have immediate access to the video as I'm writing this, I am open to the possibility that during this part of WANR, Allard said that they had FLIR evidence of the flashes eminating from the Huey and will check this out as soon as I do have access in a couple of hours. If I am wrong and he talks about capturing the flashes on FLIR while showing the videotape footage, then I will promptly post a correction to this thread…."

Freeper mrsmith 1/7/00 "…."Who can tell us the names of those in the chain of command who gave or approved the orders? " From: ``Investigation into the Activities of Federal Law Enforcement Agencies Toward the Branch Davidians,'' House Report No. 104-749, August 2, 1996,
"H. Presidential Involvement in the Events at Waco, TX
The involvement of the White House occurred in several ways. According to White House Chief of Staff Mack McLarty, two parallel lines of communication existed_one from Acting Assistant Attorney General Stuart Gerson to McLarty, and the other from Gerson to White House Counsel Bernard Nussbaum. Senior advisor Bruce Lindsey also kept informed on developments in Waco.(598)
...No White House officials objected to the plan to end the standoff at an April 13, 1993 meeting between White House and Justice Department officials, including Hubbell, Nussbaum, Lindsey and Deputy White House Counsel Vince Foster ..
\598\ Justice Department Report at 242.
...the Justice Department Report in the Appendix." …"

Rebuttal to concrete vault scenario - Public Action, Inc. 12/30/99 Carol Valentine "….Clark makes this claim: "Several FBI defendants proceeded to the second floor and placed an explosive material on the top of the concrete Church vault at the second floor level." (pg. 58) Clark makes the charge but cites no evidence. Then, two paragraphs later, Clark fashions this generalized story about the deaths of the mothers and children: "At about 12: 20 p.m., a hugh explosion blasted a hole several feet in diameter on the top of the concrete ceiling and several times that wide on the bottom of the concrete ceiling of the Church vault, crushing, cutting, burying and killing or injuring most of the approximately thirty persons in the vault. A large fireball rising 160 feet above the Church vault and the remains of the Church was observed and photographed by the media and others. Photos taken of the fireball confirm its size and location. Government reports state nine bodies of Church members were found on top of the vault after the fire though the blast would make this impossible. " (pg. 59) …."

Rebuttal to concrete vault scenario - Public Action, Inc. 12/30/99 Carol Valentine "……According to trial testimony and photographs taken after the fire went out, the hole in the ceiling was 18 to 24 inches across. But the concrete ceiling was only six inches thick--and Clark fails to mention this fact, giving a false impression of how much concrete was displaced by the force that made the hole. The concrete from a hole this size could not "bury" anyone, let alone "approximately thirty persons" in the fashion Clark suggests……Moreover, the Autopsy Reports either fail to support or contradict Clark's assertions. [see] ….. "

On Gordon Novel - Public Action, Inc. 12/30/99 Carol Valentine …… Clark's investigator was long time intelligence operative Gordon Novel, whose close ties to the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) span decades. Novel certainly should have been able to recognize the tell-tale marks of a Special Operations demolition fire. On the other hand, we might expect that Novel would protect his life-long friends in the military/intelligence community--he is one of theirs. It would be exceedingly naive to expect him to "investigate" Waco……Novel admits his close ties to DIA. In an interview with the American Freedom Network on October 10, 1996 (as mentioned above, we have confirmed the authenticity of the interview with AFN), Novel spoke of his security company, Force One, which was in operation at the time of the Waco raid. "At the time I had General Daniel O'Graham, who's the, was then the ah, former Deputy Director at the CIA and the Director of Defense Intelligence Agency." According to the AFN transcript, Novel said he (Novel) knew of the Waco raid three weeks before the event. He was told about the raid by "'a very close friend of mine, the former Special Agent in charge of ATF in New Orleans who had hired the four agents' ([who were killed entering the building.]" …."

On Gordon Novel - Public Action, Inc. 12/30/99 Carol Valentine "….This "close friend" -- according to Novel, Mike Hall, the man who conducted the siege of the Covenant of the Sword and the Lord in 1985 -- told Novel the Mt. Carmel raid would not succeed. Novel then called General O'Graham. Remember, according to Novel, O'Graham was at the time the Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency and on the Board of Directors of Novel's security company. "Danny, what is going on?" Novel asked. "He says: 'I don't know.' He says, 'but whatever it is,' he says, 'it's national security.'" Later in the interview, Novel says: "I am very pro CIA and I can tell you that there are some good guys that still work for the FBI but not a lot of them." ….."

On Gordon Novel - Public Action, Inc. 12/30/99 Carol Valentine Gordon Novel's name is mentioned several times by Jim Garrison in ON THE TRIAL OF THE ASSASSINS (above). During his investigation of the Kennedy assassination, Garrison found a trail of evidence which led him to a group of anti-Castro Cubans--and Gordon Novel. When Garrison was trying Clay Shaw for conspiracy to assassinate Kennedy, Garrison attempted to extradite Novel from Ohio to Louisiana for the trial. Garrison's extradition efforts were thwarted by Ohio officials…….Garrison cites a number of verifications that Novel was a CIA operative (pgs. 45, 193, 208-210, 266, 353). All in all, with his admitted ties to the Defense Intelligence Agency, his admitted admiration for the CIA, and the history Garrison provides, putting Novel in charge of investigation during the preparation of a Waco law suit is asking a defense contractor to investigate the Pentagon……"

On Gordon Novel - Public Action, Inc. 12/30/99 Carol Valentine "….Caddell has received a great deal of favorable press coverage. In an article written by Lee Hancock of the Dallas Morning News on October 31, 1999 ("The Waco network: Loose-knit group has spurred revelations on 1993 Branch Davidian siege"), Caddell complains that the US has been withholding evidence he needed to pursue his case. "Because of the government's stonewalling, we've been forced to rely on this loose-knit coalition," he is quoted as saying. "Without their getting information that the government kept from us, we wouldn't have a case." This loose-knit coalition of Caddell's includes Gordon Novel (Ramsey Clark's investigator, see above) and Michael McNulty, the co-producer and director of research for the video "Waco: The Rules of Engagement" and researcher for "Waco: A New Revelation." ……"

Radio Interview of Gordon Novel (Installment 8) 10/17/96 Freeper aristeides "…. I: --so, we've got Gordon Novel on today, and we're going to go to him and he's talking to us from jail there and where you at, Gordon? C: Zanesville, Ohio, but not for long I'm told. I: All right, what'd they tell you? C: Well, they're not exactly happy about these shows. From what I gather some, some guys say I'm trying to become an American Mandella so, that's not exactly true. Because I'm not really deep into politics, and as you know I run a security company called Force One which does investigations particularly forensic criminology at a science level and so I'm just giving you some background. All of my friends that I'm talking to are saying, you know, I won't live through this but I may be able to give you some reasons today, with a little life insurance and try to give you some more insight to this Clinton Administration…..

….. so let me just say that I made a statement that I saw the D Plan that was used to genocide the Davidians on July 3rd as the result of one of Colby's friends getting it right before he was killed and drowned or whatever you want to call it. That's a euphemism around the CIA because it seems anybody at the CIA has to be terminated by somebody else's agency they tend to drown and it's been very, very common over the years because it's sort of difficult to trace a drowning death particularly when a frogman grabs you and pulls you down off your canoe and it gets kind of tough to survive it….

….But, let me just say that the bomb material that-- Waco is always symbolized by the bomb that went off over the building at the middle of the fire. We have done an invest-- rather an in depth research into that. We have the bomb container. We have the photographs of the rocket-like blasted hole in the top of the church vault where 28 women and children were killed by the bomb and many of them were obliterated.….. But I think what we can tell you is that if the FBI says they didn't bomb the building and kill those people there-- First there is this Forward Looking InfraRed video tape that one of your announcers there is rather familiar with and which I supplied a lot, which I supplied to him the technical information about the tape….

….There's about 66 gun shots or 76 by my count, 66 by some other counts but those shots were fired in the back of the building. The press was 2 ? miles away in a one square block area, isolated by the FBI so they couldn't see what was going on particularly behind the building. There was a courthouse SANITAIRE(?) of about five miles around the building and a flight? no one was allowed to fly over the building. No press was allowed to fly over the building for up to-- I don't know, thirty or forty thousand feet…..

…..So, I mean, the FBI was trying to conceal their information and what they were doing out there. I'll just say this that we, we know a lot more than I'm telling you that we know. And Mr. Clark is aware of it, as are some of the others. The bomb material, gentlemen and , at the hostage rescue team was, as you know as detasheet, d-e-t-a-s-h-e-e-t, which comes in olive drab waxed paper in 10 x 20 inch lengths and was put into a 20 inch camping container which we have all the photographs of and this is a PETN plastic explosive….

…..So that just so happens that when you put that much detasheet inside of a 20" x 8" high container you'll get exactly that type of fireball and exactly that type of hole in the top of the vault so its about as good a evidence as you can possibly get. The FLIR tape shows them setting the fire. Igniting the fire. It shows them killing women and children. At the height of the fire, 40 or 50 rounds being directed at the women and children trying to flee the church vault in the back of the building because they could only exit from the back of the building so when the government tells you they didn't murder these people, they are absolutely lying to you……

……Colby, when he supplied me this FLIR tape, their were dozens of people who became aware of it in order to protect me and to protect him, but we apparently didn't protect him and I'm not sure we protected me very well because I really wouldn't be here. ….. ….. But what I'm telling you is that Colby felt that Clinton was the most morally corrupt president that, in the history of the United States. I've got to say I agree with that. It ah, was ah, he was particularly perturbed even though, as I understand, he was member of the Council of Foreign Relations. He indicated he was……

…..The Davidians got a good sample of a no knock warrant and they were stormed by a battalion of storm troopers, and on a Sunday morning women and children were shot willy nilly and I can assure you those people were as peaceful-- selling guns at gun shows doesn't make them bad guys. David Koresh wasn't any worse than Brigham Young. Brigham Young, or Joseph Smith, the Mormon religion has 5 million members, a $28 billion organization was founded by a guy like David Koresh…… ….. So and I might add they did the same to Joseph Smith. If the man wants to have 15 wives then he needs to move to Utah. That was David Koresh's problem. I've investigated the man. I don't find him to be a deviate. I found him to be an extremely religious human being. The women loved him. The children loved him and most of his male followers around there were willing to give up their wives. Now, they had to believe in this guy. Whether or not he was preaching BS or didn't know what he was doing, it's his right to do that. It's our right to listen to somebody. If they want to be the Messiah, then let them be the Messiah. If they don't sell, then they won't sell. I mean, it's a market place out there….. ….But to take away our freedoms of religion by destroying a little church that had been sitting out there for 65 years and knocking it off the map in order to send a message to everybody--you better give up your guns when we come to get them, and send a signal to the Bosnians, is pretty sick…."

10/17/96 Radio Interview of Gordon Novel (Installment IX) Freeper aristeides "……

I: Gordon, what was that ARV Plan that you were talking about?

C: Well, what, if I tell you what ARV stands for then, I'm going to be, there are going to be people who are going to say, "Now wait a second. That's kind of heavy duty. So I'm not going to tell you what it means.

By heavy duty I mean so outrageously unbelievable that you wouldn't know. But I can just tell you this. And if anybody in the Defense Department is listening, pay attention gentlemen. If this mess in Ohio is not cleaned up when I walk out of here and if I don't walk out on February 7th, on my birthday, I promise you I'm going to publish world wide your secret ARV Plans and the technology behind them, cause Colby gave them to me. And I can only tell you it probably cost him his life.

The evidence that you have in the Waco case came in from the same source. The ARV Plan gives you free energy. You don't have to pay for it. It's a one time cost. You pull your meter out of your box. You put this device in your box and that's the end of paying for electricity because in the world of atomic and subatomic systems there is a huge amount of space between the electrons and the nucleus of the atom. If the atom was as big as a baseball and the electrons were as big as a golf ball, you could put the golf ball on the Brooklyn Bridge and you could put-- Well I wouldn't say the Brooklyn Bridge, lets say the George Washington Bridge, you could put the nucleus of the atom, the proton and the neutron on the George Washington Bridge and the electrons would be on the Golden Gate Bridge. Anything in between is energy.

Public Action, Inc. 12/30/99 Carol Valentine "…. Lee Hancock is a reporter for the Dallas Morning News. From March 1, 1993 onward, her by-line appeared on many FBI disinformation pieces on Waco that masqueraded as "news stories." Of particular interest is her article of April 15, 1993, "No easy answers, law authorities puzzle over methods to end Branch Davidian siege." In the body of the article, Hancock casually mentions FBI plans to assassinate David Koresh: Note the fourth paragraph, which has been capitalized for emphasis. "WACO--For the armchair tactician, forcing an end to the 46-day Branch Davidian standoff might sound easy enough.

"Lob tear gas or other chemical agents in until the Branch Davidians are too incapacitated to fight and have no choice but to stagger out to waiting agents.

"Expose and limit their hiding places by crushing outer walls of the cult's sprawling Mount Carmel compound with Bradley fighting vehicles and 37-ton Abrams M-1 tanks.


There you have it--the FBI was planning to assassinate David Koresh by shooting him in the head. What a pity Clark did not cite Hancock's report along with Koresh's Autopsy Report. See especially pages 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15:

Koresh's Autopsy Report, of course, shows he died just as the FBI planned: he died of gunshot wounds to the head. Too bad Clark did not present this evidence in his law suit, particularly as he represented David Koresh's mother, Bonnie Haldeman. The presentation surely would have been compelling….."

Freeper Cato 1/13/2000 "…Yes, the Branch Davidians had a .50 cal Weapon. It was a .50 cal. bolt action sniper rifle. Anyone of us can go out and buy one today if your gun dealer has one in stock, otherwise you will have to order it and it should arrive several days later. Nothing illegal about it at all. The weapon the Davidians had was NOT a .50 cal BMG(Browning Machine Gun). Please do not let the press lead you astray. One other thing that people should know is that the holder of the license(I can't remember his name right now) had a class 3 firearms license. This license entitles the holder to buy, sell, or poccess a FULLY AUTOMATIC MACHINE GUN of any kind. It is still a mystery why this has not been talked about. The man was given this license by the ATF. They knew what he had and that he had their permission to have it. NO CRIME HERE! …."

Friends in High Places 9/13/99 Webb Hubbell excerpt pages 207-218 "…. In early April, Director Sessions asked for a meeting with Janet and me. He brought Floyd Clark and Larry Potts, also a deputy director…. Director Sessions had been keeping me up-to-date, of course, and I'd been doing the same with the others. But the FBI, Sessions said during this meeting, felt that negotiations with David Koresh were at a standstill. Their proposal was to shoot CS gas (an especially potent tear gas) into the compound...... We dispatched a team to Texas to see what was up. Floyd Clark and Larry Potts went for the FBI, and a senior deputy AG in the Criminal Division, Mark Richards, went to represent Justice. Janet and I both had complete confidence in Mark's judgment….."

Friends in High Places 9/13/99 Webb Hubbell excerpt pages 207-218 "…. Janet and I were still skeptical, but Mark was coming around to the FBI position. "If we do it," I said, "we have to tell the White House first." Director Sessions bristled at that suggestion. He was afraid of leaks…... "Is there someone in the military who can give us a second opinion on this?" He [Floyd Clark] wasn't at all offended. While Floyd set that in motion, I went to the White House to see Bernie, Vince, and Bruce Lindsey. I told them where things stood in Waco, and that it was a sad state of affairs that there were so few people in the White House that I could trust not to leak. Lives were at stake, I said. I knew the President wanted to be informed about this. Bernie and Bruce said they would tell him......."

Friends in High Places 9/13/99 Webb Hubbell excerpt pages 207-218 "…..."Trust your own judgment," Vince said. "You'll do the right thing." We talked just between us about the issues that were now taking up our days. This wasn't just practicing law; this was life or death. Even I was losing weight. Vince was unhappy. He told me that Hillary had snapped at him about the Health Care Task Force. "Fix it, Vince!" he said she had hissed. It hurt him deeply. The stress was getting to us all. We talked about how we couldn't discuss these pressures with anybody else. Suzy had no idea what was going on about Waco. Lisa knew nothing of the problems Vince was wrestling with…… My judgment told me we didn't want to gas those people. I felt it would touch off a disaster….At the end of the day, neither Janet nor I felt good about the plan. The FBI said that if we didn't go forward with it, maybe it was time to turn things over to the Texas Rangers while the hostage rescue team retrained. I could tell they didn't relish that idea…."

Friends in High Places 9/13/99 Webb Hubbell excerpt pages 207-218 "….We had a phone hookup with the commander in an armored vehicle. He kept mentioning the wind. We could see on TV that the wind was blowing hard. The wind was blowing the gas out of the building as fast as it was being pumped in, the FBI decided. That's why the people weren't coming out….. No one wanted to admit that the plan wasn't working……The President called for Janet at 10 A.M. She told him we were hopeful. No agents had been hurt and we just had to be patient. He said let him know if anything changed….. No longer were the vehicles "merely" inserting gas; they were now pushing down the walls of the compound. Director Sessions explained that the field commander was afraid Koresh was holding people against their will. They were opening an escape route. This, he said, was also part of the plan-it was just happening sooner than expected. I stared at the TV. Where were the people? Why wasn't the gas working? Then I saw smoke coming from a window. "Oh, shit," I said. Everyone in the room turned and looked at me…."

Friends in High Places 9/13/99 Webb Hubbell excerpt pages 207-218 "….The White House was on the line; they wanted a report. I had to phone Janet and give her the news. "Instead of coming out, it looks like they've burned themselves up," I said. "We hope there are tunnels full of people." Director Sessions left the tank…….When I got back to my apartment that night, I was beeped again. "Judge Hubbell," the man at Command Center said, "hold for the President." "Hub," came the familiar voice. How're you doing?" "Fine, Mr. President," I said. "I'm sorry I let you down." "Oh, come on, Hub. There's no doubt he was trying to commit suicide. He had an unbelievable hold on those people. You and Janet did all you could do." "Thank you," I said. "How are you doing?" It was my usual way of dealing with pain - trying to help someone else…."

1/11/2000 Freeper Ol’Dan Tucker "….I was reviewing the DSL and found this: 9/2/99 "...* The Warrant only listed legal weapons and explosives which anybody could own and "Four (4) M-16 parts set kits 'A'." It is assumed that the four kits are designed to upgrade the civilian version of the M-16 the AR-15 to a fully automatic weapon, but since independent gun dealers are unfamiliar with "part set kits 'A'" nobody really know what the statement declares. * The Warrant also accuses the Davidians of publishing "magazines such as, the Shotgun News and other related clandestine magazines." The other related clandestine magazines are never named. The "Shotgun News" has always been published for over fifty years in Hastings Nebraska, not Waco Texas. Furthermore, the "Shotgun News" is not a clandestine magazine, but rather an accepted one within the firearms community! (Dick Reavis, Ashes of Waco, p 25.)..."

I know what they're talking about here. Allow me to explain.

There are 6 parts required to convert an AR-15 to an M-16. (actually, it's still an AR-15, it's just a selective-fire AR-15 instead of a semi-auto AR-15) These are: trigger, hammer, disconnector, selector switch, auto-safety sear and bolt carrier. All of the parts except the auto-safety sear are drop-in replacements for the standard AR-15 parts. The auto-safety sear requires a hole be accurately drilled through the lower receiver for it to be mounted. Some people have sold plans for what's known as a drop-in auto-safety sear, but that's not usually a part of the "parts kit." When all six parts are gathered together, they are considered by the ATF to be a machine gun. It doesn't matter whether you're in possession of an AR-15 to mount these parts into, just having all six parts is enough to trigger a violation. Enterprising gun dealers discovered that they could sell everything but the bolt carrier and not violate the law, so that's what a lot of them did. The parts set kit "A" usually consisted of an M-16 trigger, hammer, disconnector, auto-safety sear and selector switch and usually cost between $40-50 dollars at a gun show…."

The New American 3/93 Robert W Lee "….. Filtering fact from fiction in the wake of the disastrous confrontation between federal agents and the Branch Davidian religious sect led by self-styled "prophet" David Koresh will be quite a task. Crucial evidence and key witnesses were consumed by the fire that destroyed the sect's complex near Waco, Texas on April 19th. Then on May 12th, government officials, citing a need to fill holes and cover trash and raw sewage for safety and health reasons, rolled bulldozers across the burned-out ruins, further depleting the inventory of evidence. Moreover, many important aspects of the entire 51-day standoff have become muddled as federal agencies and officials struggle to justify their actions….."

The New American 3/93 Robert W Lee "….. The crucial question of who fired the first shot during the original BATF raid remains in doubt. According to BATF intelligence chief David Troy, the entire mission (reportedly named Operation Trojan Horse) was videotaped, but the tapes are being withheld due to the homicide investigation. The unexpurgated tapes could confirm who fired first and clarify other key aspects of the tragedy. To preclude possible tampering, U.S. District Judge Walter S. Smith Jr. in Waco has ordered the FBI to preserve all of the government's audio and videotapes of the February 28th raid. Unless complete, unedited tapes can be produced, and soon, the widespread suspicion that the government is engaged in a cover-up will intensify. …."

The New American 3/93 Robert W Lee "….. On March 11th, BATF Deputy Associate Director Dan Conroy told reporters, "We absolutely, categorically deny we contacted the media prior to the raid." He subsequently acknowledged, however, that Sharon Wheeler, a BATF spokeswoman in Dallas, had contacted several Dallas-based news agencies a few hours prior to the raid and asked for the phone numbers of specific press representatives who could be reached "in case something happened" over the weekend. And during his testimony before the House Judiciary Committee on April 28th, BATF Director Stephen E. Higgins was asked by Representative John Bryant (D-TX): "Did somebody at the BATF notify the press in advance of the raid?" Higgins replied: "Yes, I think there's evidence which indicates that someone did." …."

The New American 3/93 Robert W Lee "….. An especially disturbing aspect of this whole affair is the extent to which federal authorities have relied on unverified charges by former Branch Davidians as the basis for their decisions. The testimony of disgruntled members of religious organizations, of former employees, or of embittered family members is notoriously unreliable standing alone. The most sensational charges about David Koresh's alleged adulteries, multiple wives, sex with children, etc., have come from disaffected Davidians …"

The New American 3/93 Robert W Lee "….. David Koresh was no angel (nor prophet, nor Jesus for that matter). He also headed a sect that most people would call a cult. But how do these facts explain the wild exaggerations by his critics? During a MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour interview on April 20th, for example, terrorism expert Frank McGuire claimed that "David Koresh left a trail of criminal behavior going back to at least 1987," when the most that can be said is that he left a trail of alleged criminality. FBI spokesman Bob Ricks labeled Koresh "a classical sociopath," Attorney General Janet Reno branded him "a dangerous criminal," Fort Worth Star-Telegram columnist Bill Thompson described him as "one of the vilest mass murderers of our time," and President Clinton said he was "dangerous, irrational and probably insane." Such unsubstantiated statements have served primarily to condition the public to accept the calamitous federal response as justified, no matter how unconstitutional and brutal, since the target was characterized as being a monster who had to be brought down by any means. …."

The New American 3/93 Robert W Lee "….. Moreover, the Justice Department acknowledged on April 21st that there was no hard evidence of any recent child abuse, but instead only speculation by psychiatrists who had studied Koresh, analyzed his writings, and interviewed former members of the sect. On that basis, the "experts" had concluded, and advised federal authorities, that abuse had occurred and was probably continuing. Also on April 21st, 1,100 pages of unsealed documents were released in Waco. They contained only two allegations of child abuse, both of which emanated from disgruntled former members of the sect.

The New American 3/93 Robert W Lee "….. On April 28th, FBI Deputy Director Floyd Clarke told the House Judiciary Committee that the Branch Davidians had used their own children as human shields. He asserted that sect members "would appear in the windows and hold the children up" and would even refer to the children as "Kevlar Kids." Kevlar is a bulletproof material. Clarke's account is evidently based on an incident that occurred one month earlier when federal agents used an M1-A1 Abrams battle tank to clear vehicles, brush, and other debris from the front of the compound property. Some sect members lifted children to windows, apparently to satiate their curiosity about what was taking place. There were no other indications of evil intent, no display of weapons, no acts of aggression. FBI spokesman Richard Swensen acknowledged that the children may have been hoisted up simply to satisfy their curiosity about the tank, but added that it was a dangerous maneuver which "raised the anxiety level of everyone." The FBI's concern was understandable, but so was the Davidians' deportment, and the episode hardly merited the self-serving spin given it by Deputy Director Clarke.

The New American 3/93 Robert W Lee "….. In the wake of the tragic fire, FBI spokesman Bob Ricks told reporters on April 19th that one of the surviving sect members reported that the children had been safely placed in a bunker before flames swept the compound. "It appears that this was one final lie on David's part to assure the people that the children had been taken care of," Ricks asserted. "It appears once again his final act to the American public was to go through a lie." But on May 14th, the Associated Press revealed, "As it turned out, it was no lie: Most of the children were found huddled in the concrete bunker, enveloped in the protective embraces of their mothers."

The New American 3/93 Robert W Lee "…..

In one of the most dramatic segments of his May 4th news conference, Dr. Perry displayed pictures drawn by the children. In one instance, a girl had depicted her "home," and when Dr. Perry asked if there was anything else, the youngster took the crayon and pounded a number of marks at the top of the structure. When Dr. Perry asked what it meant, she replied "bullets." This was viewed as an indication that the sect's alleged obsession with guns and shooting had scarred the youngster emotionally. But the possibility that the youngster was emotionally affected by the government's raid on the compound was ignored. It is no exaggeration to state that that event must have been traumatic for the children.

The New American 3/93 Robert W Lee "….. The arson investigation team led by Paul Gray, assistant chief investigator for the Houston Fire Department, discounted Davidian claims that a tank knocked over a can of fuel. Gray claimed during a news briefing on April 26th that it was impossible because, as captured by videotape, the last assault by the tank was at least four minutes before the fire actually broke out. But NBC News reported later in the day that it had videotaped a tank "tearing away the corner of one building only 2 minutes 50 seconds before the first signs of fire." Those first indications of fire emanated from a window almost directly above the point where the tank ripped the hole. On April 28th, CBS News correspondent Sarah Hughes reported that the supposedly "independent" arson investigation team "has close ties with the FBI." In response, Mr. Gray groused that to "even suggest that any information we may be getting from the FBI is somehow tainted is absolutely ridiculous." During an ABC News Nightline interview that evening, attorney Jack Zimmermann asked, referring to Gray, "Why in the world did they bring in as chief of this investigating team looking into the fire, a fellow who had been on an ATF joint task force for eight to ten years, out of the Houston office of the ATF, the office that planned and executed the raid?" Good question!

Email from anonymous 1/31/2000 "…. the numbers of "special personnel" were discussed. "More than 10 but less than 20" is a nice round figure….." Freeper amom "..... Group aka: Branch Davidians, Mount Carmel, David Koresh - From their link to Child Custody and Cults Michael D. Langone, Ph.D

Cult Observer, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1995

..."What is in the best interests of the children?"...

...This tendency to disrupt family relationships is a natural outgrowth of the isolationism, subjectivism, and closed logical system of psychologically abusive groups. As exemplified in the case of David Koresh, the group's social and conceptual systems are structured so as to prop up the leader's typically exaggerated view of his/her importance...

...First of all, the children are raised in an environment in which dire threats (the "devil") and regular criticism of their failings make them feel insecure and dependent upon leadership for whatever intermittent reinforcement leadership provides. Such an environment is the opposite of what the psychological community would recommend for the rearing of children...

...It is almost self-evident that groups that are isolationist, subjectivist, and logically closed will hinder children's attempts to learn the interpersonal, intellectual, and practical skills that mainstream society puts so much effort into teaching children... " CULT 101


Partisan Over a year ago - Fall of 1998 (Glass interviews McNulty) Freeper Ada Coddington 9/29/99 "

"…. GLASS: Well, what the hell is going on?
McNULTY: …… But likewise I’m sure that if a reporter from the New York Times asked the current director of the CIA was Colby involved in bringing authoritative information to us in order to expose the FBI – He’d say "I have no idea." And he might be right. But people died. Mr. Colby if indeed he died as a result of his involvement with us and not for some other reason is not the only individual who died during the process of the making of this film.
GLASS: Who else died?
McNULTY: There’s a gentleman by the name of Eddie Pack who supplied us with footage in the early stages of my investigation. He died a very mysterious death from exposure to a rather large burst of microwave energy, which dealt him a very serious blow called cancer. Microwave energy can be used to erase videotapes from long distances, which is what happened in this circumstance. It appears that he was in the wrong place at the wrong time. Eddie had a habit of intercepting downlink material off of satellites. He came up with some very unusual videotape that was made originally by television networks regarding the events at Waco. Never saw the light of day on the air.
GLASS: How old was Eddie when he died?
McNULTY: Oh gosh, I’m not sure. I think he was in his mid fifties, early fifties. He wound up receiving very serious radiation burns in his esophagus and his throat as a result of his exposure to this microwave energy. They ulcerated and he couldn’t eat. Over a period of time something less than 12 months the ulcers became cancerous. What really got him was the fact that he had been so irradiated that he actually developed cancer of the bone and it spread rapidly throughout his body and in a matter of days he was gone.

There were three others men also killed. Actually four but in two separate instances.
One was an "accident" that involved three of his friends that he was supposed to have been with.
He had a musical repair business back in North Carolina. He used to repair musical instruments for all of the school districts in the three-state area. He was a musician – a very accomplished musician and used to play back-up in Nashville for a number of well-known recording artists – country western. He and his friends, his fellow musicians used to go to these recording sessions as back-up studio musicians. On the evening of January 14, 1994, the four of them were supposed to go to a performance. He got a call and went to another gig. These other three gentlemen, one or two of which had been involved in surreptitious activity in support of what we were trying to do in terms of getting videotapes, went to the original performance.

They had been followed and all kinds of strange stuff. The three of them were travelling in a van on U.S. Highway 221, which ran out of gas on a causeway over a lake in North Carolina. They were hit and struck by a car – a plain vanilla sedan with two gentlemen in it. The accident was witnessed by this woman who stopped and hollered at these two men who had exited their vehicle to inspect what had happened to these men now lying on the ground after having been struck by them. She advised them that she would go to the end of the causeway over the lake they were on and call an ambulance. When she came back the plain vanilla car was gone. The two individuals in the car were gone and the three individuals that were laying on the pavement were now in several pieces strung along the highway having been run over multiple times. The local sheriff did not investigate.

GLASS: What are the names of these people?
McNULTY: Reverend Roger Howard, his 17-year-old son, Manual Howard and James Ray Dobbins.

There was another individual who was helping Eddie financially. Government agents had told the school districts that Eddie was servicing that he was some sort of crazy right wing militia nut and that they shouldn’t do business with him. They said that he was yelling and screaming and writing letters off to Mr. Clinton and Miss Reno about what he had seen and was creating quite a stir. As a result of this Eddie’s business suffered dramatically. Eddie’s son was a police officer and had his police car searched ostensibly for videotapes by federal agents. Eddie’s house had been surreptitiously visited on numerous occasions. On one of those occasions the latest series of videotapes he had made off of the downlink feed from the satellite dish had been erased. They had been reduced to nothing but white noise, stacked up in a pyramid in front of his television and the front door left open. A little calling card if you will. Eddie’s house and car had been the targets of drive-by shootings.

When things had reached rock bottom for Eddie this one man came to his aid financially. He was helping him survive. He was a truck driver who owned a trucking business and he died in a one-vehicle accident one day in clear weather in a rollover of mysterious origins. So people have died in the process of getting all of this done.

GLASS: Now that the tape is out and you’ve distributed copies numbering in the thousands, you’re probably safer now than you were before because if they killed you now – it would just sort of –
McNULTY: It wouldn’t do them any good
GLASS: Right. It would just make the tape a hotter commodity.
McNULTY: I’m not volunteering for that duty, mind you. My dad always taught me that if you are going to dance with the devil you do it in the sunshine so the boogieman can’t get you in the shadows.
GLASS: My point being that whether the death threats made against you were real or if they wanted to kill you or whatever — the point is that if they killed you now – after the fact it would only add more credibility to the message of the film.

McNULTY : And likewise it wasn’t just me. OK? Bill Gazeki and I had an interesting episode in Waco. We were standing out in front of what is called the "Magbag" which is a location where –
GLASS: It was a garage, wasn’t it?
McNULTY: It was a garage where they repaired autos in addition to the many businesses that they had. They had a gun-dealing business, they had a rock and roll band, and they had a car restoration business. And the Magbag was the place where they did the car restoration. We were standing – gosh this was a few years ago – out in front of the Magbag doing what’s called "B roll" where you just film scenery and scenes and settings for fill-in in the film. And this plain vanilla sedan of late make with two Ivy League groomed gentlemen went whizzing by us. We were standing by the side of the road with a big Beta cam camera with a big tripod, etc. and they must have been going 65 or 70 miles per hour down this country road. They got down to the end of the Y intersection and did a high speed U turn, like you see in any cop movie.

GLASS: Steve McQueen –Bullet. McNULTY: Yea. Steve McQueen Bullet kind of stuff. And came hauling back to where we were standing. They pulled up even with us so we couldn’t see the license plates front or back and stepped out of the car and proceeded to ask us if we were making a movie. They introduced themselves as a local and his friend who was a tourist. We asked the "tourist" what he did and he said that he was some sort of a biochemist who had a lot of knowledge about things like methalyne chloride, which was the carrier ingredient of the CS gas at Waco. And they began to tell us more about our movie than we ourselves knew. And they never identified themselves beyond being a tourist and a local businessman and they began getting really irritated with us and telling us that in threatening tones. They started yelling that we couldn’t make a movie on this subject because we didn’t know what we were talking about, that we didn’t really know what happened. And I’m wondering who are you to tell us that we don’t know? What do you know? Who are you?

So we decided when the one gentleman who was the biochemist – when the veins started to bulge out of his neck and his face started to turn red and he started yelling and screaming that maybe it was a good time to leave. So we packed our gear, threw it in the back of the car and pardoned ourselves with the explanation that we had other things to do and so long. As the director got into the car he yelled back over his shoulder "And don’t forget get our names right in the reports." They didn’t take that kindly. So we left.

Two days later we were at the Dallas airport 100 miles away leaving for Boston and here come these same two individuals walking down the thoroughfare just as we’re starting to board. And they make like they don’t see us and go over and stand in this food line a little further down the concourse. As we boarded our aircraft I went through the gate and peeked around the corner and I saw that they had left the food line with no food in their hands and started walking over to the gate. Who were these guys? Well, anybody that can read between the lines could say that they were probably FBI agents trying to put a little pressure on us not to do what we were doing. That kind of thing.

And so Gazeki and I had those occasions. Mr. Gifford, the executive producer had some problems last year with state taxes. I’ve had my problems with the IRS and Mr. Gazeki was told that he was being audited just a couple of weeks ago. Is the government putting pressure on us? I find it curious that all three of us could be having problems with the tax collectors right at a time when we produce and release a film critical of the government. The odds of all three of us having problems with taxes at the same time are not very likely. So I would say yeah that they’re on to us and looking for ways to pressure us but it’s a little late.
GLASS: Cat’s out of the bag….."

Partisan Over a year ago - Fall of 1998 (Glass interviews McNulty) Freeper Ada Coddington 9/29/99 " "……

McNULTY: We've found a definitive answer as to who shot first on February 28th. We've found more detailed information on the 40mm grenades that were used.
GLASS: You mentioned grenades. What kind of grenades are you talking about?
McNULTY: They appear to be incendiary in nature. I don't want to go into more detail than that. They are consistent with other information that we've received as to the identity of the players - the shooters on the ground at the back of the building, we now know, it was NOT the FBI or the ATF.
GLASS: Could you tell us whom ?
McNULTY: All our evidence points to the same group of boys. This would be Delta Force "B" Squadron - whoever was rotated into the duty unit that particular month, April 1993. They appear to have been represented by a 13-man contingent at the back of the building and as they say "forward deployed" with members of the FBI Hostage Rescue Team at the back of the building. Forward deployed means actively engaged. They were some of the shooters. At this point we've received confirmation from literally dozens of sources within the military as well as formerly classified Army documents that confirm this……

McNULTY: …..The feedback that I'm getting right now from a lot of Special Forces operators is that they believe that Delta Force operates under an exemption to Posse Comitatus which allows them to act and react upon U.S. citizens.
GLASS: Who is giving them this exemption?
McNULTY: According to the sources that I've dealt with they claim that that exemption came as a presidential executive order.
GLASS: Which president?
McNULTY: We don't know. But that is Delta Force's claim. I have not seen any such presidential executive order. I have not seen any exemption to Posse Comitatus (except in the War on Drugs) referred to or implemented in legislation. This is a question the people of the United States had better get to the bottom of before they find Delta Force at their doorstep….."

Freeper aristeides "..... And the plane from which the FBI shot the FLIR footage was presumably the SAS plane that we learned some time ago had been supplied by the Brits to the U.S. government at Waco........ Didn't the government submit false information to Judge Smith's court about, for example, the nonexistence of this kind of camera? I would assume that any pleadings with such false information had to be signed by at least one lawyer, as required by Rule 11(a) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. In fact, I would guess that at least a certain Marie Louise Hagen signed such pleadings.

Here is Rule 11(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure:

(b) Representations to Court. By presenting to the court (whether by signing, filing, submitting, or later advocating) a pleading, written motion, or other paper, an attorney or unrepresented party is certifying that to the best of the person's knowledge, information, and belief, formed after an inquiry reasonable under the circumstances,-- (1) it is not being presented for any improper purpose, such as to harass or to cause unnecessary delay or needless increase in the cost of litigation; (2) the claims, defenses, and other legal contentions therein are warranted by existing law or by a nonfrivolous argument for the extension, modification, or reversal of existing law or the establishment of new law; (3) the allegations and other factual contentions have evidentiary support or, if specifically so identified, are likely to have evidentiary support after a reasonable opportunity for further investigation or discovery; and (4) the denials of factual contentions are warranted on the evidence or, if specifically so identified, are reasonably based on a lack of information or belief.

Rule 11(c) provides for sanctions against parties and lawyers violating Rule 11(b). When is Judge Smith going to get around to assessing such sanctions? In fact, I wonder whether the time has not come to consider holding government lawyers in contempt of court. ...."

Freeper aristeides 1/30/2000 "…..I have started to read the book "No Heroes. Inside the FBI's Secret Counter-Terror Force" by retired FBI official Danny O. Coulson. The following passage (from pp. 431-2) has some interesting information on the failed BATF raid and, by indicating that three of the four BATF people killed were on Buford's team, appears to provide corroboration for the claim that they had been part of Clinton's campaign security. Note that three of the wounded were also on Buford's team. Finally, the passage apparently says that Buford had been leading his whole team up ladders onto the roof.

[The morning of Feb. 28, 1993, just after the failed BATF raid on Mt. Carmel,] I settled into the submarine [SIOC, Strategic Information and Operations Center, the crisis center - or "tank" - inside FBI Headquarters in the J. Edgar Hoover Building in Washington] and started reviewing every bit of news footage we could find on the incident. Over and over we watched the amazing film of the gun battle. Sure enough, Bill Buford [an old friend of Coulson's] had been right in the middle of it. He was badly hurt, but doctors at the local hospital thought he would live. He had been leading a team up ladders and onto the second-floor roof when rounds from an M16 and an AK-47 ripped into his legs and hip. He fell off the roof, breaking several ribs. As he lay bleeding and helpless, the Davidians had strafed the ground around his head with machine-gun fire. An ATF medic had thrown his body across him and protected him for nearly two hours until the cease-fire took effect.

My heart ached for Buford. Not because of his wounds - he would survive those. His body was as tough as an old bobcat's. What you never get over is losing your men. Three of the young agents killed - [Conway] LeBleu, [Todd] McKeehan, and [Robert J.] Williams - were on Buford's twelve-man team, and three other members of the same team were wounded….."

"….. And here's another passage, from pp. 435-6 of the Coulson book. It purports to describe some decisions made immediately after responsibility for Mt. Carmel was turned over to the FBI the morning of Feb. 29. Note the characteristic phrasing about no FBI weapons being fired. Note also how the decision to use armored military vehicles appears to depend on alleged fears about the Davidians' 50-caliber guns.

Jeff Jamar knew the time-tested "isolate, contain, negotiate" drill. He and [Deputy FBI Director] Larry Potts issued rules of engagement that were the standard deadly force policy, period. The HRT [Hostage Rescue Team] was told to avoid getting into a situation where a shoot/don't-shoot decision had to be made. Throughout the fifty-one days of the siege, not a single FBI weapon was discharged. The strategy was by the book: keep the negotiators talking to Koresh, use the HRT to set a perimeter, have behavioral specialists and intelligence people find out as much as possible about the beliefs and fears that drove Koresh and his congregation. FBI agents would eventually find and interview nearly every former Davidian in the world.

Still, as Marine commandant P. X. Kelley once said, life is full of lousy choices. We would make plenty of them before the siege was resolved. The first, on March 1, was to bring in armored vehicles. I hated the very idea. I felt strongly that whenever you use military equipment, the signal you send to the American people is that you are making war on U.S. citizens. On the other hand, the HRT operators had to be shielded if they were to work their way toward the compound's walls. The Davidians stood sentry in a tower that had a 360-degree view of the prairie. They had night vision scopes and their fifty-caliber guns could blast apart any vehicle we had. We could not responsibly send our people within striking distance of them, not without armor.

We asked the army for nine Bradley fighting vehicles, configured without gun barrels. HRT operators started driving them around the compound shortly before five o'clock that afternoon. The sight enraged Koresh, who told negotiators he was going to blow the Bradleys "forty to fifty feet in the air." We weren't sure he couldn't make good on his threat. God knows lots of LAW rockets and Soviet-designed rocket-propelled grenade launchers were on the black market. We went back to the army for two Abrams tanks and five combat-engineer vehicles that could withstand a direct hit by most hand-held rockets. There was no debate about the necessity of using these vehicles. We had to insure the safety of our agents….."

"…. And here is more from pp. 440-1 of Coulson's book that I think is worth posting:

In discussions among Jamar, Rogers, and those of us at HQ, the HRT developed an emergency assault plan to be used in case a murder-suicide pact began to unfold. The only thing we could do was to make holes in the building and throw some teat gas and flash-bangs around as distractions for those who might come to their senses and try to flee. Dick Rogers and I talked about how frustrating this was. It was not a good plan, but it was about the best we could do without having our own agents massacred in an attempted rescue mission. In case the adults decided to poison everyone, including the children, Rogers acquired enough anti-cyanide kits to provide a life-saving dose for every child and a few of the adults. The medics kept them at the ready at the forward command post. The HRT operators were ordered not to go near the building on foot, no matter what they heard or saw. We feared that Koresh and his people might try to lure the HRT men inside and ambush them. He often spoke of traps and snares.

In contrast to the Weaver siege, which was run by people in the field and a skeleton August weekend crew, everybody who was anybody had a say in the Waco crisis. It was a typical committee deal. Big rooms, big egos, lots of power. But no one had any good ideas about how to handle this madman. I certainly didn't. Floyd Clarke was in the saddle at HQ, Jamar and the other SAC's working in the Waco command post held telephone conversations several times a day.

Late in the ordeal, Justice officials began to migrate to SIOC to discuss options. They didn't have any good ideas either. After Attorney General Janet Reno was sworn in on March 12, she immersed herself in the details and asked dozens of questions, mostly about the welfare of the children. No one doubted that they were her main concern. Of course, they were everyone's concern. The adults were volunteers. The children were victims.

As at Waco, friction developed within our ranks, with the negotiators sometimes at odds with the tactical people or the commander and top managers. For example, on March 12, Gary Noesner told Koresh that because they had a "very good dialogue" during the night, the electricity would remain on. A half hour later, Jamar ordered the electricity shut off for the duration of the standoff. Jamar wanted to show the Davidians that the FBI, not Koresh, was in control. On March 21, the negotiators secured the release of seven adults. Shortly afterward, the HRT used armored vehicles to drag cars away from the compound. The tactical team contended that the vehicles formed a dangerous obstruction, but the negotiators believed that moving in with armor signaled to the Davidians that their concessions had been meaningless.

We now know that most of the disconnects between the HRT and the negotiators were the unintentional result of Jamar's "stovepipe" management style. Jamar or the SAC's backing him up met with the tactical team, or the negotiations team, but seldom both at once.

Ultimately, however, the negotiators never argued they could have resolved the standoff peacefully if they had called every shot. As Byron Sage put it, "Was there tension between the negotiation effort and the tactical effort? Yes, there was. Did it ultimately affect the outcome of this incident? No, it did not."…."

"…..And this is from pp. 442-3 of Coulson's book:

The next night [March 16], Sage broadcast the tape of the [telephone] conversation [between Byron Sage and David Koresh] over loudspeakers so that the inhabitants [of Mt. Carmel] could hear David [Koresh] stammer and waffle when challenged. Meanwhile, Jamar ordered the HRT to move in with tanks, move obstructions, and shrink the perimeter. On March 21 the loudspeakers started blasting the compound with loud music. Tones and irritating noises such as Tibetan chants were added to the repertoire the next day.

Dick Rogers and I have ended up on the opoosite sides of a number of issues, but I have to say here that two accusations have been unfairly leveled at him and the HRT. The public has been given the impression that the idea of blasting the compound with irritating noises came from the tactical commanders. That's just not true. Actually, as a Justice Department internal review later found, the noise bombardment was suggested by Park Dietz [a professor of psychiatry at the UCLA School of Medicine who was frequently a consultant for the FBI] and seconded by some of the negotiators, Sage among them, in an effort to disrupt the sleep cycle of Koresh and his "mighty men" so that they could not think straight. There were indications from electronic listening devices the HRT had slipped into the compound in milk deliveries that Koresh was getting stronger [after his wounding.] The whole Waco crisis team feared that Koresh and his inner circle were plotting to burst out of the compound, firing at our lines while holding the children as shields. They thought this because the Davidians sometimes hoisted children up to the windows as the tanks rolled near the walls to tow away vehicles. Also, men occasionally walked out of the compound and straight at our sniper positions as if they were probing to see what we'd do. On occasion, HRT operators threw flash-bang devices near them, to drive them back into the compounds.

Nor is it true that HRT initiated the idea of injecting tear gas into the compound to clear the buildings. On March 22, in preparation for a crisis-management-team strategy session, the negotiation team submitted a memo opining that Koresh and his core group would not give up anytime soon. The negotiators felt that the odds of group suicide were not great. They thought that the standoff would eventually be resolved peacefully, but since Koresh had no incentive to bargain, they suggested speeding things up by introducing tear gas "to incrementally escalate stress within the compound to bring the standoff to an orderly and positive resolution." The tear gas idea met with no objections at HQ but was placed on the back burner……"

"….And this I think is the critical passage in Coulson's book, on how the decisions were made, from pp. 445-8:

Floyd Clarke and Larry Potts went to Waco on April 7. [No mention of Mark Richard, of the Criminal Divison of the Justice Department, who I believe accompanied them on this trip.] Jamar again raised the issue of CS gas - tear gas. He felt some urgency to move Koresh off the dime because of the increasingly foul conditions inside the compound. Jamar thought it was only a matter of time, a short time, before the open cesspools spread disease through the compound. If that happened, the young and the weak would go first.

Clarke, Potts, and the rest of us took his point. Koresh could hold out practically forever. He had at least a year's store of MREs - military meals-ready-to-eat - on hand, plus huge tanks of water. He would never be hungry or thirsty. He would eat and drink first. After all, he was God. We knew we'd end up sending in food for the children, and he'd appropriate it. A man who would have sex with little girls and beat toddlers wouldn't hesitate to starve them, nor to exploit their pain to gain sympathy for himself. Suppose Koresh demanded regular access to television, and we conceded. What would the world see? Sich, hungry children.

Furthermore, the snipers had been out on the line for thirty-eight days, peering through their scopes, watching for the first signs of a breakout. This was stressful duty. If we had to pull them out for rest and retraining, we had no one who could replace them, because no SWAT unit or any other law enforcement team could use their weapons with the surgical precision necessary to shoot a Davidian charging our lines with an AK-47 in one hand and a baby in the other.

None of us were enthusiastic about tear gas, but nothing else of a nonlethal nature was available to us. As HRT commander, I had argued for studies of nonlethal knockout gases, but research into this subject was only in its infancy. As things stood, no anesthetic gas could be administered in a controlled way. A dose strong enough to knock out a grown man would kill a child or old person. Rogers and I talked about using a water cannon, but it would have the force of a wrecking ball. It might cave in the building and kill those inside. All the toxicology tests we had seen indicated that CS gas would not endanger the children. We thought it a better option than letting the crisis drag on for more months.

My only reservation was that I didn't want to use armored vehicles to deliver it. I thought we should fire M-79 grenade launchers from the Bradleys to shoot CS containers into sections of the compound. That plan was rejected by our leadership because they feared that the Davidians would respond by pouring heavy volumes of fire onto these vehicles. Rounds might enter the portals, ricochet around inside, and cause injury and loss of life. I believed that we had techniques that could minimize this possibility, but I couldn't guarantee 100 percent success. The plan to use the tanks to inject the gas was ultimately approved [doesn't say by whom.]

Sessions, Clarke, and Potts briefed Attorney General Janet Reno and her aides on the tear gas option on April 12, exactly a month after she had been sworn in. The strategy developed by Jamar and Rogers contemplated inserting gas into the compound section by section, announcing our intentions first so that the people inside could clear out. The idea was not to gas the people but to make large parts of the compound uninhabitable. The gas would be shot in a liquid, which crystallized in the air and turned to a fine dust that settled to the floor. Anyone who entered the room for days afterward would stir up the dust and get a dose of it in the eyes and mouth.

Reno asked for opinions from medical experts about the effects of CS gas on children, pregnant women, and old people. She also wanted to hear from the military [I thought this was Web Hubbell's suggestion, probably prompted by someone in the White House - didn't Clinton himself claim credit after the event?]. A second briefing, on April 14, featured a panel of military experts on CS, including Dr. Harry Salem, chief scientist for life sciences at the U.S. Army Chemical Biological Defense Command [this guy goes unnamed in the WND report on this meeting; on the other hand, Coulson here does not mention the presence of special forces people, Col Boykin of Delta Force and Gen. Schoomaker from Ft. Hood, and their discussion of the tactical plan]. This session persuaded Reno that tear gas wouldn't do permanent damage to the people in the compound and wouldn't ignite. CS gas in crystal form would actually put out a small fire.

The same day, Dick DeGuerin told Jamar that Koresh had set a new timetable for surrender. He would come out after he had written a manuscript that interpreted the Seven Seals, the mystery of God's plan for the world's end, referred to in the Book of Revelation. Since Koresh's dyslexia prevented him from writing himself - he dictated to a follower, usually Judy Schneider - this effort could take months, if it was ever completed at all.

Reno considered the gas plan for two days more but, depending on whom you talk to, either disapproved it outright or shelved it. She worried that Koresh might set off a bomb or hold children up to the windows and threaten to shoot them.

She asked us to prepare a detailed statement describing the negotiations, conditions in the compound, and the rationale for tear gas. On April 17, after receiving this document, Reno approved the tear gas plan, to be executed on Monday morning, April 19. She briefed President Clinton on April 18, explaining that the talks were stalemated, the FBI could not sustain its high alert level indefinitely, and as time passed, the danger to those inside and outside increased. [I thought Reno's decision and her talk with Clinton occurred on the same day, as confirmed as recently as by Hubbell's otherwise unreliable book. In fact, I continue to suspect that Reno changed her mind and approved of the plan because of orders or suggestion by one or the other of the Clintons.] The children in the compound were living in unsafe, unsanitary conditions and might be suffering abuse. The President told Reno he supported her decision.

That afternoon, the HRT operators drove their armored vehicles close to the compound walls and towed away the rest of the cars, including Koresh's prize Chevrolet Camaro. Koresh called the negotiators and raised hell, warning, "If you don't know what you're doing, this could be the worst day in law enforcement history." As the operators kept at their task, the snipers saw children being held aloft in the windows and a cardboard sign that read, "Flames Await." …."


Email to Alamo-Girl, source anonymous 1/28/2000 "It was detasheet."

Email to Alamo-Girl, source anonymous 1/27/2000 "...The basic discussion of shaped charges and their affects are correct. But the forum doesn't have all of the information they need. Your basic shaped charge focuses the explosive effect into a jet of extremely hot and fast moving gas that produces most of the effect. It is also a fairly fragile device. While I was still on active duty I was shown a variation of the shaped charge that could, repeat COULD, have caused the damage at Waco. The lecturer called the new device a "cookie cutter" because it cut a nearly circular hole through almost anything. This included steel, concrete, reinforced concrete, armor plate, etc... The "cookie cutter" started with a disc of copper. On the side facing away from the target surface was a layer of neoprene - the stuff they make skin diver wet suits of. On the exposed side of the neoprene was a layer of plastic explosive. When fired the neoprene absorbs most of the shockwave effect allowing the copper disc to be accelerated to something approaching the burning speed of the explosive (3,000 feet per second, or more ?). The "cookie cutter" becomes a self-forming warhead that impacts its target at extremely high speeds. The "cookie cutter" is only effective as a stand off weapon - there needs to be space between the copper disc and the target surface so maximum penetration affect can be achieved. At one time the basic information on the "cookie cutter" appeared in the JMEMS....."

Freeper amom 1/31/2000 "….The Spring 1997 Conference will be held in West Helena, AR. on Wednesday, March 26-27, 1997. 9:00 a.m. - 11:00 a.m. Domestic Terrorism: Identification and Characteristics... Bill Buford, Resident Agent in Charge of ATF's Little Rock Field Office will kickoff the educational sessions with discussion of domestic terrorism. Do probation and parole officers have a role in detecting and preventing terrorism? How can officers best fulfill their responsibilities? Bill Buford will answer these questions and talk about the characteristics of terrorists. 11:00 a.m. - Noon. Waco: A Review to Include Right Wing Religious Organizations ...... During the segment Bill Buford will talk on right-wing religious organizations, he will share the insights he has gained during his many years of experience including his experience in Waco. Bill Buford has 25 years with the ATF and has been in Little Rock since March 1976. He was awarded ATF's "Medal of Valor", and "Gold Star" for wounds received in a hostile action, and the "Hostile Action Award". …."

Public Action, Inc. 1/30/2000 Carol Valentine "….Of course we know SOMETHING caused the hole in the roof of the concrete room. But there is a reason Ramsey Clark and Gordon Novel asked Partin to write an affidavit, and not you or me. Partin is a munitions expert. We are not. Partin was not asked for a "reasonable assumption." He was asked for expert opinion. In his affidavit, Partin gave his *expert* opinion about the hole in the roof of the concrete room and the fireball. As an *expert,* he said the fireball appeared over the roof and was part of the phenomenon that caused the hole. As an *expert* we might expect Partin to base his opinion on the evidence. But the evidence contradicts Partin. The fireball did not appear over the roof of the concrete room. Therefore the fireball was not part of the phenomenon that caused the hole in the roof as Partin inferred. Partin got the location of the fireball wrong, despite easy availability of photographic evidence and layouts of the Mt.Carmel Center. Partin also said the fireball was caused by a breaching charge. So Partin also got the cause of the fireball wrong….. What WAS Partin basing his analysis on, if not the evidence? Ian Goddard e-mails? Or does the same military intelligence unit write the scripts for Partin and Goddard? …."

Public Action, Inc. 1/30/2000 Carol Valentine "….Whenever covert operations pulls off something like Waco or OKC (actions), they can count on someone from the public noticing and objecting (reactions). So covert operations designs the action, and they DESIGN THE REACTION, too. Before the action, they place and prepare their agents to lead the reaction. They set up phoney critics. That way the control both sides of the street. …….Covert operations gets a real analysis written and promoted by their own man, but they have their man neutralized. What better way to discredit Partin than have Partin say the commies pulled off OKC? Put another way, what better person to forward a realistic analysis of the OKC bombing than a quack John Birch Society type? With a "kill a commie for Christ" stooge on first base, you can bet vast numbers of Internet denizens would not give a minute's time to Partin's OKC theories. What an insurance policy for covert operations! ….."

Freeper Ol’Dan Tucker "….The Feds have practically bragged about the fact that they had listening devices all over the compound. Now, pleading stupidity here, isn't the range of most such bugs limited? Wouldn't it be better to have a closer collection point, switching channel???…..Good thinking. I'm sorry I missed this earlier, but I've been out of sorts the last couple of days. Yes, the range of smaller bugs are generally limited especially when going through walls because of the smaller antennaes and limited battery power, so they would might need a repeater to carry the signal. The Sierra 3 was the closest to the main building at about 100 yards away, so this would be a logical receiving station….." Freeper Buckeroo 6/7/91 ".....Cite as U.S. v. Rock Island Armory, Inc., 773 F.Supp. 117(C.D.Ill.1991) ....... As applied to machineguns alleged to be possessed after May19, 1986, prosecutions may no longer proceed under 26 U.S.C.section 5861. This is because the National Firearms Act is part of the Internal Revenue Code, and its provisions-including registration of machineguns possessed after May 19, 1986-are valid only to the extent they aid in the collection of tax revenue. Since BATF would not register and accept tax payments for any machinegun after May 19, 1986, registration of machineguns made and possessed after that date no longer serves any revenue purpose, and such registration requirements are invalid. Since 18 U.S.C. sec. 922(o) is interpreted to ban registration and taxation of machineguns under the National Firearms Act, sec. 922(o) effectively repeals such registration and taxation provisions. Congress has no enumerated power to require registration of firearms. However, since registration, of firearms may assist in the collection of revenue, Congress passed the National Firearms Act in 1934 pursuant to its power to tax. Section 922(o) destroys the constitutional basis of registration........In the 1934 hearings, Attorney General Homer S. Cummings explained in detail how the NFA would be based on the tax power.........Attorney General CUMMINGS .... If we made a statute absolutely forbidding any human being to have a machine gun, you might say there is some constitutional question involved. But when you say, "we will tax the machine gun," you are easily within the law. Mr. LEWIS. In other words, it does not amount to prohibition, but allows of regulation. Attorney General CUMMINGS. That is the idea. We have studied that very carefully. Id. at 19. ........276 U.S. at 341, 48 S.Ct. at 390. The Court added: Congress by merely calling an act a taxing act cannot make it a legitimate exercise of taxing power under sec. 8 of article I of the Federal Constitution, if in fact the words of the act show clearly its real purpose is otherwise." Id. at 353, 48 S.Ct. at 394......... Freeper Buckeroo 6/7/91 ".....Cite as U.S. v. Rock Island Armory, Inc., 773 F.Supp. 117(C.D.Ill.1991) ......The Supreme Court found the National Firearms Act on its face to be a revenue measure and nothing more....... The Court upheld its validity precisely because the National Firearms Act was a revenue measure only and did not purport to exercise any general criminal power not delegated to Congress by the Constitution. Moreover, the Court refused to speculate into any reasons why Congress might have taxed certain firearms: Inquiry into the hidden motives which may move Congress to exercise a power constitutionally conferred upon it is beyond the competency of the courts .... They will not undertake, by collateral inquiry as to the measure of the regulatory effect of a tax, to ascribe to Congress an attempt, under the guise of taxation, to exercise another power denied by the Federal Constitution.... Here the annual tax of $200 is productive of some revenue. We are not free to speculate as to the motives which moved Congress to impose it, or as to the extent to which it may operate to restrict the activities taxed. As it is not attended by an offensive regulation, and since it operates as a tax, it is within the national taxing power. Id. at 513-14, 57 S.Ct. at 556.= Since the rule is unquestioned, the Seventh Circuit has had no occasion to consider it further, other than to cite Sonzinsky and to note that "the constitutionality of this Act has already been sustained." United States v. Lauchli, 371 F..2d 303, 313 (7thCir.1966). (Footnote 8)=........Since reenactment of the National Firearms Act, the various circuits have continued to follow the Sonzinsky rule. United States v. Ross, 458 F.2d 1144, 1145 (5th Cir.1972), cert. denied,409 U.S. 868, 93 S.Ct. 167, 34 L.Ed.2d 118 states:....... The prosecution argues that the NFA is still a tax act because criminal violators only will be assessed the "tax." Response to Defendant's Motion to Dismiss the Indictment at 6. This begs the question, because the government refuses to register the making or transfer of a post-1986 machinegun on behalf of an applicant who is not being prosecuted, and will not register any firearm even when it imposes a tax assessment. (Footnote 9) Thus, the registration requirement - which the government interprets as repealed by sec.922(o) is still left without any tax nexus. (Footnote 10) Moreover, the "tax" assessed cannot be voluntarily paid by a would-be taxpayer, but is paid only by tax violators. This indicates that the $200 "tax" is really a fine, just as is the $10,000 for which one may be "fined" upon conviction of an NFA offense. 26 U.S.C. sec. 5871. Since both apply only to NFA criminal violators, both the $200 assessment and the $10,000fine are "fines," not taxes. Criminal fines are not constitutional as encompassed under Congress' power to raise revenue, but must pass constitutional muster under an enumerated power. Under the prosecution's argument, the federal government could totally usurp all local criminal jurisdiction, under the guise that the fines imposed would really be taxes because they raise revenue......... In sum, since enactment of 18 U.S.C. sec. 922(o), the Secretary has refused to accept any tax payments to make or transfer a machinegun made after May 19, 1986, to approve any such making or transfer, or to register any such machinegun. As applied to machineguns made and possessed after May 19, 1986, the registration and other requirements of the National Firearms Act, Chapter 53 of the Internal Revenue Code, no longer serve any revenue purpose, and are impliedly repealed or are unconstitutional. Accordingly, Counts l(a) and (b), 2, and 3 of the superseding indictment are, DISMISSED......"

Freeper pwatson ".....cmoore@CapAccess.orgThu Jul 3 10:42:03 1997 Date: Wed, 2 Jul 1997 17:08:06 -0400 (EDT) From: Carol Moore Subject: Re: Fwd: Appendix "G" (fwd) Hallejuluh! Here it is. Carol Moore in D.C.--Belly of the Bully Boys Report of THE DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY on the BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, AND FIREARMS Investigation of Vernon Wayne Howell also known as David Koresh September 1993 Appendix G A BRIEF HISTORY OF FEDERAL FIREARMS ENFORCEMENT Frederick S. Calhoun, Ph.D. ........ ".....In a larger sense, however, the raid fit within an historic, well-established and well-defended government interest in prohibiting and breaking up all organized groups that sought to arm or fortify themselves. The 1934 law taxing weapons was only the first time the federal government addressed private ownership of weapons; it was not the first federal effort to control firearms. From its earliest formation, the federal government has actively suppressed any effort by disgruntled or rebellious citizens to coalesce into an armed group, however small the group, petty its complaint, or grandiose its ambition...."

Soldier of Fortune 5/94 James Pate "…......Although JTF-6's stated mission is drug interdiction, "the bottom line is that Operation Alliance will lie to JTF-6 [about drug allegations] in a heartbeat," said one DOD source familiar with the program. "The requesting agency, such as ATF, will tell Operation Alliance there's a drug angle - with a nudge and a wink - just to get what they want. And many times, JTF-6 doesn't even care." …. Texas law requires evidence of illegal drugs before its aircraft are made available to federal agents. ATF spokesman David Troy, who later resigened when accused of lying about other aspects of the raid, suddenly recalled "evidence" of methamphetamine labs at Mount Carmel. Troy's claim was "made up out of whole cloth," said one ATF source in Texas. In the subsequent trial, not one shred of evidence of illegal drugs was introduced. Conversely, in a society where drugs are common, it is notable that toxicology tests on the remains of 81 Davidians who died in the 19 April holocaust revealed not one body with a trace of illegal drugs." ......:

Soldier of Fortune 5/94 James Pate "…......Fort Bragg's personnel locator service confirmed that the five men listed by DeGeurin in court are members of the 3rd Battalion, 3rd Special Forces Group, headquartered at Fort Bragg as part of the U.S. Army Special Operations Command: Major Mark Petree (3rd Battalion XO); and battalion members Sergeant First Class Chris Dunn, Sgt. 1st Class Greg Handy, Staff Sergeant Jon F. Wilson and SSgt. Cordell W. Ackley. SOF sources indicate the Mobile Training Team (MTT) meeting ATF's Waco raid contingent at Fort Hood also included Captain Clyde Moore (designated team commander) SSgt. Michael J. Dooney, SSgt. Steven M. Fitts, SSgt. J C. Burkhardt and SSgt. Robert R. Moreland - all of Company B. 3rd Battalion, 3rd SFG. The 10 were among a company of Green Berets deployed in January 1993 from Fort Bragg to McGregor Range, New Mexico, a remote part of Fort Bliss. The Bragg-based troops were assigned a 90-day stint with the Rapid Support Unit (RSU) which responds to short-fuse requirements generated by JTF-6. ......"

Soldier of Fortune 5/94 James Pate "…......Once a civilian agency like ATF requests military assistance from Operation Alliance, the request goes to JTF-6, which has legal and public-affairs support. If the request passes muster, JTF-6 issues a mission order to the RSU, which assigns men to the task. Before deployment, however, a green light must come from Forces Command (FORSCOM). Then, the MTT deploys to a training site to meet the civilian lawmen it will train. Mission JT002E resulted in an operational detachment from 3rd Battalion, 3rd SFG, deploying to Fort Hood to train ATF. On 16 February 1993, Handy, Dunn and Ackley left Fort Bliss for Fort Hood to survey training sites. Next day, they met with Hood's range control office to secure use of Hargrove MOUT (Military Operations Urban Terrain) Training Center. They also met with ATF agents Kenneth King and Bill Buford, team leaders of Special Response Units assigned to execute forced entries through second-floor windows at Mount Carmel. ……Handy, Dunn and Ackley returned to McGregor Range 19 February. The entire detachment returned to Hood 22 February. Dunn and Wilson, two of the Green Berets who would later watch the disastrous ATF raid at Mount Carmel, went to meet ATF point-of-contact, agent Kris Mayfield.

Soldier of Fortune 5/94 James Pate "…......The Green Berets and the approximately 80 ATF agents who would ultimately arrive were billeted in the bottom floor of Building 4424, the top floor of Building 4426, and Building 4462, Fort Hood sources said. The following day, some Green Berets went with Mayfield to the Hargrove MOUT site and took measurements to build a front-door mock up of Mount Carmel. Mayfield accompanied Dooney, Burkhardt and Wilson to McCoy's Building Supply in Killeen for materials. By 24 February, all ATF personnel, including raid leaders Charles Sarabyn, Phil Chojnacki (both now fired) and Ted Royster arrived. XO Petree flew commercial to Killeen, where he was met by two members of the detachment. It was a mystery why a major would come to supervise a training team already commanded by a captain….."

Soldier of Fortune 5/94 James Pate "…......Communications training began 25 February, while Handy, Dooney and Ackley built the door mock-up, and a replica of Mount Carmel's front fence. A training schedule for the next day was developed, including live-firing…... Agents Buford and King put their forced entry teams through the mock-up several times on the 27th, at least once with two Green Berets acting as Davidians. Although the Army now denies it, sources tell SOF training included room-clearing, fire-and-manouvre and building takedown - subjects forbidden by SF policy for instruction to civilian lawmen, according to copies of the policy obtained by SOF.

Soldier of Fortune 5/94 James Pate "…......Sniper rifles were zeroed for 260 meters, the approximate distance from the ATF's undercover house to Mount Carmel. Agent King would later give testimony about that training, which was misleading - at best, King said under oath that Green Berets were "not involved in the rehearsals" for the raid, that the commandos merely stood by as "observers .... They offered some advice. One was a captain and there were a couple of enlisted personnel." Agent Buford acknowledged in testimony that "a detachment from one of the Special Forces units" assisted in ATF's Fort Hood training. "They were there to assist us primarily to make sure our communications system worked." ……. Asked specifically what limits military participation in civilian law enforcement operations, Buford testified "I am not sure where that line is drawn. I took what they had to offer and utilized it ... They mentioned the fact that they'd like to accompany us, but said they couldn't ..."

Soldier of Fortune 5/94 James Pate "…......According to military sources interviewed by SOF, much of the out-of-bounds training by Green Berets occurred after normal hours, in the barracks. This included Close-Quarter-Battle (CQB) and MOUT topics. "Individually, they were pretty good at CQB," said one troop familiar with the operation. "But as a 10 man team goes, they didn't click as well. And when you got three 10-man teams going at once, it was a real problem ... One thing we stressed and stressed was not to try an operation like they were planning during daylight hours. It would be suicide ... All of our guys were pissed off at having to be there under those circumstances." …."

Soldier of Fortune 5/94 James Pate "……. Flight logs for two helicopters picking up the MTT at Fort Hood confirm four Green Berets did not depart with the rest. Two UH-60 Blackhawks assigned to the 160th Special Operation Aviation Regiment in Fort Stewart, Georgia - part of the secretive Task Force 160 - picked up six Green Berets and load of gear at 2000 27 February at the MOUT facility. They flew to McGregor Range. Logs indicate the Blackhawks arrived before midnight, being temporarily grounded en route by rain. Dunn, Wilson, Ackley and Moreland remained behind, SOF sources say, to observe the next morning's ATF raid. What they saw upset and scared them. The Army strongly disputes their presence at Mount Carmel: "There were no Special Forces personnel present when the ATF conducted their raid on the Branch Davidian compound," said Lieutenant Colonel Ken McGraw, a spokesman for the Army Special Operations Command at Fort Bragg..... "


Dallas Morning News 3/15/93 Lee Hancock "…..Two days after they cut electricity to the besieged Branch Davidian cult compound, federal authorities bathed the structure in an eerie light as darkness fell Sunday. A federal spokeswoman would not elaborate on what she called the latest "tactical maneuver' against David Koresh and his religious sect. The use of lights, a psychological ploy aimed at disrupting sleep cycles, is the most visibly aggressive tactic by federal authorities in their effort to pressure the beleaguered Branch Davidians. The living conditions for the 105 people still inside the compound became clearer Sunday when an attorney for one recently surrendered Branch Davidian said Mr. Koresh's followers have gone two days without electricity and face mounting hardships. The lawyer added, however, that people remain committed and have enough food to hold out for a year. ……"

Dallas Morning News 3/15/93 Lee Hancock "…..Mr. Peterson said that Steve Schneider, Mr. Koresh's chief lieutenant and a participant in talks wih federal agents, indicated in talks Sunday with Mrs. Schroeder that her jailing was not the group's "expectation." …….. Mr. Peterson said sect members remain fearful of surrendering because they are not convinced that authorities won't do them further harm. …….. In her Sunday phone conversation, Mr. Peterson said, Mrs. Schroeder tried to encourage Mr. Schneider with statements that "she's being treated humanely, (that) she believes that the only way to get the truth told is for everyone to come out alive. She told them that she believed the FBI is sincere in their efforts to reach a peaceful end to the situation." Based on discussions with Mrs. Schroeder, Mr. Peterson said, he believes the group is tired, tense and increasingly frustrated that the outside world has not heard "the truth' of what has happened to them- a story clearly at odds with accounts that federal officials have given of the standoff and its causes. For Mrs. Schroeder, he said, that truth is that "she's got a dead husband and it's believed that an ATF bullet killed her husband from 350 yards away." The body of her husband, Michael Schroeder, was recovered March 4 by federal authorities, who said the man was found near the compound still clutching a Glock pistol. ……."

Dallas Morning News 3/15/93 Lee Hancock "…..Agent Ricks acknowledged Sunday that authorities are employing tactics aimed at showing besieged cult followers who really controls the heavily fortified compound. …….. " "......David Koresh was born Vernon Wayne Howell in Houston, Texas in 1959 to a 15-year old single mother. He never knew his father and was raised by his grandparents....... He was dyslexic, a bad student, and dropped out of high school. However, he had musical ability and a strong interest in the Bible. By 12, he had memorized large tracts of it.......

........When he was 20, Koresh turned to the Church of Seventh Day Adventists, his mother's church. But he was expelled for being a bad influence on the young people. Sometime during the next couple of years, Koresh went to Hollywood to become a rock star but nothing came of it. Instead, in 1981 he went to Waco, Texas where he joined the Branch Davidians, a religious sect which in 1935 had settled 10 miles outside of Waco. At one time, it had more than 1,400 members.......

.......Koresh had an affair with then-prophetess Lois Roden who was in her late sixties. The two travelled to Israel together. When Lois Roden died, a power struggle began between Koresh and Lois Roden's son George. For a short time, Koresh retreated with his followers to eastern Texas. But in late 1987 he returned to Mount Carmel in camouflage with seven male followers, armed with five .223 caliber semiautomatic assault rifles, two .22 caliber rifles, two 12-gauge shotguns and nearly 400 rounds of ammunition. During the gunfight, Roden was shot in the chest and hands. ...... He and his followers went on trial for attempted murder. The seven were acquitted and a mistrial was declared in Koresh's case. .......

...... By 1990 Koresh had become the leader of the Branch Davidians and legally changed his name, saying on the court document that the change was "for publicity and business purposes." He said the switch arose from his belief that he was now head of the biblical House of David. (Koresh is a Hebrew transliteration of Cyrus, the name of the Persian king who allowed the Jews held captive in Babylon to return to Israel.)......" The Teachings of David Koresh THE SEVENTH ANGEL ENTER INTO REST Recorded by David Koresh in Jerusalem on January 31, 1985 Transcription by Mark Swett "....... Branches, the seventh seal is the punishments of the wicked. But according to the rest of the world, the first truth .......... . But people wouldn't receive it anymore. But for those who will ....... Sister White the third, or Brother Houteff the fourth, or Brother Roden the fifth and the sixth, ...... and the seventh angel's message. Those who fail to judge themselves of these same messages .......... . Their punishment is gonna be worse then the people who refused to see - then all the punishments of all those who have ever rejected God's truth since the foundation of the world.... " Newsweek Magazine, March 15, 1993 By Barbara Kantrowitz with Andrew Murr, Peter Annin, Ginny Carroll and Tony Clifton ".....What Vernon put in charge was how his new revelation. He was the seventh and final angel destined to be the agent of God who brought about the end of the world. This was truly an apocalyptic vision, but it was also the logical conclusion of Howell's earlier prophecies. He had originally preached that the end would come when he moved to Israel and began converting the Jews. The conversion, he claimed, would cause worldwide upheaval, start a war and would cause. American armed forced to invade the Holy Land. That would signal the beginning of Armageddon. Then Howell would be transformed into a warrior angel who would cleanse the earth in preparation for the New Jerusalem………Howell actually went to Israel in the 1980s, but things didn't work out as he he'd predicted. So he switched to Plan N. In 1990, he legally changed his name to David Koresh (Koresh is Hebrew for Cyrus, the Babylonian king who allowed the Jews to return to Israel). Abandoning the notion of an Apocalypse starting in Israel, he began predicting that the great battle would be in Texas, says David Bunds. The group would stay at Mount Carmel and await the moment when the American army attacked and brought about the end of the world......."

Michael Regan's Hot Topics 3/6/97 Mary Mostert "…….. Little known connections between the Little Rock Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms staff and the assault on the Branch Davidians in Waco, Texas may eventually also become a matter of interest in the investigations. Bill Buford, AFT chief in Little Rock since 1976, began assisting a dormant investigation into the Branch Davidians in Waco on January 1, 1993, twenty days before Bill Clinton was inaugurated. On February 23, Democrat Congressman Charles Schumer introduced the Brady Bill. Five days later, on February 28, 1993, Bill Buford led "Assault Team One," which consisted of his own men from Little Rock, into the Branch Davidian Home. Arkansas resident Bill Buford, whose district did not include Waco, Texas, had been a friend of Bill Clinton for ten years. Buford was mentioned as a witness against the Branch Davidians in the affidavit ATF used to obtain the search warrant used as the legal justification for the Waco assault which resulted in the death of nearly 100 people, including a number of children. Buford, who was injured when he and his team were dropped on the roof via helicopter, was visited in the hospital by none other than Roger Altman, another Little Rock friend, then Deputy Secretary of the Treasury in the Clinton Administration. Roger Altman resigned in August 1994 due to his involvement in the Whitewater investigation. At the time of his flight out to Waco to visit his injured friend, Bill Buford, Altman was the second highest ranking official at the Department of the Treasury. Webster Hubbell at the time was over in the Justice Department……"

Michael Regan's Hot Topics 3/6/97 Mary Mostert "…….. In today's New York Times article, Bernard Rapoport, who stayed at the White House and who was one of four major contributors to the Clinton Re-Election coffers, is also mentioned as having hired Webster Hubbell to help his company, American Income Life Insurance in Waco, Texas do business in China. ………. Strangely, while Hubbell is now out of jail, after serving a prison term for the crime he was charged with, the survivors of the Waco assault, who were found NOT guilty by a Texas Jury, are still languishing in prison, facing very long terms for "conspiracy." Yet, no government official has been held accountable for decisions which led to the death of close to 100 people, most of them women and children. ……."

The New Yorker 5/15/95 Peter Boyer "…… During a briefing by the FBI on April 12th, Reno was told that the plan was tentatively scheduled for April 14th. Reno asked the question that President Clinton would late ask her: "Why now?" The FBI officials, led by then Director William Sessions (whose job was under attack, and who desperately needed to save his career), argued that Koresh's surrender seemed unlikely any time soon. Reno did not approve the plan. On April 16th, Hubbell reported a decision: Reno's answer to the FBI's gas plan was no. But, instead of accepting her decision, Sessions and his two top deputies, Floyd Clarke and Larry Potts, came to the Justice Building, and Sessions asked to see Reno personally. Reno, still unconvinced of the urgency, asked for a documented statement outlining the plan, the current state of negotiations, and the situation inside the compound. By the next day--a Saturday--Reno had received the documentation. She then reversed herself, and approved the plan. The tanks moved in on Monday. …."

The Dallas Morning News (WACO 03/06/1993) 3/6/93 Jennifer Nagorka "…..David Koresh says he isn't killing himself, isn't coming out of his lair yet and isn't Christ…….Mr. Koresh has said he and his followers will abandon their fortified, well-supplied compound only when God tells him to. Again Friday, he gave no hint of when that might be. Still, there was cause for optimism on the part of federal authorities striving to avert further bloodshed. Mr. Koresh allowed another child, a 9-year-old girl, to leave the besieged fortress. That brought to 21 the number of children released. …….. However, he said, Mr. Koresh "has taken offense' at being likened to Christ, an identity the sect leader readily embraced in interviews with news organizations before his phone lines were cut. "I believe it would be more accurate to say that he describes himself as a prophet," Agent Ricks said. ….."

The Dallas Morning News (WACO 03/06/1993) 3/6/93 Jennifer Nagorka "….. A federal official told The Dallas Morning News on Friday that the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration has joined the investigation of the sect because of reports that Mr. Koresh and his followers may have been involved in drug dealings. A day earlier, The News was told that Internal Revenue Service officials were trying to determine the sect's sources of income. ……. "The children are in remarkably good psychological condition considering what they've been through," said Joyce Sparks, a supervisor with the state Child Protective Services in Waco. Another state official working with the children said, "Immediately before they eat, they automatically join hands and start to pray." She also described them as "voracious readers' of children's books. ….. Federal authorities Friday delivered a videotape and photographs of the kids into the compound "to assure the families inside that the children are well-cared for," said Agent Ricks. He said the children, who are staying at an undisclosed location, "express a strong desire to be reunited with their families." ….."

The Dallas Morning News (WACO 03/06/1993) 3/6/93 Jennifer Nagorka "…..Mr. Koresh laid to rest immediate concerns that he'll end the standoff by ending his own life. "He has been specifically asked if there is an intent on his part to commit suicide. He has denied that," said Agent Ricks, one of those in command at the scene of the standoff, about 10 miles east of Waco. Nor, the agent said, will Mr. Koresh order the suicides of the more than 100 followers he says are with him in the compound. …… "

The Dallas Morning News (WACO 03/06/1993) 3/6/93 Jennifer Nagorka "…..Authorities refused to confirm the veracity of a Houston Chronicle interview with an unidentified member of the ATF raiding squad. The newspaper quoted the ATF agent as saying Mr. Koresh "smiled defiantly and slammed the front door' on agents right before his followers filled the air with gunfire. …… In the hail of bullets, he said, were heavy rounds that easily penetrated automobiles and military-style helmets. In all, the agent was quoted as saying, the sect had amassed an arsenal valued at $100,000, including .50-caliber weapons "capable of going through a tank." ……."

L. A. Times 1995 D’Jamila Salem "…… A close examination of the evidence, however, raises questions about the government's contention that the Davidians were solely responsible for the fires. The official Justice Department report lists one agent--not three as initially announced--as having seen the Davidians light the fire. The FBI has neither disclosed the identities of other witnesses nor furnished accounts of their observations. Only Special Agent John W. Morrison was called during the Davidians' murder trial last year to testify about arson activity because he was considered the government's best eyewitness, prosecutors said.......Morrison testified that, after the front door of the Davidian complex had been knocked down, he was able to observe a Davidian "making a motion like he's washing his hands, and then I see a fire come right from where his hands are." He viewed the activity through high-powered binoculars from a distance of more than 300 yards. But Morrison acknowledged in court that his view was partially obstructed and he could not actually see the hands of the person. When asked if the person could have been trying to put out a fire, Morrison replied, "I don't know what he was doing." ..."

L. A. Times 1995 D’Jamila Salem "…… George F. Uhlig, a retired Air Force lieutenant colonel and professor of chemistry at Eastern Utah Junior College, is expected to testify at the hearings that high winds and heavy doses of CS made fire conditions "excellent." James Quintiere, a University of Maryland fire scientist who was hired by the government to research the issue, said he doubts the gassing operation had any impact on the fire……"

L. A. Times 1995 D’Jamila Salem "…… On the day following the fire, Clinton said the government would undertake a "vigorous and thorough investigation" to explain the events at Waco. Normally, the investigation of a major fire of suspicious origin would be assigned to the ATF's National Response Team. Because the Waco encounter began with the ATF raid, the Administration went outside the federal government and used an "independent" team assembled by the Texas Rangers, according to the Justice report. But the Texas police agency was never consulted, according to Capt. David Byrnes, the Rangers task force commander at Waco. "Nobody in the Rangers participated in selecting" the arson team, Byrnes said. "I can say that without any qualification." Instead, the head of the Waco arson task force was selected by Donnie A. Carter, the special agent in charge of the ATF office in Houston. Carter said he was confident that Gray, assistant chief investigator for the Houston Fire Department's arson bureau, would conduct a "fair and honest" investigation. …."

L. A. Times 1995 D’Jamila Salem "…… The absence of fire emergency crews at the scene, critics say, illustrates the government's negligence in planning the final assault. The Justice Department report reveals that the FBI rejected a proposal to move firefighters into the area, saying they feared Davidians would shoot at them. The FBI refused an offer from Flamechek International, a Santa Paula, Calif., company, to use Czech armored, remote-control tanks that would allow firefighters to extinguish flames while being protected from gunfire, said Jan Bezucha, the firm's marketing director. And, just as the government outfitted Army combat vehicles with special equipment to spray tear gas, the same modifications could have been made for cannons to shoot water, experts say. "I can't explain why there weren't any other precautions taken," Gray said. ......"

L. A. Times 1995 D’Jamila Salem "……The Waco Fires …. Here, according to the government's account and private analysis of FBI videotapes, is the sequence of events:
FIRE ONE: 12:06:18 Last tank ram; 12:07:41 fire detected on second floor, south west corner.
FIRE TWO: 12:08:18 Fire detected first floor dining room.
FIRE THREE: 12:09:45 Fire detected in first floor chapel.
FIRE FOUR: 12:08:31 Possible heat plume detected near gym.
12:09:07 Tank departs after demolsing gym.
12:10:22 Fire detected in gym.
12:11 Fire is rapidly engulfing entire building.
12:13 FBI calls local Fire Department.
12:04 FBI claims Davidians started fire in front hallway. Arson investigators found no fire began here......."

The Davidian Massacre 1995 Carol Moore "…..
This chronology is largely drawn from the Treasury Department report Appendix D or from sources referenced below.
7:45--KWTX-TV reporter and cameraman arrive near Mount Carmel.
8:00--Undercover agent Robert Rodriguez enters Mount Carmel for Bible study. Raid Commander Chuck Sarabyn briefs BATF convoy at Bellmead Civic Center.
8:30--A second KWTX-TV cameraman warns postman David Jones, a Branch Davidian, that a "shootout" with helicopters is about to occur. Jones returns to Mount Carmel and warns Koresh.
8:45--Three Waco Tribune-Herald cars arrive nearby Mount Carmel.
9:05--Rodriguez leaves Mount Carmel, hurries to undercover house across the street, calls raid Commander Sarabyn and tells him that Koresh knows about impending raid. Commanders Sarabyn and Phillip Chojnacki and SAC Ted Royster decide to go ahead with raid.
9:10--Chojnacki calls BATF National Command Center in Washington and informs them operation is a "go." …
9:48--Wayne Martin calls 9-1-1 to report 75 armed men are attacking Mount Carmel. Sheriff's Lieutenant Larry Lynch responds. Nineteen attempts to reach ATF fail because the BATF contact had turned off his radio.
9:55--Associate Director Hartnett and Director Higgins are informed agents are under fire.
10:03--Lynch calls back Mount Carmel after disconnection and talks continue. Martin complains about shooting from helicopters.
10:20--When a patrolman drives to the command post to alert Chojnacki, Lynch finally is put in contact with BATF and begins negotiating between Davidians and BATF agents.
10:49--9-1-1 call disconnects. Lynch gives Koresh's cellular phone number to Royster who passes it to agent Cavanaugh at the undercover house.
10:59--Lynch negotiates with Martin and Schneider on one line and Chojnacki and Royster on the other.
11:27--Cavanaugh finds telephone number on undercover house refrigerator door and calls into Mount Carmel and continues negotiations.
11:30--Hartnett unilaterally requests FBI Hostage Rescue Team support.
11:39--Agents move in to pick up wounded and dead agents.
11:54--Ambulance moves in to pick up agents.
12:37--Lynch gives Davidian Steve Schneider Cavanaugh's phone number and direct contact is established.
12:45 p.m. Approx.--BATF agents physically assault KWTX-TV cameraman taking pictures of dead agents.
Mid-afternoon--Davidian Donald Bunds arrested as he tries to return to Mount Carmel by car.
4:55--Agents fire on three Davidians trying to re-enter the Mount Carmel property. Michael Schroeder is killed. Norman Allison arrested. Bob Kendrick escapes.
6:00--Armored vehicles enter the property. ……"

The Dallas Morning News 3/10/93 David LeMore "……Shortly after 4 p.m., a banner approximately 4 by 8 feet fluttered out of the compound watchtower. It was the first sign of life in the compound since the bloody shootout with federal agents Feb. 28. Photographers and TV camera crews rushed to get film of the action, while reporters with powerful binoculars passed word to others gathered nearby that written in simple block letters was: "God help us. We want the press." About 2 hours after it went up, the sign was taken down… Earlier in the day, an even more cryptic message was displayed from the same window when a single white sheet was hung out into the wind, and after about 45 minutes it disappeared as quickly as it appeared. Dallas radio station KGBS (1190 AM) told listeners that it had asked cult leader David Koresh on the air to display a white banner if he wished to communicate with them......."


Freeper Ada Coddington 5/31/00 from The Davidian Massacre by Carol Moore Chapter Three "….The Treasury report asserts: "Aguilera wisely sought to keep his investigation a secret from David Koresh and his followers. . .[and]. . .sharply circumscribed his inquiries about Koresh to third parties, including arms dealers and former cult members.2/ The report fails to mention Aguilera was not successful. As we have seen, Koresh discovered Aquilera was investigating on July 30, 1993. And the Davidians assumed they remained under surveillance and, through Henry McMahon, invited agents to inspect his weapons immediately. In late January, 1993 after a BATF agent posed as a UPS trainee and attempted to enter the Mag Bag and Mount Carmel Center, David Koresh complained to the local sheriff's department, thinking it was the department trying to infiltrate Mount Carmel.3/ ….."

Freeper Ada Coddington 5/31/00 from The Davidian Massacre by Carol Moore Chapter Three "….In 1991, when LaVerne, California police demanded Koresh return their child to Robyn Bunds, he did so immediately. Koresh and Sherri Jewell cooperated fully with the Michigan court which awarded primary custody of Kiri Jewell to her father David. And between February and April, 1992 Koresh allowed Texas Department of Protection and Regulatory Services and McLennan County Sheriff's Department personnel to inspect Mount Carmel on three occasions. ……"

Freeper Ada Coddington 5/31/00 from The Davidian Massacre by Carol Moore Chapter Three "….According to the Treasury report, Johnston "informed ATF early in the investigation that he would not authorize a search warrant for the Branch Davidian Compound if it was to be executed through a siege-style operation. He, too, feared that a siege strategy would permit Koresh and his followers to destroy evidence and make prosecution more difficult, as happened in the CSA [Covenant, Sword and Arm of the Lord] case. Despite Johnston's views, however, ATF's tactical planners seriously considered a siege plan."21/ …… At trial defense attorneys tried desperately to discover whether Johnston in fact had played such an important role in the decision to go with a dynamic entry (paramilitary raid) instead of a siege (surrounding Mount Carmel until residents surrendered). …….Johnston dismissed the information in the Treasury report saying: "The Treasury Review. . .is a book that was written for release to the public. . .It is not exactly--it relates to the ATF, as if that had some effect on all of these people, Buford and others in planning, and it's--the full context of that is hard to read."23/ Johnston thereby conceded that the Treasury report was merely a public relations effort, not a serious investigation. ……""

Freeper Ada Coddington 5/31/00 from The Davidian Massacre by Carol Moore Chapter Three "….At trial defense attorneys sharply questioned the highest raid planner prosecutors brought to the stand, Resident-Agent-in-Charge of Little Rock BATF, Bill Buford. Buford had planned and participated in the 1985 siege of the white supremacist group "The Covenant, the Sword and the Arm of the Lord." By the end of the siege, the group allegedly had destroyed most of its illegal weapons.26/ However, when asked if the Treasury report allegation that this fear influenced the decision to do a paramilitary raid instead of a siege, Buford replied, "Absolutely not."27/ ......, It is well known that forceful execution of search warrants is BATF's preferred modus operandi. The Treasury report acknowledges that BATF planners decided quickly that their only options were a siege or a paramilitary raid.30/ Raid planner Bill Buford confessed at trial that he never had been told that Koresh had invited Aguilera to Mount Carmel to inspect his weapons, something that would have indicated the viability of a non-violent service of warrant.31/ ……"

Freeper Ada Coddington 5/31/00 from The Davidian Massacre by Carol Moore Chapter Three "….The Treasury report describes the "multi-task force" of federal, state and local authorities used to carry out BATF's February 28th raid. While BATF agents from three Special Response Teams, supported by National Guard helicopters, carried out the actual raid, the Texas Rangers were relegated to setting up roadblocks and the McLennan County Sheriff's Department provided "support."66/ (This consisted of three Lieutenants assigned to what were considered "minor" duties--like answering raid-related 9-1-1 calls to the Waco police.) At the June 9, 1993 House Appropriations subcommittee hearings, BATF Associate Director Hartnett explained that a Drug Enforcement Agency team was on hand to disassemble any methamphetamine laboratory which might be found, something not mentioned in the Treasury report. He also said that the Immigration and Naturalization Service and the U.S Marshals Service were involved.67/ ……"

Freeper Ada Coddington 5/31/00 from The Davidian Massacre by Carol Moore Chapter Three "….On the basis of this dubious information, Army Lieutenant Colonel Walker, who advised BATF on obtaining "training or equipment or support in a counter-drug operation," recommended BATF solicit Texas National Guard services.74/ BATF convinced the Texas National Guard to do two overflights of the buildings to look for "hot spots" that might indicate drug laboratory activity. A hot spot was found but, since it could indicate construction, cooking or other activities requiring heat, "no official interpretation of the `hot spot'" was provided.75/ In March, 1993 Davidian Rita Riddle told reporters that "hot spots" indicated where there were heaters in the house and denied the existence of any drug labs.84/ ..... "

Freeper Ada Coddington 5/31/00 from The Davidian Massacre by Carol Moore Chapter Three "….In the May, 1995 issue of Soldier of Fortune, James Pate reveals that a classified teletype message order from then-Brigadier General John M. Pickler authorizing the use of Special Forces Green Berets to train BATF agents was based on BATF's assertion Davidians were manufacturing methamphetamines. It specifies that "intelligence indicates an active methamphetamine lab and deliveries of the required chemicals to produce synthetic methamphetamine." Another classified message reveals that BATF told the army that "one of the separate buildings [is] suspected of containing a meth lab."77/

Freeper Ada Coddington 5/31/00 from The Davidian Massacre by Carol Moore Chapter Three "….Also troubling is BATF and the Treasury Departments' claims that there was no written plan for the raid on Mount Carmel until February 23, 1993, five days before the raid. BATF agent Darrell Dyer, who had past military experience, took it upon himself to write one with agent William Krone. This plan was not distributed before the raid.78/ Those familiar with military bureaucracy find it difficult to believe that military commanders would have advised BATF on obtaining national guard and army support without such written documentation.

"……The year 1985 was a significant year to Vernon. 1985 was the year Vernon first learned that he was Cyrus, the one destined to destroy Babylon. Cyrus of old liberated the Jews after 70 years of captivity. It was natural for Vernon, therefore, to hold that he would deliver the Seventh-day Adventist church from 70 years of having been forgotten by God. ………..In the summer of 1985 Vernon visited the Seventh-day Adventist General Conference (the world assembly held every five years by the SDA church). ….The General Conference was held in New Orleans. One of the events at this conference was a parade of nations. Seventh-day Adventists from all nations marched in the streets of New Orleans in a rather spectacular parade. ……… Vernon, in learning that he was Cyrus, also learned that he was the angel from the east, and compared himself to the rising Sun of Righteousness (See Rev. 7:1-5; Malachi 4:1-5). …….Obviously, God's people (the Vernonites) did not have access to the funds and/or assets of the Seventh-day Adventist church. To fill this, and other gaps, Vernon found an extra ten years. It is these ten years that bring us to the 1995 deadline. ……" "……….. Howell believes there will be a great war centered around Israel. In this, he agrees with many evangelical Christians including myself. If Howell stopped there, he would be fine. But Howell believes he will somehow start this war, or be the center of its focus. Previously, Howell taught he would actually go to Israel to start the whole ball rolling. I have heard he has changed his position lately, however, and I am not sure he still holds to this view. Howell is, of course, the rider on the red horse. By using Zechariah chapters one through four, Howell uses this as a proof text to show that he is The Lord. This seal was also used when Howell first formulated his "all women belong to me" doctrine. This doctrine was begun on 5 August, 1989. Howell believes he is the Messiah whose teachings bring peace. But the wicked world will learn about all his women and fight against him out of jealousy and for fear that Howell will seduce or force their wives. This will "take peace from the earth." Nevertheless, Howell will win the war eventually and slaughter all the wicked. Scriptures Howell uses for this are Zechariah 1-4; Ezekiel 13; 1 Corinthians 7; Job 31; Luke 14:26-33……" "……… Vernon Howell has legally changed his name to David Koresh. Koresh comes from the Hebrew rendition of Cyrus. Thus, his name is David Cyrus. According to Howell, another meaning for Koresh is "death." Hence, his name is David Death. As you can see from the scripture above, the name of the pale horse rider is death. ……. Simply put, Howell uses this seal to justify his killing of his enemies. This can take place before or after God's earthly kingdom. When Howell was in Australia in early 1990, he used this seal to threaten many breakaway or borderline breakaway members. ……"

Survived Fire (9)
Misty Ferguson
Derek Lovelock
David Thibodeau
Marjorie Thomas
Renos Avraam
Jaime Castillo
Clive Doyle
Graeme Craddock
Ruth Riddle

Children Who Exited During Siege (21)
Renea Fagan
Neharah Fagan
Mark Jones
Kevin Jones
Heather Jones
Daniel Martin
James Martin
Kimberly Martin
Christyn Mabb
Jacob Mabb
Scott Mabb
Natalie Nobrega
Bryan Schroeder
Crystal Sonobe
Angelica Sonobe
Joshua Sylvia
Joann Vaega
Landon Wendel
Patron Wendel
Juanessa Wendel
Tamarae Wendel

Adults Who Exited During Siege (14)
Sheila Martin
Catherine Matteson
Margaret Lawson Oliver
Gyarfas Kathryn Schroeder
James Lawter
Gladys Ottman
Annetta Richards
Ofelia Santoya
Rita Riddle
Victorine Hollingsworth
Livingston Fagan
Brad Branch
Kevin Whitecliff

Dallas Observer 10/28-10/4/98 "…..Denied his day in court, a former Waco TV reporter, falsely accused of setting up federal agents, becomes the last casualty of the Branch Davidian siege. The last thing John McLemore wanted to do was work another weekend. The Waco TV reporter had spent the entire month of February in Houston covering the grisly murder trial of serial killer Kenneth McDuff, and he was looking forward to some quiet time at home with his wife. So when cameraman Dan Mulloney called on Saturday and asked his colleague what he was doing the next day, McLemore tersely replied, "I'm going to church." "Oh no you're not," replied Mulloney. "We're going to Rodenville." ……In 1993, that's how the locals often referred to the Mt. Carmel compound outside Waco that housed a small religious sect called the Branch Davidians and its messianic leader, David Koresh. ….."

Dallas Observer 10/28-10/4/98 "…... A local newspaper reporter had tipped off Mulloney to the raid, and his friend at a local ambulance company, which had been put on alert, confirmed it……… It was cold and wet at 7:30 a.m. Sunday, when McLemore, Mulloney, and another cameraman named Jim Peeler met with their news director at the station, KWTX-Channel 10. From there, McLemore and Mulloney embarked on the 20-minute drive to Mt. Carmel in Mulloney's white Ford Bronco. Peeler went by himself, taking a back road that would bring him to the other side of the compound. ….."

Dallas Observer 10/28-10/4/98 "…..When they arrived near the compound, the reporter and photographer didn't see anyone, so they drove about a mile and a half south and positioned themselves on a hill, where they had a good view of the sprawling Branch Davidian fortress. During the hour that they huddled in their car, they fielded a call from Peeler, who had gotten hopelessly lost. They also watched several carloads of newspaper reporters - the ones who gave Mulloney the tip - arrive on the scene and cruise up and down the road in front of the Davidian compound. ……… McLemore heard the distinctive whir of helicopter blades in the distance and decided to hightail it back to the compound. While stopping briefly en route to film the National Guard choppers, the men noticed two trucks pulling tarp-covered cattle trailers barreling past them. The trailers were filled with agents from the Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, who were clad in flak jackets and helmets. "This is it," Mulloney yelled to McLemore. "They're going to raid the place. Let's go." …….."

Dallas Observer 10/28-10/4/98 "…..Mulloney waved to the men as they passed, and one of the agents waved back. The duo hopped into the Bronco and followed the trailers. Three carloads of newspaper reporters and photographers had situated themselves outside the compound property, but Mulloney and McLemore decided to take their chances and follow the trailers as far as they could. The Bronco was about halfway down the compound driveway when the agents threw open the tarps and scrambled for position. Then all hell broke lose. Pop. Pop. Pop. Bullets were flying everywhere. The two of them were caught in the crossfire. ……. "Punch it," Mulloney yelled, as McLemore floored the Bronco and headed toward an abandoned Greyhound bus parked on the grounds. While bullets whizzed overhead and bloodied agents fell to the ground around them, Mulloney crawled out of the Bronco, cautiously setting up his camera behind the bus. He caught the whole gruesome scene unfolding 50 yards away - footage later seen worldwide. "Hey, TV man and cameraman!" shouted a female agent who was administering aide to a comrade. "Run to your truck and call for help." ……. McLemore emerged from behind the bus and made a mad 20-yard dash back to the Bronco. As he opened the door, something hard grazed his face. He thought he'd been shot. It was only a piece of metal from his car, struck by a bullet. He dove into the front seat and called the newsroom. "It's a war zone," he shouted. "Get every ambulance in the county out here." ……."

Dallas Observer 10/28-10/4/98 "…..Before the day was over, McLemore had broken one of the most harrowing and tragic national stories of the decade. His frontline broadcast from the besieged Branch Davidian compound and his valiant actions under fire made him a hero and a celebrity...if only for the moment. Two days later, journalists from both national and local TV, relying on unsubstantiated rumors, falsely accused McLemore of setting up ATF agents by tipping off the Davidians to the raid. What should have been the story that catapulted him into a major media market became a death sentence that finished him off professionally. Despite being nominated for an Emmy Award for the story, no other station would hire him, and he was stuck in Waco at the dead end of his career. ......"

Dallas Observer 10/28-10/4/98 "…..McLemore watched in sickening disbelief as Houston Chronicle reporter Kathy Fair told Ted Koppel that the ATF was blaming the local media for what went wrong during the raid. …….Fair didn't name McLemore, but she might as well have. McLemore was the only reporter on the grounds during the raid - a fact not lost on Waco viewers. For the next several days, they flooded the Waco TV station with calls condemning McLemore for, in effect, causing the death of four federal agents. ….."

Dallas Observer 10/28-10/4/98 "…..After he filed his story, reporters on the scene surrounded him and began interviewing him about what he had seen and done during the raid. Throughout the afternoon and evening, journalists from across the country streamed into Waco; many of them also sought out McLemore for his eyewitness accounts, which appeared in newspapers and on news shows worldwide. The next day, ATF Director Steve Higgins called to personally thank him for his bravery and assistance. …….Only now, rather than publicly expressing gratitude, it seemed as if the ATF was accusing him of complicity. With these two damaging broadcasts, McLemore's reputation would become one more casualty of the Mt. Carmel siege. ……"

Dallas Observer 10/28-10/4/98 "…..But his station threatened to fire him if he spoke publicly about the media reports. (Nick Bradfield, KWTX's news director, did not return calls for this story.) Its management issued a statement denying its reporter was on the grounds of the compound before agents arrived and asked Nightline for a retraction. Neither ABC nor WFAA retracted the allegations. Nor would they bother to report that a U.S. Treasury Department investigation of the raid exonerated McLemore. …….The report, issued more than six months after the bloody ambush and the resulting carnage of the Davidians, concluded that McLemore's colleague, photographer Jim Peeler, had inadvertently tipped off the Davidians when he got lost on his way to the compound. ……"

Dallas Observer 10/28-10/4/98 "….."Kathy Fair went on Nightline with an unconfirmed rumor that basically said I had set up the ATF," he says. "She didn't check it out at all. She broke the very first rule of journalism. It would have been so easy to check out who I was and where I was. If she had done just that, mistakes would not have been made." ……..If Fair had checked out the rumor, she would have learned that McLemore was not on the compound grounds before the ATF arrived, thus the premise of the allegation - he tipped off the Davidians in exchange for access to their property before the agents arrived - was totally unfounded. And if she had done any real reporting, she also would have discovered that the accusation that TV journalists were hiding in the trees was absurd. There were no trees on the sprawling, barren compound. McLemore charges that Williams was equally irresponsible. Despite denials from McLemore's station that the accusations were not true and the refusal of federal officials to lay public blame, Williams proceeded to repeat Fair's unconfirmed rumor about a setup. Neither Williams nor Fair responded to the Dallas Observer's phone calls. ......"

The Davidian Massacre pages


To contact Carol Moore -

Carol Moore Member, Committee for Waco Justice Author, The Davidian Massacre September, 1997 version Probably the most blatant cover-up regarding the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms' (BATF) February 28, 1993 raid on the Branch Davidian religious group near Waco, Texas is the cover-up of the fact that agents shot from helicopters, killing as many as four Davidians.

This act is unprecedented in American law enforcement. Had it not been so successfully covered up by federal agencies, Congress and the press, there would have been a public outcry leading to prosecution and imprisonment of BATF Agents. During a May, 1995 televised debate, Carol Moore, author of the book The Davidian Massacre, asked former BATF Director Stephen E. Higgins, who approved the raid, if BATF agents should be charged with murder should evidence of lethal firing be indicated.

He replied, "Absolutely. If they fire at someone who was not firing at them or pointing a weapon at them it would absolutely be murder." Mr. Higgins, like the rest of the federal establishment, refuses to admit these murders were in fact committed. Many believe federal agents subsequently sabotaged negotiations and conducted a vicious April 19, 1993 assault which burned Mount Carmel to the ground in order to destroy bullet hole evidence of helicopter gunfire, as well as evidence of indiscriminate gunfire from the ground.

(Davidian survivor David Thibodeau claims firing from helicopters left 100 bullet holes in the walls and roofs. And it is well known that one of the double front doors, the one containing evidence BATF shot first and furiously, was never found after the fire.) Below is substantial evidence, presented in rough chronological order, that BATF agents shot from at least one of the three helicopters which approached Mount Carmel at the beginning of the BATF raid. (Two helicopters were small observation craft containing National Guard pilots and one BATF agent; the third was a large Blackhawk containing two National Guard pilots and approximately eight BATF agents.)

1. Discussions of Using Helicopter Gunfire as a Diversion One document indicating agents considered using such gunfire was found among thousands turned over to Congress. A handwritten note by some unknown Treasury Department review official who had interviewed BATF agents read: "HCs [helicopters] as a diversion. Simultaneous gunfire. Worked in Seattle. Three to four hundred meters from boundary. Hover. Practiced at Hood." (Assumedly BATF agents practiced this maneuver at Fort Hood, where they trained for the raid.)

2. Questionable Helicopter Pilot Testimony At trial three National Guard helicopter pilots denied the helicopters had circled Mount Carmel before the beginning of the raid, as if scoping it out for targets. However, KWTX-TV cameraman Dan Mulloney and reporter John McLemore testified they saw the helicopters do just that. This cast doubt on the guardsmens' testimony that there had been no shooting from the helicopters.

3. Agent Admitted Agents Were Armed and Willing to Fire During the House Waco hearings, BATF agent Davy Aguilera, who was in the Blackhawk helicopter, revealed that BATF agents in that aircraft had had their weapons loaded during the raid. He also disclosed agents had been told they would be permitted to fire in self-defense. When asked if any agents had fired, Aguilera answered, "No." Raid co-commander Phillip Chojnacki responded to the same question with, "Not to my knowledge." Representative Melvin Watt then submitted "for the record the statements of a number of individuals who were actually on the helicopters who deny that they fired at any point." However, these were merely statements of National Guard helicopter pilots, not BATF agents.

4. Agent Admitted Agents Might Have Fired BATF audio tapes reveal that immediately after the gunfight, BATF agent James Cavanaugh, a temporary negotiator, argued by telephone with David Koresh about whether there was firing from the helicopters. Cavanaugh then admitted, "I'm not debating the fact that there might have been fire from the helicopters but what I'm telling you is there were no mounted guns, no outside mounted guns, on those helicopters."

5. Government Claims the Helicopters Took Davidian Gunfire BATF agents and National Guard pilots claim that when the helicopters got within 350 meters of the building, they were fired upon and forced back. Photographs show several holes in the aircraft. If the Davidians did indeed fire at the helicopters--before or after BATF agents fired--Aguilera's testimony makes it clear agents felt they did have a right to fire back. And it is likely they did so.

6. BATF Video Shows Helicopter Diving Towards Building A BATF agent took video footage from the Blackhawk helicopter which clearly shows the Blackhawk diving down towards the back of the building--and that it is clearly closer than 350 meters. The video clip ends abruptly at that point. A simple projection of the speed and trajectory of the helicopter's approach suggests it did fly over the swimming pool and building, as Davidians allege below. The National Guard pilot of the Blackhawk did admit at trial that the helicopter flew as low as 50 feet off the ground. Also, during this approach several sounds like gunfire can clearly be heard on the BATF video. A civil suit attorney calculates that these sounds only could have come from the helicopter. (The BATF video reveals that a second video was taken by BATF agent Ted Royster. BATF claims this is Royster's personal video tape and refuses to release it, claiming it contains no incriminating material.)

7. KWTX-TV Video Shows Helicopter Shoot Davidian on the Watertower One of two KWTX-TV cameramen shot video from the road southwest of Mount Carmel. As seen in the movie "Waco: The Rules of Engagement," a helicopter southwest of the building and water tower veers back towards them just as movement from what is evidently a person is seen on top of the tower. Seconds later, the individual disappears, very possibly shot by agents in the helicopter.

8. KWTX-TV Video Shows Shots Fired From Sky Another KWTX-TV cameraman followed BATF agents onto the grounds of Mount Carmel. His camera also caught footage of the helicopter above veering back. Soon after, he took the often shown video of an agent being shot at through the wall of the second story room. This shot also displays evidence that at least four bullets were fired from above just two to three minutes into the raid. The sounds of aircraft overhead can be heard. Bullet holes can be seen appearing in the roof and eaves of the building and the projected trajectory of the bullets appears much too steep to have come from the four story tower, from which some Davidians were firing.

9. Davidians Complained About Firing to 9-1-1 Operators Early in the raid, in a phone call to 9-1-1, now-deceased Davidian Wayne Martin cries out: "Another chopper with more people; more guns going off. They're firing. That's them, not us." Now-deceased Steve Schneider adds, "There's a chopper with more of them. Another chopper with more people and more guns going off. Here they come!" In the next hours Martin warns repeatedly that BATF should keep helicopters at a distance.

10. Davidians Complained About Helicopter Gunfire On Negotiation Tapes During the 51 day siege, David Koresh and Steve Schneider insisted to FBI negotiators that BATF agents had shot from the helicopters and killed Davidians. They repeatedly claimed that FBI agents wanted to burn Mount Carmel to destroy the evidence of this and other lethal firing.

11. Thirteen Davidian Survivors Claim They Saw Firing or Evidence of Firing Marjorie Thomas testified under oath at trial that she and two other women near their third floor window saw a helicopter approaching the building with a person hanging out. As the helicopter drew nearer, several bullets came through the window, flying over the womens' heads. Kathryn Schroeder testified under oath at trial that she saw bullet holes in the ceiling of the four story tower, holes that could only have been made from shooting from the sky. Kevin Whitecliff stated at allocution before sentencing: "There were three or four helicopters buzzing around shooting at people. I thought I was going to die."

Rita Riddle told reporters in March, 1993, "I heard them spraying the building when they went over," and stated in a signed affidavit that she saw a bullet come down through the ceiling from the sky. Clive Doyle has testified before Congress and written in an affidavit that Winston Blake was killed from a bullet that, from the trajectory through the wall, only could have come from a helicopter. (Jaime Castillo in a statement to Texas Rangers and David Thibodeau before Congress and in a signed affidavit make the same claim.) Doyle also states that he himself saw a helicopter directly above the swimming pool. Renos Avraam stated at allocution that BATF came in "with helicopters blazing. Davy Aguilera, he was firing one of them. He ain't going to deny it. Helicopters blazing." (Both Clive Doyle and David Thibodeau have testified that Avraam told them he was in the back of the building and saw the firing himself.)

Derek Lovelock told attorney Jack Zimmermann that he heard helicopters and saw bullets come down through the ceiling of the first floor, one story cafeteria at the back of the building. Catherine Matteson claims that one or more helicopters circled the building, firing at both the front and the back, and that she had to fall to the floor to avoid the bullets coming through the roof. Annetta Richards claims she saw bullets come down from above as the helicopters were flying overhead. Gladys Ottman makes claims similar to those of Matteson and Richards. Davidian Child: Psychologist Bruce D. Perry, who interviewed Davidian children who left Mount Carmel after the raid, described a child drawing a picture of a house beneath a rainbow. The child put bullet holes in the roof of the four story tower.

12. Attorneys Saw Evidence of Firing From Helicopters Davidian attorneys Dick DeGuerin and Jack Zimmermann, who visited Mount Carmel during the siege, have testified under oath before Congress, at trial and in affidavits that there were numerous bullet holes that obviously came from the sky in the four story tower and in upper story walls. Zimmerman is a former Army officer.

13. Davidians Claim Helicopter Gunfire Killed Four Winston Blake, a black from England, was killed instantly by one bullet in the head as he sat on his bed. Survivors say the bullet entered the room's wall at a downward trajectory and only could have come from a helicopter. The American coroner claimed Blake had been shot at close range; the Manchester, England coroner could find no such evidence.

The discrepancy sparked an English police investigation. (The government claimed other Davidians killed Blake.) Jaydean Wendell, an Asian-American, was killed instantly by one shot through the head as she lay in bed. Attorney Jack Zimmermann said he saw bullet holes by the "upper bunk wall" going in the direction of a pool of blood on the bed. (Two Davidian prosecution witnesses testified that Wendell might have been shooting a gun at the time of her death.)

Peter Gent, an Australian, was killed instantly by a shot to the heart. Davidians assert he was cleaning the inside of the water tower, heard the commotion, stuck his head out to see what was going on, and was shot by an agent in a helicopter. (A BATF agent on the ground claimed he shot an armed man on the water tower.) Peter Hipsman, an American, probably was shooting from the fourth floor when he was shot in the chest and arm. The medical examiner revealed that the shots traveled from left to right, as if he was shot from the sky. Believing federal agents meant to kill them all, he allowed another Davidian to end his life.

Two other Davidians died February 28, 1993. David Koresh's father-in-law Perry Jones was standing behind Koresh when he opened the front door and tried to talk and cooperate with attacking federal agents. Jones was mortally wounded in the stomach as agents opened fire on the two unarmed men and committed suicide. And Michael Schroeder was ambushed and killed by federal agents as he approached Mount Carmel on foot later that day. Four BATF agents shooting at the Davidians were killed by defensive gunfire. There is evidence that at least one agent was wounded by BATF friendly fire. Missing bullets make it difficult to prove if others were injured or even killed by such fire.

The Treasury and Justice Departments, Congress and the press have ignored or suppressed this overwhelming evidence of lethal helicopter gunfire. However, jurors in the 1.5 billion dollar Davidian civil suits, which allege such firing, may take it more seriously. Attorneys will produce ample evidence like that above during the civil trial. For more information please contact Carol Moore 202-635-3739.

Copyright 1998 by Carol Moore. Permission to reprint freely granted, provided the article is reprinted in full and that any reprint is accompanied by this copyright statement.

Dallas Morning News 3/26/93 Lee Hancock "......Authorities found remnants of a huge arsenal from the Branch Davidian compound, including grenades, gas masks, more than a million rounds of ammunition and at least 40 submachine guns-including three with silencers, according to a federal document unsealed in Waco this week. …….. "We were right from the beginning,' said ATF spokesman Jack Killorin. "It was our belief going in there that there was a large stockpile of weapons and parts for making weapons and explosive devices. It seems clear that our suspicions were also correct that these were not being amassed for self-defense. "One of the things that has concerned me was that we found silenced submachine guns, which are typically weapons of assassination or guerilla warfare. It raises the question of what this religious group was planning to do,' he said………. ATF officials said that they decided not to try to surround the compound and negotiate a surrender after an eight-month investigation of firearms violations by the cult because they feared that Mr. Koresh would order a mass suicide. …….According to the lengthy computer printout unsealed Monday in U.S. District Court in Waco, weapons were found close to the bodies of at least five cultists who died in the fire. ………Autopsies on the bodies recovered from the fire indicated that Mr. Koresh and at least 17 of his followers-including his chief lieutenant-sustained gunshot wounds as the compound burned. ………Among approximately 200 separate weapons cataloged during a three-week search of the compound were:

* At least one Barrett 50-caliber sniper rifle. A Dallas-area gun dealer said during the standoff that he had sold one of the weapons to Mr. Koresh, and authorities suspected that he had several of the bipod-mounted weapons in the compound. Authorities also found another Barrett bipod bearing a different weapon serial number. Another court document filed Tuesday indicated that the search produced a second .50-caliber weapon.
* 19 SGW CAR-AR assault submachine guns, including three fitted with silencers.
* At least nine other silencers.
* Eight hand grenades and at least 31 other grenade parts and fragments.

* More than 20 pieces and fragments of rockets, apparently used to make rocket-propelled grenades. Authorities also cataloged one sight for a rocket-propelled grenade launcher.
* Three Israeli-made IMI Galil assault rifles.
* Ten Ruger Mini-14 assault rifles-including one with a mounted scope.
* The barrel of an M60 machine gun.
* One 30 mm rocket shell.
* Nine FAL assault rifles, including three mounted on bipods.
* At least 54 AK-47 or AKS assault rifles, including some converted to fully automatic submachine guns.
* 11 .12-gauge shotguns, including one with a sawed-off barrel. …..
Authorities also discovered lathes, milling equipment and other tooling machinery, the document stated. An affidavit filed last month indicated that authorities suspected the cult had a trained machinist who was using the tools for illegal conversion of assault rifles to automatic weapons and also was attempting to manufacture a crude "grease gun' machine gun. ……..And authorities also discovered dozens of pistols and dozens of barrels for M-16s, AR-15s and other weapons. …..Also taken from the wreckage were an unspecified number of gas masks, one chemical warfare suit, several kevlar tactical vests and other body armor, including at least eight kelvar helmets. …….The evidence recovered at the compound also includes the remants of the ATF raid: body armor, a battering ram, an ATF medical kit and a federal-issue MP-5 machine gun apparently dropped by a federal agent fleeing withering gunfire. …….Also cataloged are a wide array of items tagged as arson evidence. That includes Coleman lanterns, crushed or open gas cans and Coleman fuel cans and two items labeled "torches.' ………."

"The feds are preparing to kill them. That way they can bury their mistakes." --McLennon County District Attorney Vic Feazell Houston Chronicle, March 2nd, 1993 (48 days prior to the April 19th conflagration.)

"They (The FBI) intend to kill them all." --Texas department of Social Services social worker Joyce Sparks speaking to her husband at 9:30 A.M. 19 April, 1993. (Two hours thirty-one minutes before the April 19, 1993 fire.) In Carol Moores The Davidian Massacre. pg. 325

From Dallas Morning News 12/30/99 by Lee Hancock "I want to get out of here, because all of these people in that compound are going to die, and I don't want to be here when it happens." --Mr. Lanceley, FBI psychological staff at Waco in 1993.

WWW.ALAMANCEIND.COM .... Matt Maggio, Publisher & Editor Email …….. How much care did the FBI Hostage Rescue Team show for the numerous children that it knew were trapped in the Waco standoff between it and the adult Branch Davidians? In her report "Beyond The Voice Of Reason," criminology [In Association with] professor Dr. Fran Haga writes that: "Hope for some time was expressed that the children might have taken shelter in the buried school bus which had been accessible through a trap door - at the more northern end of the building (see trap door marked on body recovery diagram 4). However, shortly after 6 AM April 19, 1993, FBI Agent R.J. Craig's CEV had knocked that end of the building from its foundation and had buried in rubble the trapdoor leading to the buried school bus." This is beyond dispute; Agent Craig testified during the House Waco hearings (as Dr. Haga relates): "... to destroying stairwells and to following a plan to herd the Davidians to the center." ……..Thus, the FBI admitted to the use of armored vehicles against a flimsy building in full knowledge that many children were inside of it - all in an effort to "herd" the occupants to undestroyed parts of the building. As Dr. Haga continues, the CEVs penetrated so far into the building - a building full of children - during this effort to systematically destroy it in order to "herd" occupants to a part to be left standing - as to disappear into the building; the CEV at the front did so at least once, and it was intentional. She relates: "The audio record which once existed of taped communications between the vehicles and their command posts indicated that the CEV making that frontal entry was directed to crash into the concrete block room and knock it down. These directions were issued while the entry runs were underway, not prior to them as part of any over all plan." The "concrete block room" would later gain fame as "the bunker." ….."

Block of quotes on CS Gas from Carol Moore's Davidian Massacre: excerpts from Carol Moores The Davidian Massacre: page 325 ………..Texas department of Social Services social worker joyce Sparks told a particularly damning story about the FBI's lack of preparation to Oklahoma KPOC-TV producers... An FBI agent had told Sparks about their plans to gas Mt. Carmel. The agent told her that since there were no gas masks for the children, there would be only light gassing and that Davidians would be brought to the showers afterwards and given new clothes. She was told social workers would be called to the scene the morning of the gassing to help at the showers. However, Sparks was not notified by the FBI and learned about the attack only at 9:30 in the morning when the governor's office called to ask why she and her staff were not there. An angry Sparks immediately called seige commander Jeff Jamar. When asked if she should come to the site, she was told the FBI "doesn't know if anyone is coming out." She then told her husband, " They intend to kill them all." (compare the above comment about "light gassing" to the next comment)
page 364: ..."During his April 19th afternoon press conference, SAC Bob Ricks mentioned that the FBI "put massive gas" into the building at noon, minutes before the fire.
page 295 ... Amnesty International reports that CS gas had contributed to or caused the deaths of more than fourty Palestinians-including eighteen babies under six months age-who had been exposed to the tear gas in enclosed spaces.
page 350: FBI tank assaults killed at least three women and six children before the fire started. An Associated Press story describes the tank that smashed through the front door AT NOON: "Then the FBI sent in its biggest weapon - a massive armored vehicle larger than the others and headed for a chamber lined with cinder blocks where authorities hoped to find Mr. Koresh and Mr. Schneider and fire the chemical irritant directly at them. When the tank rumbled in, it produced such trembling it felt like an earthquake. The tank took out everything in its path."
page 351: ...pathologist Dr. Rodney Crowe told "The Maury Povich Show" audience that he was incensed that these deaths, which clearly were caused by the tanks, later were blamed on the Davidians. " In our local Fort Worth paper on the front page it said, 'Cultist Children Executed'... and mentioned that children were shot, stabbed, beaten to death... Nowhere did we say execution. Nowhere did we say beaten to death. It was blunt force trauma. Three children had blunt force trauma. But it was the falling concrete in the bunker that fell on them.
page 293: The goal of gassing was to drive Davidians out of the building. However, the U.S. Department of the Army manual on Civil Disturbances (October, 1975, FM19-15) notes: "Generally, persons reacting to CS are incapable of executing organized and concerted actions and excessive exposure to CS may make them incapable of leaving the area." (See again Bob Ricks comment about "Massive Gas".)
...Dr. Alan Stone was particularly critical of the FBI's decision to use CS gas against the Davidians, especially the children: "I can testify from personal experience to the power of CS gas to quickly inflame eyes, nose, and throat, to produce choking, chest pain, gagging, and nausea IN HEALTHY ADULT MALES. It is difficult to believe that the U.S. Government would deliberately plan to expose twenty-five children, most of them infants and toddlers, to C.S. gas for FOURTY-EIGHT HOURS...."
and again: page 295 ... Amnesty International reports that CS gas had contributed to or caused the deaths of more than fourty Palestinians-including eighteen babies under six months age-who had been exposed to the tear gas in enclosed spaces.